Soil quality - Sampling - Part 104: Strategies

This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed
guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on
— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.
It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other
properties (e.g. physical).
Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a
laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.
NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of
appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.
NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for
soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater
is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in
geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 104: Stratégies

Le pr�sent document donne des recommandations g�n�rales pour l'�laboration des strat�gies d'investigation de site ainsi que des recommandations d�taill�es pour l'�laboration des strat�gies d'�chantillonnage, en recueillant des informations sur:
— les propri�t�s moyennes du sol;
— la variabilit� des propri�t�s du sol; et
— la r�partition spatiale des propri�t�s du sol.
Le pr�sent document est applicable aux �chantillons de sol destin�s � des essais chimiques et pour d�terminer une grande diversit� d'autres propri�t�s (par exemple physiques).
Bien qu'il soit principalement ax� sur le pr�l�vement de mat�riaux (�chantillon de terrain) destin�s � �tre envoy�s au laboratoire pour des essais, le pr�sent document s'applique �galement lorsque des mesurages sont effectu�s directement sur le terrain.
NOTE 1 Le pr�sent document fournit �galement des informations sur les principes statistiques servant de base � l'�laboration de strat�gies d'�chantillonnage appropri�es et de m�thodes statistiques.
NOTE 2 Des recommandations concernant d'autres formes d'activit�s d'�chantillonnage associ�es sont donn�es dans d'autres Normes internationales (ISO 18400‑204 pour les gaz du sol et ISO 18400‑206 pour les essais biologiques). Des recommandations sont donn�es dans l'ISO 5667‑11 et l'ISO 5667‑22 pour l'�chantillonnage des eaux souterraines, et dans l'ISO 22475‑1 pour les m�thodes de pr�l�vement et de mesurage des eaux souterraines lors d'essais g�otechniques.

Kakovost tal - Vzorčenje - 104. del: Strategije

Ta dokument podaja splošne smernice za razvoj strategij preiskovanja območja in podrobne
smernice za razvoj strategij vzorčenja pri zbiranju informacij o
– povprečnih lastnostih tal,
– spremenljivosti lastnosti tal in
– prostorski porazdelitvi lastnosti tal.
Uporablja se za vzorce tal, ki so namenjeni za kemijsko preskušanje in določanje vrste drugih
lastnosti (npr. fizičnih).
Čeprav je ključni del tega dokumenta zbiranje materiala (vzorci s terena) za
laboratorijsko preskušanje, se uporablja tudi, kadar so meritve opravljene neposredno na terenu.
OPOMBA 1: Ta dokument podaja tudi informacije o statističnih načelih, na katerih temelji razvoj ustreznih strategij vzorčenja in statističnih metodologij.
OOPMBA 2: Smernice glede drugih oblik sorodnih dejavnosti vzorčenja so podane v drugih mednarodnih standardih [za pline iz tal (ISO 18400-204) in za namene biološkega preskušanja (ISO 18400-206)]. Smernice za vzorčenje podzemne vode so podane v standardih ISO 5667-11 in ISO 5667-22, o metodah vzorčenja in meritvah podzemne vode pri geotehničnem preiskovanju pa v standardu ISO 22475-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Mar-2018
Publication Date
29-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2019
Due Date
29-Mar-2019
Completion Date
30-Jan-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-104
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 104:
Strategies
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 104: Stratégies
Reference number
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overall investigation strategy ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Zoning ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Types of investigation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................................10

4.3.3 Exploratory investigation ......................................................................................................................................11

4.3.4 Detailed investigation ...............................................................................................................................................11

4.3.5 Supplementary investigations ..........................................................................................................................11

4.4 Conceptual site model....................................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Preliminary risk assessment ....................................................................................................................................................12

5 Sampling strategies — General aspects .....................................................................................................................................13

5.1 Sampling objectives .........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Scope of the sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Designing the sampling strategy ..........................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Principal sampling situations ..................................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Representative and sufficiently representative samples .................................................................................16

5.6 Characteristics of the spatial distribution ....................................................................................................................17

5.7 Statistical aspects...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.8 Uncertainty of measurements caused by sampling and analysis .............................................................18

5.9 Safety and environmental protection ...............................................................................................................................19

5.10 Barriers to sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................19

5.11 Timing of investigations ...............................................................................................................................................................19

6 Sampling strategies — Key aspects and concepts ...........................................................................................................20

6.1 Statistics and geostatistics .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.2 Statistics ...............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.3 Geostatistics ......................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Approaches to sampling ..............................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.2 Judgemental sampling ........................................................................................................................................... ...22

6.2.3 Systematic sampling ..................................................................................................................................................23

6.2.4 Convenience sampling .............................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Average properties ...........................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4 Types of samples ................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.2 Disturbed and undisturbed samples ...........................................................................................................24

6.4.3 Spot (single) samples ................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.4 Cluster samples ..............................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.5 Spatial (composite) samples ..............................................................................................................................25

6.4.6 Selective samples ..........................................................................................................................................................27

6.5 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

6.5.2 Number of samples at discrete sampling points ...............................................................................28

6.5.3 Number of cluster samples ..................................................................................................................................28

6.5.4 Number of composite samples .........................................................................................................................28

6.6 Sample sizes ...........................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.6.2 Practical considerations .........................................................................................................................................30

7 Deciding how many samples to take .............................................................................................................................................32

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................32

7.2 Basic situations ....................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.3 Determining average concentrations ...............................................................................................................................33

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.3.2 Using spatial composite samples ....................................................................................................................34

7.3.3 Using spot samples .....................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Determining relation to threshold limit ...................................................................................................35

7.4 Finding (hot spots and) areas of interest of a specified minimum size ..............................................35

7.5 Sampling for particular purposes ........................................................................................................................................36

7.5.1 Determination of background values ..........................................................................................................36

7.5.2 Waste classification ....................................................................................................................................................36

7.5.3 Supplementary investigations for remediation .................................................................................36

7.5.4 Validation of remediation and other works...........................................................................................37

8 Sampling strategies for in-ground sampling ........................................................................................................................38

8.1 Approach to sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2 Sampling patterns .............................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2.2 Potentially contaminated sites..........................................................................................................................39

8.2.3 Hot spot detection, site investigation design and sampling ....................................................40

8.3 Types of samples ................................................................................................................................................................................41

8.4 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.4.2 Potentially contaminated sites..........................................................................................................................42

8.4.3 Sampling in relation to the groundwater profile and aquifer ................................................43

8.5 Size of samples .....................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.6 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................45

8.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.6.2 Number of samples at individual sampling points ..........................................................................45

8.6.3 Number of composite samples .........................................................................................................................45

9 Sampling of above-ground deposits ..............................................................................................................................................46

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.2 Sampling patterns .............................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3 Types of sample ...................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3.2 Convenience sampling .............................................................................................................................................47

9.4 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.5 Size of samples .....................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.6 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................47

Annex A (informative) Basic statistical concepts .................................................................................................................................48

Annex B (informative) Sampling patterns ...................................................................................................................................................54

Annex C (informative) Assessment and modification of sampling uncertainty ...................................................68

Annex D (informative) Examples of sampling for particular purposes ........................................................................72

Annex E (informative) Scale of sampling .......................................................................................................................................................77

Annex F (informative) Determination of size and number of samples and increments ..............................82

Annex G (informative) Statistical methods for estimating soil parameters .............................................................90

Annex H (informative) Geostatistical methods for sampling design and evaluation of soil

quality .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................103

Annex I (informative) Sampling strategies for risk assessment .......................................................................................119

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................129

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2, Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-104, together with ISO 18400-101, ISO 18400-102, ISO 18400-105,

ISO 18400-107, ISO 18400-202, ISO 18400-203 and ISO 18400-206, cancels and replaces the first editions

of ISO 10381-1:2002, ISO 10381-4:2003, ISO 10381-5:2005, ISO 10381-6:2009 and ISO 10381-8:2006,

which have been structurally and technically revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to the ISO 10381

series clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is part of a series of sampling standards for soil (the role/position of the individual

standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1). It provides guidance on

the development of site investigation strategies in general (more specific guidance is given in other

standards) and of sampling strategies [e.g. what to sample, where to sample (locations and depths) and

the types of samples to take] taking into account the need to obtain representative samples and to have

regard to relevant statistical principles.

Soils (and other soil materials) are composed of a mixture of mineral particles, organic matter, water,

air (soil gas) and living organisms. In the case of some contaminated soils, a non-aqueous liquid phase

might also be present. The solid matrix (phase), consists of particles of different size, shape and physical

and chemical properties. The aim when carrying out soil sampling is usually to obtain sufficiently

representative samples that can be used to characterize the properties of the whole soil entity (e.g.

in situ soil in the form of a volume or horizon, or surface deposit such as a stockpile) or the portion

considered relevant to the objectives of the investigation (e.g. <0,1 mm fraction for exposure assessment

via hand-to-mouth activity). The properties of discrete entities such as individual soil particles are not

addressed. As the soil as a whole cannot be analysed, soil samples are taken instead. The assumption

that the results of these investigations on samples represent the total soil volume of interest is always

an approximation, the reliability of which depends on additional information about the soil, the site

and use of an appropriate sampling strategy. In other words, the sampling strategy should guarantee

that, together with additional information (on-site observations, background information, previous

investigation results, etc.), the results for the samples analysed allow a model to be developed of

relevant properties of the soil volume of interest to a sufficiently reliable degree, in accordance with the

investigation objectives.

Whatever the purpose of the investigation, a sound conceptual site model is required. Every property

of a soil or soil material is a result of their dynamic development influenced by natural and human-

induced processes such as weathering, leaching, dislocation, contamination, and many others. Without

considering this, the results of any investigation of samples cannot be interpreted and evaluated

properly. When spatial variability of soil properties (including contamination) is of particular interest,

the conceptual site model includes what is known, or believed to be known, about the processes that led

to the anticipated spatial distribution of properties.

The sampling strategy, especially when average properties are of interest, is preferably based on

statistical methods, as far as practical and appropriate.

Having first defined key elements such as involved parties, objectives, properties of interest, phase of

the investigation, background and site information, as well as health and safety aspects, a sampling

strategy is developed that can form the basis of a sampling plan in accordance with ISO 18400-101 (the

sampling plan covers a number of practical issues as well as the sampling strategy).

The appropriate sampling strategy in any particular case depends on
— the objectives of the investigation,
— the special situation and characteristics of the material to be sampled,
— the properties of interest, and
— the required degree of precision and reliability of the results.

Many other factors can also influence the design of the sampling strategy including:

— accessibility of the site as well as the sampled material;
— financial, personnel, and technical resources;
— weather conditions;
— the time schedule/frame;
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
— legal/environmental restrictions.

Following the definition of the sampling approach, the appropriate sampling techniques are selected

following the guidance in ISO 18400-102 with regard to health and safety (ISO 18400-103) and

various practical considerations. The decisions made regarding sampling techniques form part of the

sampling plan.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
viii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 104:
Strategies
1 Scope

This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed

guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on

— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.

It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other

properties (e.g. physical).

Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a

laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.

NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of

appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.

NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for

soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater

is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in

geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 11464, Soil quality — Pretreatment of samples for physico-chemical analysis

ISO 18400-201, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 201: Physical pretreatment in the field

ISO 18400-202, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 202: Preliminary investigations
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .or
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 10381-1:2006
SIST ISO 10381-5:2006
SIST ISO 10381-6:2011
.DNRYRVWWDO9]RUþHQMHGHO6WUDWHJLMH
Soil quality - Sampling - Part 104: Strategies
Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 104: Stratégies
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18400-104:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-104
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 104:
Strategies
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 104: Stratégies
Reference number
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overall investigation strategy ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Zoning ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Types of investigation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Preliminary investigation ......................................................................................................................................10

4.3.3 Exploratory investigation ......................................................................................................................................11

4.3.4 Detailed investigation ...............................................................................................................................................11

4.3.5 Supplementary investigations ..........................................................................................................................11

4.4 Conceptual site model....................................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Preliminary risk assessment ....................................................................................................................................................12

5 Sampling strategies — General aspects .....................................................................................................................................13

5.1 Sampling objectives .........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Scope of the sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Designing the sampling strategy ..........................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Principal sampling situations ..................................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Representative and sufficiently representative samples .................................................................................16

5.6 Characteristics of the spatial distribution ....................................................................................................................17

5.7 Statistical aspects...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.8 Uncertainty of measurements caused by sampling and analysis .............................................................18

5.9 Safety and environmental protection ...............................................................................................................................19

5.10 Barriers to sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................19

5.11 Timing of investigations ...............................................................................................................................................................19

6 Sampling strategies — Key aspects and concepts ...........................................................................................................20

6.1 Statistics and geostatistics .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.2 Statistics ...............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.1.3 Geostatistics ......................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Approaches to sampling ..............................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.2 Judgemental sampling ........................................................................................................................................... ...22

6.2.3 Systematic sampling ..................................................................................................................................................23

6.2.4 Convenience sampling .............................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Average properties ...........................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4 Types of samples ................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.2 Disturbed and undisturbed samples ...........................................................................................................24

6.4.3 Spot (single) samples ................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.4 Cluster samples ..............................................................................................................................................................25

6.4.5 Spatial (composite) samples ..............................................................................................................................25

6.4.6 Selective samples ..........................................................................................................................................................27

6.5 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

6.5.2 Number of samples at discrete sampling points ...............................................................................28

6.5.3 Number of cluster samples ..................................................................................................................................28

6.5.4 Number of composite samples .........................................................................................................................28

6.6 Sample sizes ...........................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

6.6.2 Practical considerations .........................................................................................................................................30

7 Deciding how many samples to take .............................................................................................................................................32

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................32

7.2 Basic situations ....................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.3 Determining average concentrations ...............................................................................................................................33

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.3.2 Using spatial composite samples ....................................................................................................................34

7.3.3 Using spot samples .....................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Determining relation to threshold limit ...................................................................................................35

7.4 Finding (hot spots and) areas of interest of a specified minimum size ..............................................35

7.5 Sampling for particular purposes ........................................................................................................................................36

7.5.1 Determination of background values ..........................................................................................................36

7.5.2 Waste classification ....................................................................................................................................................36

7.5.3 Supplementary investigations for remediation .................................................................................36

7.5.4 Validation of remediation and other works...........................................................................................37

8 Sampling strategies for in-ground sampling ........................................................................................................................38

8.1 Approach to sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2 Sampling patterns .............................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

8.2.2 Potentially contaminated sites..........................................................................................................................39

8.2.3 Hot spot detection, site investigation design and sampling ....................................................40

8.3 Types of samples ................................................................................................................................................................................41

8.4 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.4.2 Potentially contaminated sites..........................................................................................................................42

8.4.3 Sampling in relation to the groundwater profile and aquifer ................................................43

8.5 Size of samples .....................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.6 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................45

8.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.6.2 Number of samples at individual sampling points ..........................................................................45

8.6.3 Number of composite samples .........................................................................................................................45

9 Sampling of above-ground deposits ..............................................................................................................................................46

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.2 Sampling patterns .............................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3 Types of sample ...................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.3.2 Convenience sampling .............................................................................................................................................47

9.4 Sampling depths .................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.5 Size of samples .....................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.6 Number of samples ..........................................................................................................................................................................47

Annex A (informative) Basic statistical concepts .................................................................................................................................48

Annex B (informative) Sampling patterns ...................................................................................................................................................54

Annex C (informative) Assessment and modification of sampling uncertainty ...................................................68

Annex D (informative) Examples of sampling for particular purposes ........................................................................72

Annex E (informative) Scale of sampling .......................................................................................................................................................77

Annex F (informative) Determination of size and number of samples and increments ..............................82

Annex G (informative) Statistical methods for estimating soil parameters .............................................................90

Annex H (informative) Geostatistical methods for sampling design and evaluation of soil

quality .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................103

Annex I (informative) Sampling strategies for risk assessment .......................................................................................119

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................129

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2, Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-104, together with ISO 18400-101, ISO 18400-102, ISO 18400-105,

ISO 18400-107, ISO 18400-202, ISO 18400-203 and ISO 18400-206, cancels and replaces the first editions

of ISO 10381-1:2002, ISO 10381-4:2003, ISO 10381-5:2005, ISO 10381-6:2009 and ISO 10381-8:2006,

which have been structurally and technically revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to the ISO 10381

series clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is part of a series of sampling standards for soil (the role/position of the individual

standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1). It provides guidance on

the development of site investigation strategies in general (more specific guidance is given in other

standards) and of sampling strategies [e.g. what to sample, where to sample (locations and depths) and

the types of samples to take] taking into account the need to obtain representative samples and to have

regard to relevant statistical principles.

Soils (and other soil materials) are composed of a mixture of mineral particles, organic matter, water,

air (soil gas) and living organisms. In the case of some contaminated soils, a non-aqueous liquid phase

might also be present. The solid matrix (phase), consists of particles of different size, shape and physical

and chemical properties. The aim when carrying out soil sampling is usually to obtain sufficiently

representative samples that can be used to characterize the properties of the whole soil entity (e.g.

in situ soil in the form of a volume or horizon, or surface deposit such as a stockpile) or the portion

considered relevant to the objectives of the investigation (e.g. <0,1 mm fraction for exposure assessment

via hand-to-mouth activity). The properties of discrete entities such as individual soil particles are not

addressed. As the soil as a whole cannot be analysed, soil samples are taken instead. The assumption

that the results of these investigations on samples represent the total soil volume of interest is always

an approximation, the reliability of which depends on additional information about the soil, the site

and use of an appropriate sampling strategy. In other words, the sampling strategy should guarantee

that, together with additional information (on-site observations, background information, previous

investigation results, etc.), the results for the samples analysed allow a model to be developed of

relevant properties of the soil volume of interest to a sufficiently reliable degree, in accordance with the

investigation objectives.

Whatever the purpose of the investigation, a sound conceptual site model is required. Every property

of a soil or soil material is a result of their dynamic development influenced by natural and human-

induced processes such as weathering, leaching, dislocation, contamination, and many others. Without

considering this, the results of any investigation of samples cannot be interpreted and evaluated

properly. When spatial variability of soil properties (including contamination) is of particular interest,

the conceptual site model includes what is known, or believed to be known, about the processes that led

to the anticipated spatial distribution of properties.

The sampling strategy, especially when average properties are of interest, is preferably based on

statistical methods, as far as practical and appropriate.

Having first defined key elements such as involved parties, objectives, properties of interest, phase of

the investigation, background and site information, as well as health and safety aspects, a sampling

strategy is developed that can form the basis of a sampling plan in accordance with ISO 18400-101 (the

sampling plan covers a number of practical issues as well as the sampling strategy).

The appropriate sampling strategy in any particular case depends on
— the objectives of the investigation,
— the special situation and characteristics of the material to be sampled,
— the properties of interest, and
— the required degree of precision and reliability of the results.

Many other factors can also influence the design of the sampling strategy including:

— accessibility of the site as well as the sampled material;
— financial, personnel, and technical resources;
— weather conditions;
— the time schedule/frame;
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
— legal/environmental restrictions.

Following the definition of the sampling approach, the appropriate sampling techniques are selected

following the guidance in ISO 18400-102 with regard to health and safety (ISO 18400-103) and

various practical considerations. The decisions made regarding sampling techniques form part of the

sampling plan.
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SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
ISO 18400-104:2018(E)

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
viii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18400-104:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-104:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 104:
Strategies
1 Scope

This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed

guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on

— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.

It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other

properties (e.g. physical).

Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a

laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.

NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of

appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.

NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for

soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater

is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in

geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.
2 Normative references
The following document
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18400-104
Première édition
2018-10
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 104:
Stratégies
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 104: Strategies
Numéro de référence
ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2018

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être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Stratégie globale d’investigation .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Découpage en zones ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Types d’investigation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.2 Investigation préliminaire ....................................................................................................................................11

4.3.3 Investigation exploratoire .....................................................................................................................................12

4.3.4 Investigation détaillée ..............................................................................................................................................12

4.3.5 Investigations complémentaires .....................................................................................................................13

4.4 Schéma conceptuel du site .........................................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Appréciation préliminaire du risque ................................................................................................................................14

5 Stratégies d’échantillonnage — Aspects généraux ........................................................................................................14

5.1 Objectifs de l’échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................................14

5.2 Champ d’application de la stratégie d’échantillonnage ....................................................................................15

5.3 Conception de la stratégie d’échantillonnage ...........................................................................................................16

5.4 Principales situations d’échantillonnage ......................................................................................................................17

5.5 Échantillons représentatifs et suffisamment représentatifs ........................................................................18

5.6 Caractéristiques de la répartition spatiale ...................................................................................................................19

5.7 Aspects statistiques .........................................................................................................................................................................20

5.8 Incertitude de mesure due à l’échantillonnage et l’analyse ..........................................................................20

5.9 Sécurité et protection de l’environnement ..................................................................................................................21

5.10 Obstacles à l’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................21

5.11 Périodes d’investigation ...............................................................................................................................................................22

6 Stratégies d’échantillonnage — Aspects et concepts essentiels ......................................................................22

6.1 Statistiques et géostatistique ..................................................................................................................................................22

6.1.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................22

6.1.2 Statistiques ........................................................................................................................................................................23

6.1.3 Géostatistique ..................................................................................................................................................................23

6.2 Approches d’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.2 Échantillonnage sur avis d’expert ..................................................................................................................24

6.2.3 Échantillonnage systématique ..........................................................................................................................25

6.2.4 Échantillonnage de commodité ........................................................................................................................26

6.3 Propriétés moyennes ......................................................................................................................................................................27

6.4 Types d’échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................................27

6.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................27

6.4.2 Échantillons remaniés et non remaniés ...................................................................................................27

6.4.3 Échantillons ponctuels (unitaires) ................................................................................................................27

6.4.4 Échantillons en grappes..........................................................................................................................................28

6.4.5 Échantillons (composites) spatiaux .............................................................................................................28

6.4.6 Échantillons sélectifs .................................................................................................................................................30

6.5 Nombre d’échantillons ..................................................................................................................................................................31

6.5.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................31

6.5.2 Nombre d’échantillons en des points d’échantillonnage isolés ...........................................31

6.5.3 Nombre d’échantillons en grappes ...............................................................................................................32

6.5.4 Nombre d’échantillons composites ..............................................................................................................32

6.6 Taille des échantillons....................................................................................................................................................................32

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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)

6.6.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................32

6.6.2 Considérations d’ordre pratique .....................................................................................................................34

7 Décision concernant le nombre d’échantillons à prélever ....................................................................................36

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.2 Situations de base ..............................................................................................................................................................................37

7.3 Détermination des concentrations moyennes ..........................................................................................................38

7.3.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................38

7.3.2 Utilisation d’échantillons composites spatiaux ..................................................................................38

7.3.3 Utilisation d’échantillons ponctuels .............................................................................................................39

7.3.4 Détermination de la relation par rapport à la valeur limite ....................................................39

7.4 Recherche de (zones concentrées et de) zones d’intérêt ayant une taille minimale

spécifiée .....................................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.5 Échantillonnage pour des objectifs particuliers .....................................................................................................41

7.5.1 Détermination des valeurs de fond ...............................................................................................................41

7.5.2 Classification des déchets .....................................................................................................................................41

7.5.3 Investigations complémentaires pour la remédiation .................................................................41

7.5.4 Validation de la remédiation et des autres travaux ........................................................................42

8 Stratégies d’échantillonnage pour l’échantillonnage dans le sol ...................................................................43

8.1 Approche d’échantillonnage.....................................................................................................................................................43

8.2 Grilles d’échantillonnage .............................................................................................................................................................43

8.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................43

8.2.2 Sites potentiellement contaminés .................................................................................................................44

8.2.3 Détection des zones concentrées, conception de l’investigation d’un site et

échantillonnage ..............................................................................................................................................................45

8.3 Types d’échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4 Profondeurs d’échantillonnage..............................................................................................................................................47

8.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................47

8.4.2 Sites potentiellement contaminés .................................................................................................................48

8.4.3 Échantillonnage par rapport au profil des eaux souterraines et à l’aquifère ...........49

8.5 Taille des échantillons....................................................................................................................................................................49

8.6 Nombre d’échantillons ..................................................................................................................................................................50

8.6.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................50

8.6.2 Nombre d’échantillons en des points d’échantillonnage individuels ..............................50

8.6.3 Nombre d’échantillons composites ..............................................................................................................51

9 Échantillonnage des dépôts en surface ......................................................................................................................................51

9.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.2 Grilles d’échantillonnage .............................................................................................................................................................52

9.3 Types d’échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................................52

9.3.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................52

9.3.2 Échantillonnage de commodité ........................................................................................................................52

9.4 Profondeurs d’échantillonnage..............................................................................................................................................53

9.5 Taille des échantillons....................................................................................................................................................................53

9.6 Nombre d’échantillons ..................................................................................................................................................................53

Annexe A (informative) Concepts statistiques de base ..................................................................................................................54

Annexe B (informative) Schémas d’échantillonnage ........................................................................................................................61

Annexe C (informative) Évaluation et modification de l’incertitude de l’échantillonnage .......................76

Annexe D (informative) Exemples d’échantillonnage pour des objectifs particuliers ..................................81

Annexe E (informative) Échelle d’échantillonnage .............................................................................................................................86

Annexe F (informative) Détermination de la taille et du nombre d’échantillons et de

prélèvements élémentaires ...................................................................................................................................................................92

Annexe G (informative) Méthodes statistiques pour l’estimation des paramètres du sol ....................101

Annexe H (informative) Méthodes géostatistiques pour la conception de l’échantillonnage

et l’évaluation de la qualité du sol ...............................................................................................................................................115

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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)

Annexe I (informative) Stratégies d’échantillonnage pour l’appréciation des risques ............................131

Bibliographie .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................143

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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 2,

Échantillonnage.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 18400-104, associée à l’ISO 18400-101, l’ISO 18400-102, l’ISO 18400-105,

l’ISO 18400-107, l’ISO 18400-202, l’ISO 18400-203 et l’ISO 18400-206, annule et remplace

l’ISO 10381-1:2002, l’ISO 10381-4:2003, l’ISO 10381-5:2005, l’ISO 10381-6:2009 et l’ISO 10381-8:2006,

qui ont fait l’objet d’une révision technique et structurelle.

La nouvelle série ISO 18400 est fondée sur une structure modulaire et ne peut être comparée, article

par article, à la série ISO 10381.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 18400 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
Introduction

Le présent document fait partie d’une série de normes d’échantillonnage des sols (le rôle/la fonction

de chaque norme au sein du programme d’investigation est illustré(e) à la Figure 1). Il fournit

des recommandations pour l’élaboration des stratégies d’investigation de site de façon générale

(des recommandations plus spécifiques sont fournies dans d’autres normes) et des stratégies

d’échantillonnage (par exemple, ce qu’il faut prélever, où prélever [emplacements et profondeurs]

et les types d’échantillons à prélever), en tenant compte de la nécessité d’obtenir des échantillons

représentatifs et d’appliquer des principes statistiques pertinents.

Les sols (et autres matériaux de sols) sont composés d’un mélange de particules minérales, de matière

organique, d’eau, d’air (gaz du sol) et d’organismes vivants. Dans le cas de certains sols contaminés,

il peut également y avoir une phase liquide non aqueuse. La matrice (phase) solide est constituée de

particules ayant différentes formes, tailles et propriétés physiques et chimiques. En règle générale, le

but d’un échantillonnage de sol est d’obtenir des échantillons suffisamment représentatifs pouvant être

utilisés pour caractériser les propriétés de la totalité du l’entité du sol (par exemple, sol en place sous

forme de volume ou d’horizon, ou de dépôt superficiel tel qu’un tas) ou de la partie considérée comme

pertinente pour les objectifs de l’investigation (par exemple, fraction < 0,1 mm pour évaluer l’exposition

via une activité «main-bouche»). Les propriétés des entités discrètes, telles que les particules

individuelles du sol, ne sont pas traitées. Des échantillons de sol sont prélevés lorsqu’il n’est pas

possible d’analyser le sol dans sa totalité. L’hypothèse selon laquelle les résultats de ces investigations

sur les échantillons représentent le volume total du sol étudié est toujours une approximation dont la

fiabilité dépend d’informations supplémentaires concernant le sol, le site et l’utilisation d’une stratégie

d’échantillonnage appropriée. En d’autres termes, il convient que la stratégie d’échantillonnage

garantisse, conjointement avec des informations supplémentaires (observations sur site, informations

de base, résultats d’investigations antérieures, etc.), que les résultats obtenus pour les échantillons

analysés permettent d’élaborer un modèle présentant les propriétés pertinentes du volume de sol

étudié avec un niveau de fiabilité suffisant, en accord avec les objectifs de l’investigation.

Quel que soit le but de l’investigation, l’élaboration d’un schéma conceptuel robuste du site est

nécessaire. Chaque propriété d’un sol ou d’un matériau du sol est un résultat de son développement

dynamique influencé par des processus naturels et des processus induits par l’homme, tels qu’une

altération due aux conditions climatiques, à une lixiviation, à une dislocation, à une contamination et

à de nombreux autres processus. Si ces processus ne sont pas pris en compte, les résultats de toute

investigation sur des d’échantillons ne peuvent pas être correctement interprétés et évalués. Lorsque la

variabilité spatiale des propriétés du sol (y compris la contamination) présente un intérêt particulier, le

schéma conceptuel du site comprend ce qui est connu, ou supposé l’être, à propos des processus qui ont

conduit à la répartition spatiale attendue des propriétés.

La stratégie d’échantillonnage, notamment lorsque des propriétés moyennes sont étudiées, repose de

préférence sur des méthodes statistiques, dans la mesure où elles sont applicables et appropriées.

Après avoir défini les éléments clés tels que les parties concernées, les objectifs, les propriétés étudiées,

la phase d’investigation, les informations de base et les informations relatives au site, ainsi que les

aspects liés à la santé et à la sécurité, une stratégie d’échantillonnage est élaborée. Cette dernière pourra

servir de base à un plan d’échantillonnage conformément à l’ISO 18400-101 (le plan d’échantillonnage

couvre un certain nombre d’enjeux pratiques ainsi que la stratégie d’échantillonnage).

Dans tout cas particulier, la stratégie d’échantillonnage appropriée dépend:
— des objectifs de l’investigation;
— de la situation particulière et des caractéristiques du matériau à prélever;
— des propriétés à étudier; et
— du niveau exigé de précision et de fiabilité des résultats.
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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)

De nombreux autres facteurs peuvent aussi avoir un impact sur la conception de la stratégie

d’échantillonnage, notamment:
— l’accessibilité du site ainsi que du matériau échantillonné;
— les ressources financières, humaines et techniques;
— les conditions climatiques;
— le calendrier/les délais;
— les restrictions légales/environnementales.

Après avoir défini l’approche d’échantillonnage, les techniques d’échantillonnage appropriées sont

choisies en suivant les recommandations de l’ISO 18400-102, en tenant compte des aspects liés à la

santé et à la sécurité (ISO 18400-103) et de diverses considérations pratiques. Les décisions prises à

propos des techniques d’échantillonnage font partie du plan d’échantillonnage.
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ISO 18400-104:2018(F)

NOTE 1 Les chiffres encerclés de la Figure 1 définissent les éléments clés (1 à 7) du programme d’investigation.

NOTE 2 La Figure 1 présente un processus générique qui peut être modifié si nécessaire.

Figure 1 — Liens entre les éléments essentiels d’un programme d’investigation
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés ix
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18400-104:2018(F)
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 104:
Stratégies
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document donne des recommandations générales pour l’élaboration des stratégies

d’investigation de site ainsi que des recommandations détaillées pour l’élaboration des stratégies

d’échantillonnage, en recueillant des informations sur:
— les propriétés moyennes du sol;
— la variabilité des propriétés du sol; et
— la répartition spatiale des propriétés du sol.

Le présent document est applicable aux échantillons de sol destinés à des essais chimiques et pour

déterminer une grande diversité d’autres propriétés (par exemple physiques).

Bien qu’il soit principalement axé sur le prélèvement de matériaux (échantillon de terrain) destinés

à être envoyés au laboratoire pour des essais, le présent document s’applique également lorsque des

mesurages sont effectués directement sur le terrain.

NOTE 1 Le présent document fournit également des informations sur les principes statistiques servant de

base à l’élaboration de stratégies d’échantillonnage appropriées et de méthodes statistiques.

NOTE 2 Des recommandations concernant d’autres formes d’activités d’échantillonnage associées sont

données dans d’autre
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