Environmental testing - Part 2-5: Tests - Test S: Simulated solar radiation at ground level and guidance for solar radiation testing and weathering (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

This part of IEC 60068-2 specifies the methods for testing equipment or components under
simulated solar radiation conditions.
This document is applicable to the equipment and components at the surface of the earth.
The purpose of testing is to investigate to what extent the equipment or components are
affected by simulated solar radiation in the presence of moisture to reproduce the weathering
effects (temperature, humidity and/or wetting) that occur when they are exposed in actual
end-use environments to daylight or to daylight filtered through window glass. This document
specifies two test methods, test method Sa: thermal effect test, and test method Sb:
weathering test.

Umgebungseinflüsse - Teil 2-5: Prüfverfahren - Prüfung S: Nachgebildete Sonnenbestrahlung in Bodennähe und Leitfaden zur Sonnenstrahlung und Bewitterung

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-5: Essais - Essai Sa: Rayonnement solaire simulé au niveau du sol et guide pour les essais de rayonnement solaire (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

NEW!IEC 60068-2-5:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60068-2-5:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.

Okoljski preskusi - 2-5. del: Preskusi - Preskus S: Simulacija prizemnega sončnega obsevanja in navodilo za preskušanje sončnega obsevanja in vremenskih vplivov (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

Ta del standarda IEC 60068-2 določa metode za preskušanje opreme ali komponent v pogojih simuliranega sončnega obsevanja.
Ta dokument se uporablja za opremo in komponente na zemeljski površini. Namen preskušanja je raziskati, kako simulirano sončno obsevanje vpliva na opremo in komponente ob prisotnosti vlage, kar poustvari vremenske vplive (temperaturo, vlažnost in/ali močenje), do katerih pride, ko so materiali v okolju, kjer se uporabljajo, izpostavljeni neposredni dnevni svetlobi ali dnevni svetlobi, ki se filtrira skozi okensko steklo. Ta dokument določa dve preskusni metodi, in sicer preskusno metodo Sa: preskus toplotnega učinka, in preskusno metodo Sb: preskus z vremenskimi vplivi.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Oct-2017
Publication Date
05-Jun-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-May-2018
Due Date
29-Jul-2018
Completion Date
06-Jun-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
01-julij-2018
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SIST EN 60068-2-5:2011
2NROMVNLSUHVNXVLGHO3UHVNXVL3UHVNXV66LPXODFLMDSUL]HPQHJD
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Environmental testing - Part 2-5: Tests - Test S: Simulated solar radiation at ground level

and guidance for solar radiation testing and weathering (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-5: Essais - Essai Sa: Rayonnement solaire simulé au

niveau du sol et guide pour les essais de rayonnement solaire (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
ICS:
19.040 Preskušanje v zvezi z Environmental testing
okoljem
SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60068-2-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2018
ICS 19.040 Supersedes EN 60068-2-5:2011
English Version
Environmental testing - Part 2-5: Tests - Test S: Simulated solar
radiation at ground level and guidance for solar radiation testing
and weathering
(IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-5: Essais - Essai S: Umgebungseinflüsse - Teil 2-5: Prüfverfahren - Prüfung S:

Rayonnement solaire simulé au niveau du sol et Nachgebildete Sonnenbestrahlung in Bodennähe und

recommandations pour les essais de rayonnement solaire Leitfaden zur Sonnenstrahlung und Bewitterung

et le vieillissement (IEC 60068-2-5:2018)
(IEC 60068-2-5:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-05-11. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018 E
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 104/735/CDV, future edition 3 of IEC 60068-2-5, prepared by IEC/TC 104

"Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC

parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2019-02-11
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2021-05-11
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60068-2-5:2011.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60068-2-5:2018 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60068-2-78 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-78.
ISO 4892-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 4892-1.
ISO 4892-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 4892-2.
ISO 4892-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 4892-3.
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60068-1 - Environmental testing -- Part 1: General EN 60068-1 -
and guidance
IEC 60068-2-1 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-1: Tests - EN 60068-2-1 -
Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-2: Tests - EN 60068-2-2 -
Test B: Dry heat
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
IEC 60068-2-5
Edition 3.0 2018-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Environmental testing –
Part 2-5: Tests – Test S: Simulated solar radiation at ground level and guidance
for solar radiation testing and weathering
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-5514-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
– 2 – IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General remarks .............................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Overview................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Irradiance of solar radiation .................................................................................... 8

4.3 Spectral irradiance of solar radiation ....................................................................... 8

4.4 Radiation source ..................................................................................................... 9

5 Test method Sa: thermal effect test ................................................................................. 9

5.1 Conditioning ............................................................................................................ 9

5.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Temperature .................................................................................................... 9

5.1.3 Humidity .......................................................................................................... 9

5.1.4 Ozone and other contamination gases ............................................................. 9

5.1.5 Surface contamination ................................................................................... 10

5.1.6 Mounting of test specimen(s) ......................................................................... 10

5.1.7 Test facility .................................................................................................... 10

5.1.8 Test apparatus .............................................................................................. 10

5.2 Initial measurements ............................................................................................. 11

5.3 Testing ................................................................................................................. 11

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

5.3.2 Procedure Sa 1 – 24 h cycle, 8 h irradiation and 16 h darkness,

repeated as required ..................................................................................... 11

5.3.3 Procedure Sa 2 – 24 h cycle, 20 h irradiation and 4 h darkness,

repeated as required ..................................................................................... 11

5.3.4 Procedure Sa 3 – Continuous irradiation as required ..................................... 11

5.4 Final measurements .............................................................................................. 13

6 Test method Sb: Weathering test with or without wetting ............................................... 13

6.1 Test apparatus ...................................................................................................... 13

6.1.1 Laboratory radiation source ........................................................................... 13

6.1.2 Test chamber................................................................................................. 14

6.1.3 Temperature .................................................................................................. 14

6.1.4 Humidity ........................................................................................................ 15

6.1.5 Spray cycle .................................................................................................... 15

6.1.6 Mounting of test specimen(s) ......................................................................... 15

6.1.7 Ozone and other contaminating gases ........................................................... 15

6.1.8 Surface contamination ................................................................................... 15

6.2 Initial measurements ............................................................................................. 15

6.3 Testing ................................................................................................................. 15

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

6.3.2 Test duration ................................................................................................. 16

6.3.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 16

6.3.4 Ancillary environmental conditions ................................................................. 16

6.4 Final measurements .............................................................................................. 16

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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

7 Information to be given in the relevant specification ....................................................... 17

8 Information to be given in the test report........................................................................ 17

Annex A (informative) Standard solar spectral irradiance .................................................... 18

Annex B (informative) Radiation source .............................................................................. 20

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

B.2 Filters ................................................................................................................... 20

B.3 Uniformity of irradiance ......................................................................................... 20

Annex C (informative) Typical apparatus for weathering ..................................................... 21

Annex D (informative) Instrumentation ................................................................................ 23

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

D.2 Measurement of irradiance .................................................................................... 23

D.3 Measurement of spectral irradiance ...................................................................... 23

D.4 Measurement of temperature ................................................................................ 23

D.5 Difference between insulated black panel and uninsulated black panel

thermometer ......................................................................................................... 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Global solar spectral irradiance at sea level ........................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Test procedures Sa 1, Sa 2 and Sa 3 ................................................................... 13

Figure C.1 – Example of test apparatus ................................................................................ 21

Figure C.2 – Example of test apparatus with flat array .......................................................... 22

Table 1 – Spectral irradiance .................................................................................................. 9

Table 2 – Minimum and maximum levels of the relative spectral irradiance ........................... 10

Table 3 – Relative spectral irradiance of xenon-arc lamp(s) with daylight filters .................... 14

Table 4 – Relative spectral irradiance for xenon-arc lamp(s) with window glass filters .......... 14

Table 5 – Exposure cycles .................................................................................................... 16

Table A.1 – Comparison of basic atmospheric conditions used for the solar spectrum

defined in ASTM G 177 and that defined in CIE 85:1989, Table 4 ......................................... 19

Table A.2 – Irradiance comparison for the ASTM G 177 solar spectrum and the

CIE 85:1989, Table 4, solar spectrum ................................................................................... 19

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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
– 4 – IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-5: Tests – Test S: Simulated solar radiation at ground level and
guidance for solar radiation testing and weathering
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60068-2-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 104:

Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of published in 2010. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) the title of this document has been modified;

b) the current thermal effect test method, specified as "Test method Sa" has been retained

and the weathering test method specified as "Test method Sb" has been added.
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
104/735/CDV 104/789/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60068 series, published under the general title Environmental

testing, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
– 6 – IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 60068 describes methods of simulation designed to examine the effect of

solar radiation on equipment and components at the surface of the earth. The main

characteristics of the environment to be simulated are the spectral irradiance of solar

radiation, as observed at the earth's surface, and the intensity of received energy, in

combination with controlled temperature conditions. However, the combination of solar

radiation with other environments, for example temperature, humidity, water spray (to

simulate wetting) and air velocity, should be considered. Two different methods are described,

one aiming at the thermal effects, a second aiming at the weathering effects.
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-5: Tests – Test S: Simulated solar radiation at ground level and
guidance for solar radiation testing and weathering
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60068-2 specifies the methods for testing equipment or components under

simulated solar radiation conditions.

This document is applicable to the equipment and components at the surface of the earth.

The purpose of testing is to investigate to what extent the equipment or components are

affected by simulated solar radiation in the presence of moisture to reproduce the weathering

effects (temperature, humidity and/or wetting) that occur when they are exposed in actual

end-use environments to daylight or to daylight filtered through window glass. This document

specifies two test methods, test method Sa: thermal effect test, and test method Sb:

weathering test.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests – Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60068-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
black standard temperature
insulated black panel temperature

characteristic value of the test specimen's(s') surface temperature measured by an insulated

black panel thermometer, consisting of a black painted stainless steel panel and a resistance

temperature sensor embedded in insulating material (white PVDF, polyvinylidene difluoride)

attached
Note 1 to entry: More details are described in ISO 4892-1.
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
– 8 – IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018

Note 2 to entry: It is designed to approximate the maximum surface temperature of any material with thermal

insulating properties and for control in weathering test apparatus.
3.2
black panel temperature
uninsulated black panel temperature

characteristic value of the test specimen's(s') surface temperature measured by an

uninsulated black panel thermometer, consisting of a black painted stainless steel panel and a

resistance temperature sensor attached
Note 1 to entry: More details are described in ISO 4892-1.

Note 2 to entry: It is designed to approximate the maximum surface temperature of any material and for control in

weathering test apparatus.
4 General remarks
4.1 Overview

The effect of solar radiation on the test specimen(s) will depend on the level of irradiance, the

spectral irradiance, the location, the time of day and the sensitivity of the material of the test

specimen(s).
4.2 Irradiance of solar radiation

The irradiance at sea level is influenced by the solar constant and the attenuation and

scattering of solar radiation in the atmosphere. For test purposes, CIE 85:1989, Table 4 gives

a value of 1 090 W/m for the global solar radiation at the surface of the earth from the sun at

zenith; this value is based on a solar constant E = 1 367 W/m .
4.3 Spectral irradiance of solar radiation

The standard spectral irradiance of the global solar radiation specified for this test, in

accordance with the recommendations of CIE 85:1989, Table 4 (see Annex A), is given in

Figure 1 and in Table 1.
2 000
1 800
1 600
1 400
1 200
1 000
800
600
400
200
0,3 0,5 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,5 1,7 1,9 2,1 2,3 2,5
Wavelength (µm)
IEC
Figure 1 – Global solar spectral irradiance at sea level
–2 –1
Spectral irradiance (Wm µm )
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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
Table 1 – Spectral irradiance
Spectral region Ultra-violet B Ultra-violet A Visible Infra-red Total radiation
300 nm to 320 nm to 400 nm to 800 nm to 300 nm to
Bandwidth
320 nm 400 nm 800 nm 2 450 nm 2 450 nm
2 2 2 2 2
Irradiance 4,06 W/m 70,5 W/m 604,2 W/m 411,2 W/m 1 090 W/m
Proportion of
0,4 % 6,4 % 55,4 % 37,8 % 100 %
total radiation
NOTE This table is a condensed version of CIE 85:1989, Table 4.
Radiation shorter than 300 nm reaching the earth’s surface is insignificant
4.4 Radiation source

If the source of radiation used for the test does not meet the standard spectral distribution

given in Table 1, the exact spectral absorption data of the material and the exact spectral

irradiance of the alternative radiation source in the range from 300 nm to about 3 000 nm and

for the solid angle of 2π sr above the specimen surface shall be known or measured.

Detail of a radiation source is described in Annex B.
5 Test method Sa: thermal effect test
5.1 Conditioning
5.1.1 General

During the entire test, the irradiation, the temperature within the chamber, the humidity and

any other specified environmental conditions shall be maintained at the levels appropriate to

the particular test procedure specified in the relevant specification. The relevant specification

shall state which preconditioning requirements are to be applied.
Detail of instrumentation is described in Annex D.
5.1.2 Temperature

The temperature within the chamber during irradiation and darkness periods shall be

controlled in accordance with the procedure (Sa 1, Sa 2 or Sa 3) specified.

NOTE Additionally, an insulated black panel thermometer or an uninsulated black panel thermometer can be used

to measure the maximum surface temperature. This temperature can be influenced by ventilation.

5.1.3 Humidity

Different humidity conditions, particularly condensation, can markedly affect photochemical

degradation of materials, paints, plastics, etc. If applicable, the values given in

IEC 60068-2-78 should be used.

The relevant specification shall state the humidity and whether it is to be maintained during

a) the irradiation periods only;
b) the periods of darkness only;
c) the whole test duration.
5.1.4 Ozone and other contamination gases

Ozone, generated by short wavelength ultra-violet test sources, will normally be excluded

from the test chamber by the radiation filter(s) used to correct the spectral energy distribution.

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SIST EN IEC 60068-2-5:2018
– 10 – IEC 60068-2-5:2018 © IEC 2018

As ozone and other contaminating gases can significantly affect the degradation processes of

certain materials, it is important to exclude these gases from the test chamber, unless

otherwise required by the relevant specification.
5.1.5 Surface contamination

Dust and other surface contamination may significantly change the absorption characteristics

of irradiated surfaces. Unless otherwise required, specimens should be tested in a clean

condition. However, if effects of surface contamination are to be assessed, the relevant

specification should include the necessary information on preparation of surfaces, etc.

5.1.6 Mounting of test specimen(s)

The specimen(s) to be tested shall be placed either on raised support, on a turntable or a

specified substrate of known thermal conductivity and thermal capacity within the chamber as

stated in the relevant specification, and so spaced from other specimen(s) as to avoid

shielding from the source of radiation or re-radiated heat. Temperature sensors should be

attached to specimen(s) as required.
5.1.7 Test facility

It shall be ensured that the optical parts of the test facility, lamps, reflectors and filters, etc.

are clean.
The level of irradiation over the spec
...

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