Water quality - Sampling - Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points

This part of ISO 5667 gives guidelines for the design, construction and installation of groundwater quality monitoring points to help ensure that representative samples of groundwater can be obtained. Within the guidance consideration is given to:
a) the impact of installation materials on the environment;
b) the impact of the installation on sample integrity;
c) the impact of the environment on the installation and the materials used in its construction.
These guidelines allow the impacts to be considered and accounted for when designing a groundwater sampling programme. They also allow an informed assessment of data and results obtained from existing installations, the construction of which can potentially have an impact on sample integrity.
These guidelines are intended for installations and monitoring in different environments including those where background or baseline groundwater conditions are being established or monitored and those in which impacts of contamination are being investigated.

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 22: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l'installation de points de contrôle des eaux souterraines

Kakovost vode - Vzorčenje - 22. del: Navodilo za načrtovanje in namestitev vzorčevalnih mest za monitoring podzemne vode

Ta del ISO 5667 podaja vodilo za načrtovanje, konstrukcijo in namestitev vzorčevalnih mest za monitoring podzemne vode, ki zagotavljajo, da se lahko pridobijo reprezentativni vzorci podzemne vode. V vodilu se upošteva:
a) vpliv inštalacijskih materialov na okolje;
b) vpliv inštalacije na celovitost vzorca;
c) vpliv okolja na inštalacijo in na materiale, uporabljene pri njeni gradnji.
To vodilo omogoča, da se vplivi preučijo in upoštevajo pri načrtovanju programa vzorčenja podzemne vode. Prav tako omogoča utemeljeno oceno podatkov in rezultatov, pridobljenih iz obstoječih inštalacij, ki lahko zaradi konstrukcije potencialno vplivajo na celovitost vzorca.
To vodilo je namenjeno namestitvi in monitoringu različnih okolij, vključno s tistimi, kjer so osnovni pogoji in referenčno stanje podzemne vode vzpostavljeni oz. se spremljajo, in tistimi, kjer se preiskujejo vplivi kontaminacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-May-2011
Publication Date
15-May-2011
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-May-2011
Due Date
11-Jul-2011
Completion Date
16-May-2011

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-22
First edition
2010-08-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 22:
Guidance on the design and installation
of groundwater monitoring points
Qualité de l'eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 22: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l'installation de points
de contrôle des eaux souterraines
Reference number
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2010

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

3 Principle..................................................................................................................................................4

3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................4

3.2 Monitoring objectives ...........................................................................................................................4

4 Design.....................................................................................................................................................6

4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................6

4.2 Conceptual model .................................................................................................................................6

4.3 Drilling method and installation size...................................................................................................8

4.4 Installation design ...............................................................................................................................11

4.5 Construction material selection.........................................................................................................14

4.6 Headworks ...........................................................................................................................................21

4.7 Surface environment...........................................................................................................................22

5 Construction phase.............................................................................................................................23

5.1 General .................................................................................................................................................23

5.2 Record keeping....................................................................................................................................23

5.3 Borehole drilling practice ...................................................................................................................24

5.4 Installation practice.............................................................................................................................25

5.5 Borehole development........................................................................................................................26

6 Post-construction activities ...............................................................................................................27

6.1 Routine inspections and maintenance..............................................................................................27

6.2 Rehabilitation.......................................................................................................................................28

7 Safety precautions ..............................................................................................................................28

8 Quality assurance and quality control ..............................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Common drilling techniques used in GQMP installation .......................................30

Annex B (informative) Headwork completion design examples ..................................................................33

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 5667-22 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Sampling (general methods).

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

⎯ Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
⎯ Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water samples
⎯ Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

⎯ Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

⎯ Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
⎯ Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
⎯ Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
⎯ Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
⎯ Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
⎯ Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
⎯ Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
⎯ Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges from sewage and water treatment works

⎯ Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water sampling and handling

⎯ Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples

⎯ Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
⎯ Part 17: Guidance on sampling of bulk suspended solids
⎯ Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

⎯ Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

⎯ Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes

⎯ Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points

⎯ Part 23: Determination of priority pollutants in surface water using passive sampling

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
Introduction

The guidance contained in this part of ISO 5667 covers design and installation of groundwater quality

monitoring points (GQMPs). It should be used in parallel with other guidance on sampling groundwater and for

investigating contaminated or potentially contaminated sites, as any groundwater sampling from such sites is

likely to form part of a much wider investigation programme.

Groundwater sampling, in general, is carried out to determine whether or not the groundwater in or beneath a

site is contaminated. It can also be used to:

a) establish whether any migration of contaminants, derived from the site, is occurring and characterize the

spatial extent (both laterally and vertically) of any contamination and its form;

b) determine the direction, rate and variability of groundwater flow and contaminant migration;

c) provide data for undertaking a risk assessment;

d) provide an early warning system for the impact of contaminants on the quality of groundwater resources,

surface waters and other potential receptors in the vicinity of the site;

e) monitor the performance and effectiveness of remedial measures or facility design;

f) demonstrate compliance with licence conditions, or collect evidence for regulatory purposes;

g) assist in the selection of remedial measures and remediation process design.

The design and installation of groundwater monitoring points is critical to ensure that representative

measurements are to be made of groundwater quality. A wide range of methods and materials is currently

used with no, or very little, guidance on their applicability to the issues being addressed. This results in data

and information that are at best difficult to interpret as well as being highly misleading; at worst, they are

completely useless. The costs involved in installation, sampling and analysis are significant and the potential

impacts of incorrect decisions made on poor quality data even greater. There is therefore a need to develop

best practice guidance to establish a framework that can be adopted to ensure a much greater level of

confidence in groundwater quality data.

Prescriptive guidance on methods and applications is not possible. Therefore, this guidance provides information

on the most commonly applied and available techniques, and lists their advantages, disadvantages and limitations

of use where these are known. When considering design of sampling strategies, the properties of potential

sources of contaminants, pathways for migration, receptors, the purpose of the investigation and the environment

into which the installations are to be emplaced need to be considered.
vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 22:
Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater
monitoring points
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 gives guidelines for the design, construction and installation of groundwater quality

monitoring points to help ensure that representative samples of groundwater can be obtained. Within the

guidance consideration is given to:
a) the impact of installation materials on the environment;
b) the impact of the installation on sample integrity;

c) the impact of the environment on the installation and the materials used in its construction.

These guidelines allow the impacts to be considered and accounted for when designing a groundwater

sampling programme. They also allow an informed assessment of data and results obtained from existing

installations, the construction of which can potentially have an impact on sample integrity.

These guidelines are intended for installations and monitoring in different environments including those where

background or baseline groundwater conditions are being established or monitored and those in which

impacts of contamination are being investigated.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
annulus

void between any piping, tubing or casing and the piping, tubing or casing immediately surrounding it

2.2
aquifer

geological formation (bed or stratum) of permeable rock or unconsolidated material (e.g. sand and gravels)

capable of yielding significant quantities of water
[8]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-3:1993 , 6.
2.3
bentonite

clay, formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash, that swells as it absorbs water

[9]
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6707-1:2004 , 3.2.18.

NOTE 2 Refined bentonite is used to make a watertight seal. Sodium is often added in the refining process to enhance

the swelling properties.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
2.4
dense non-aqueous phase liquids
DNAPL

organic compounds that have low water solubility and a density greater than that of water, e.g. chlorinated

hydrocarbons such as trichloroethane
[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 34]
2.5
effective porosity

proportion of saturated openings or pores within a water-bearing formation which contribute directly to the flow

of groundwater
[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 43]

NOTE Effective porosity is represented as the ratio of this volume of pore spaces to the total volume of rock.

2.6
geotextile wrap

synthetic inert woven material wrapped around the outside of the screen to prevent entry of solid particles into

the borehole or piezometer without restricting flow of water
2.7
groundwater

water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, a saturated or unsaturated underground

formation or artificial deposit such as made ground
[6]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-1:2004 , 41.
2.8
hydraulic conductivity

property of a water-bearing formation that relates to its capacity to transmit water through its internal,

interconnected pathways
[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 53]
2.9
light non-aqueous phase liquid
LNAPL

organic compounds which have low water solubility and a density less than that of water, e.g. petroleum

products
[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 59]
2.10
multi-level sampler

single installation for sampling groundwater from discrete depths within the subsurface

[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 67]

NOTE The device can be driven directly into the ground, installed in a pre-existing borehole or installed in a

purpose-drilled hole. When installed in a borehole, integral packers are used to isolate individual sample ports.

2.11
multiple boreholes

group of individual boreholes or piezometers installed separately to form a monitoring network adequate for

the purposes of an investigation
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
2.12
nested piezometers
group of piezometers installed within a single larger diameter borehole
[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 69]

NOTE In general, each piezometer is designed to allow sampling over a specific depth interval within the aquifer.

Piezometer tips are surrounded by a sand pack which in turn is isolated from adjacent sampling points by installing a

permanent impermeable seal between them to eliminate leakage between sample points.

2.13
packer

device or material for temporarily isolating specified vertical sections within boreholes in order to perform

groundwater sampling from discrete zones or locations within the borehole or aquifer

[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 75]
2.14
perched groundwater

isolated body of groundwater, which is limited in lateral and vertical extent, located within the unsaturated

zone overlying a much more extensive groundwater body
[7]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006 , 79, “perched water table”.
2.15
piezometer

device consisting of a tube or pipe with a porous element or perforated section (surrounded by a filter) on the

lower part (piezometer tip), which is installed and sealed into the ground at an appropriate level within the

saturated zone for the purposes of water level measurement, hydraulic pressure measurement or

groundwater sampling
[7]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006 , 81.
2.16
receptor

〈sampling of ground water〉 entity that is vulnerable to the adverse effect(s) of a hazardous substance or agent

[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 100]

NOTE An entity is something that may suffer harm or damage if exposed to the hazard, e.g. humans, animals, aquatic

ecosystems, vegetation or building services.
2.17
groundwater response zone

section of a borehole or groundwater monitoring point that is open to the host strata

2.18
saturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are completely water-saturated

[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 119]
2.19
well screen

section of borehole casing that is perforated with either slots or holes to allow the entry of groundwater

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
2.20
tremmie pipe

narrow (25 mm to 50 mm) diameter plastic pipe placed down the annulus of an installation for the purpose of

adding filter materials and sealants
2.21
unsaturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are not totally filled with water

[7]
[ISO 6107-2:2006 , 150]
3 Principle
3.1 General

The installation and operation of groundwater monitoring points generally forms one part of an investigation or

operation that also involves other technical considerations and objectives. This guidance includes

consideration of the broader objectives of the investigation and the purpose of boreholes or monitoring points,

and the need to build in flexibility.

The development of a design plan is recommended. This plan should consider all potential factors that

can influence monitoring point installation and operation. This includes whether the facility is required for

short-term or long-term use, the range of parameters that are to be measured or determined, acceptable

tolerances, and quality of data. The design framework in Figure 1 can be used to support the process and

allow the relevant factors and key considerations for monitoring point design and construction to be

considered.
3.2 Monitoring objectives

The principal objective of all groundwater quality monitoring installations is to obtain a representative

groundwater sample to be collected. The purpose for which the sample is being obtained should fall into one

of three categories:

a) strategic: monitoring to obtain background or baseline information on groundwater quality and to identify

wide-scale trends in quality due to changing natural conditions or pollution;

b) defensive: monitoring around a known activity such as a waste disposal site, around a sensitive receptor

(e.g. a groundwater dependent wetland) or to monitor remediation of groundwater;

c) investigative: monitoring to investigate and characterise groundwater below or adjacent to areas of known

or suspected contamination — this also includes monitoring of free-phase liquids (e.g. LNAPLs).

Objectives may change during the lifetime of a groundwater quality monitoring installation and they may also

have multiple objectives at any one time. The monitoring installation should be designed to be as versatile as

possible.
4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
Figure 1 — Design and Installation flow chart
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
Operation
Start Design Construction
Can
Yes No Abandon
objectives or
Sampling and
design be
Development
project
maintenance
refined?
Yes
Is sufficient Is sufficient Yes
Initial Detailed
Objectives information budget
design
design available?
available?
No De-
commissioning
Yes
Can information
Collect
be collected while
drilling the GQMP
further data
without compromising
objectives?
Actions:
Actions:
Actions:
Actions: Consider:
Specify:
Drill, install and develop
Refine objectives:
Consider: health and safety;
drilling method -
lifespan;
drilling techniques; record keeping;
depth and diameter;
Consider:
monitoring requirements;
diameter; casing strength;
location;
cleanliness;
screen requirements;
numbering system; borehole strength or stability;
installation materials:
cross-contamination;
location;
health and safety; groundwater chemistry;
screen;
health and safety;
identify conflicting
installation materials; contamination;
casing;
material properties;
objectives
collection, storage and
screen depth
filter packs;
record keeping;
disposal of water
seals;
waste storage and disposal
grout;
headworks;
health and safety
Information requirements:
Information requirements:
geology;
the objectives;
Information requirements:
hydrogeology;
groundwater chemistry; as intial design;
subsurface infrastructure;
provisional budget site owner requirements
contaminants:
near surface;
at depth;
phase;
concentrations
Drilling and
installation
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)
4 Design
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 General

The design considerations for a groundwater quality monitoring installation can be divided into two phases: a)

initial design and b) detailed design.

Initial design represents a preliminary assessment of the considerations, while detailed design represents a

thorough in-depth examination of the issues and the decision-making leading to installation.

4.1.2 Initial design

The initial design phase should be a quick and relatively simple process. It should consider the design basics

and available options. This includes drilling method (and flushing medium to be used), borehole location and

depth, outline design and cost estimates, and identification of information gaps. This stage of work should

form the basis of the information needed to hold preliminary discussions with stakeholders, clients, and drillers.

Following the initial design stage, potential difficulties should have been identified along with potential

solutions, the likely costs, and any significant health and safety issues.
4.1.3 Detailed design

At this stage, the groundwater quality monitoring installation design is developed in detail to allow the

specification to be finalised, and procurement and construction commissioning processes to be put in place.

4.2 Conceptual model
4.2.1 General

An understanding of the subsurface environment is vital if the groundwater quality monitoring installation is to

operate effectively. This understanding can be developed within the context of a conceptual site model. The

conceptual site model represents a collection of information that allows the subsurface conditions to be

visualised. For groundwater quality monitoring installations, it should comprise geological or hydrogeological

information. The geological environment is the most significant factor in the selection of a drilling technique.

The strata type and thickness influence drilling methodology, choice of materials and design of response

zones. The degree of understanding required to allow a suitable design is determined by:

a) the (anticipated) complexity of the environment;

b) cost-benefit analysis, e.g. whether the cost of further investigation is justified by improved design or

understanding;

c) type of installation being considered, e.g. multi-level installations require more detailed information.

Examples of the geological information that is required for soils and rock are listed in the following.

For soils, the following factors may influence drilling technique selection:

1) degree of cohesion, where fine soils are more likely to stand open than coarse soils;

2) density of coarse, granular deposits, where temporary casing is almost always required in granular

deposits, which tend to “blow” below the water table and require the addition of water;

3) absence or presence of cobbles, boulders, and stones which some soil-drilling techniques may be

unable to penetrate;
6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)

4) thickness, where difficult drilling conditions may often be overcome if the soil is thin, but may require

specialist techniques when they are thick;

5) saturated or unsaturated conditions, where unsaturated sands may run into the hole while saturated

sands may blow.
For rock, the important factors are:

i) rock strength, where weak rock can often be penetrated using soil-drilling techniques, while

strong rock slows drilling progress and causes refusal of some techniques;
ii) depth or thickness to be penetrated;

iii) presence of weathered or weak zones, which may require the borehole to be supported by

temporary casing;

iv) presence of voids such as fractures, solution features, and mine workings, which may cause

loss of flushing medium.
4.2.2 Rock strength

The relative strength of a geological deposit affects the rate of drilling, the need for support of the borehole

walls and the strength required of the installation materials. Loose, coarse and soft, fine deposits always need

support with temporary casing or the use of drilling muds, except where direct push installation methods are

used. Support may also be needed in highly-fractured rock where blocks or wedges may move into the

borehole. Drilling through mine workings may encounter loose ground which can block the borehole.

Swelling clays can lead to difficulties during drilling and installation, as these deposits can swell into the

borehole void, reducing the effective diameter. If support cannot be given to the borehole walls (either

because of the drilling method or the risk of having temporary casing seize in the hole), then installation

should immediately follow drilling to reduce the potential loss of the hole. Chemical additives may slow or

eliminate the swelling effect; however, because of their potential effect on groundwater chemistry, additives

should only be used after careful consideration.

Loose sands below the water table often “blow” into the borehole. This results from a head difference between

the water level inside the temporary casing and the surrounding soil, leading to sand moving into the casing.

This effect may be further enhanced by suction created by the drilling action, which draws more material

inwards. The potential outcome is that the temporary casing fills with sand at a faster rate than the drilling

operation can remove it, and it can then become difficult to remove the temporary casing. To minimise the

effect of blowing, it may be necessary to maintain the water level inside the temporary casing above that of

the outside, by adding water.
4.2.3 Depth

The required depth of the groundwater quality monitoring point (GQMP) influences the choice and quantity of

casing materials and the choice of drilling technique (see 4.3). Most techniques are capable of drilling shallow

boreholes, but as depth increases, so does its impact on the design. Some drilling techniques are limited in

the depth to which they can penetrate because of physical constraints, such as excessive frictional resistance

in augering and direct push techniques.

Cable tool drilling is usually limited by the rate of progress, which decreases with depth, and by the size of

equipment needed, where larger rigs are required for deeper holes.

Rotary drilling techniques can be used in shallow boreholes, but the ancillary equipment and relatively

expensive mobilization can constitute a large outlay.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 5667-22:2010(E)

The depth of the borehole and the depth to the water table determine the choice of installation materials and

casing diameter. The casing string should be of sufficient strength to accommodate the extensional stresses

incurred by its own mass when hanging in the borehole. The weakest point on a casing string is usually the

joi
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.DPHVWLWHYQualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 22: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l'installation de points de contrôle des eaux souterrainesWater quality - Sampling - Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points13.060.45Preiskava vode na splošnoExamination of water in general13.060.10Voda iz naravnih virovWater of natural resourcesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ISO 5667-22:2010SIST ISO 5667-22:2011en01-junij-2011SIST ISO 5667-22:2011SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ISO 5667-22:2011
Reference numberISO 5667-22:2010(E)© ISO 2010

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO5667-22First edition2010-08-15Water quality — Sampling — Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points Qualité de l'eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 22: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l'installation de points de contrôle des eaux souterraines

SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2010 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.org Web
www.iso.org Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii Contents Page Foreword............................................................................................................................................................iv Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................1 3 Principle..................................................................................................................................................4 3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................4 3.2 Monitoring objectives...........................................................................................................................4 4 Design.....................................................................................................................................................6 4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................6 4.2 Conceptual model.................................................................................................................................6 4.3 Drilling method and installation size...................................................................................................8 4.4 Installation design...............................................................................................................................11 4.5 Construction material selection.........................................................................................................14 4.6 Headworks...........................................................................................................................................21 4.7 Surface environment...........................................................................................................................22 5 Construction phase.............................................................................................................................23 5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................23 5.2 Record keeping....................................................................................................................................23 5.3 Borehole drilling practice...................................................................................................................24 5.4 Installation practice.............................................................................................................................25 5.5 Borehole development........................................................................................................................26 6 Post-construction activities...............................................................................................................27 6.1 Routine inspections and maintenance..............................................................................................27 6.2 Rehabilitation.......................................................................................................................................28 7 Safety precautions..............................................................................................................................28 8 Quality assurance and quality control..............................................................................................28 Annex A (informative)

Common drilling techniques used in GQMP installation.......................................30 Annex B (informative)

Headwork completion design examples..................................................................33 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 5667-22 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Sampling (general methods). ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling: ⎯ Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques ⎯ Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water samples ⎯ Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made ⎯ Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems ⎯ Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams ⎯ Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants ⎯ Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition ⎯ Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters ⎯ Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters ⎯ Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters ⎯ Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments ⎯ Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges from sewage and water treatment works ⎯ Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water sampling and handling ⎯ Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples ⎯ Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v ⎯ Part 17: Guidance on sampling of bulk suspended solids ⎯ Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments ⎯ Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and classification systems ⎯ Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution pipes ⎯ Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points ⎯ Part 23: Determination of priority pollutants in surface water using passive sampling SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Introduction The guidance contained in this part of ISO 5667 covers design and installation of groundwater quality monitoring points (GQMPs). It should be used in parallel with other guidance on sampling groundwater and for investigating contaminated or potentially contaminated sites, as any groundwater sampling from such sites is likely to form part of a much wider investigation programme. Groundwater sampling, in general, is carried out to determine whether or not the groundwater in or beneath a site is contaminated. It can also be used to: a) establish whether any migration of contaminants, derived from the site, is occurring and characterize the spatial extent (both laterally and vertically) of any contamination and its form; b) determine the direction, rate and variability of groundwater flow and contaminant migration; c) provide data for undertaking a risk assessment; d) provide an early warning system for the impact of contaminants on the quality of groundwater resources, surface waters and other potential receptors in the vicinity of the site; e) monitor the performance and effectiveness of remedial measures or facility design; f) demonstrate compliance with licence conditions, or collect evidence for regulatory purposes; g) assist in the selection of remedial measures and remediation process design. The design and installation of groundwater monitoring points is critical to ensure that representative measurements are to be made of groundwater quality. A wide range of methods and materials is currently used with no, or very little, guidance on their applicability to the issues being addressed. This results in data and information that are at best difficult to interpret as well as being highly misleading; at worst, they are completely useless. The costs involved in installation, sampling and analysis are significant and the potential impacts of incorrect decisions made on poor quality data even greater. There is therefore a need to develop best practice guidance to establish a framework that can be adopted to ensure a much greater level of confidence in groundwater quality data. Prescriptive guidance on methods and applications is not possible. Therefore, this guidance provides information on the most commonly applied and available techniques, and lists their advantages, disadvantages and limitations of use where these are known. When considering design of sampling strategies, the properties of potential sources of contaminants, pathways for migration, receptors, the purpose of the investigation and the environment into which the installations are to be emplaced need to be considered.

SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1 Water quality — Sampling — Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points 1 Scope This part of ISO 5667 gives guidelines for the design, construction and installation of groundwater quality monitoring points to help ensure that representative samples of groundwater can be obtained. Within the guidance consideration is given to: a) the impact of installation materials on the environment; b) the impact of the installation on sample integrity; c) the impact of the environment on the installation and the materials used in its construction. These guidelines allow the impacts to be considered and accounted for when designing a groundwater sampling programme. They also allow an informed assessment of data and results obtained from existing installations, the construction of which can potentially have an impact on sample integrity. These guidelines are intended for installations and monitoring in different environments including those where background or baseline groundwater conditions are being established or monitored and those in which impacts of contamination are being investigated. 2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 annulus void between any piping, tubing or casing and the piping, tubing or casing immediately surrounding it 2.2 aquifer geological formation (bed or stratum) of permeable rock or unconsolidated material (e.g. sand and gravels) capable of yielding significant quantities of water NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-3:1993[8], 6. 2.3 bentonite clay, formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash, that swells as it absorbs water NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6707-1:2004[9], 3.2.18. NOTE 2 Refined bentonite is used to make a watertight seal. Sodium is often added in the refining process to enhance the swelling properties. SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) 2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 2.4 dense non-aqueous phase liquids DNAPL organic compounds that have low water solubility and a density greater than that of water, e.g. chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethane [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 34] 2.5 effective porosity proportion of saturated openings or pores within a water-bearing formation which contribute directly to the flow of groundwater [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 43] NOTE Effective porosity is represented as the ratio of this volume of pore spaces to the total volume of rock. 2.6 geotextile wrap synthetic inert woven material wrapped around the outside of the screen to prevent entry of solid particles into the borehole or piezometer without restricting flow of water 2.7 groundwater water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, a saturated or unsaturated underground formation or artificial deposit such as made ground NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-1:2004[6], 41. 2.8 hydraulic conductivity property of a water-bearing formation that relates to its capacity to transmit water through its internal, interconnected pathways [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 53] 2.9 light non-aqueous phase liquid LNAPL organic compounds which have low water solubility and a density less than that of water, e.g. petroleum products [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 59] 2.10 multi-level sampler single installation for sampling groundwater from discrete depths within the subsurface [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 67] NOTE The device can be driven directly into the ground, installed in a pre-existing borehole or installed in a purpose-drilled hole. When installed in a borehole, integral packers are used to isolate individual sample ports. 2.11 multiple boreholes group of individual boreholes or piezometers installed separately to form a monitoring network adequate for the purposes of an investigation SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3 2.12 nested piezometers group of piezometers installed within a single larger diameter borehole [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 69] NOTE In general, each piezometer is designed to allow sampling over a specific depth interval within the aquifer. Piezometer tips are surrounded by a sand pack which in turn is isolated from adjacent sampling points by installing a permanent impermeable seal between them to eliminate leakage between sample points. 2.13 packer device or material for temporarily isolating specified vertical sections within boreholes in order to perform groundwater sampling from discrete zones or locations within the borehole or aquifer [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 75] 2.14 perched groundwater isolated body of groundwater, which is limited in lateral and vertical extent, located within the unsaturated zone overlying a much more extensive groundwater body NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 79, “perched water table”. 2.15 piezometer device consisting of a tube or pipe with a porous element or perforated section (surrounded by a filter) on the lower part (piezometer tip), which is installed and sealed into the ground at an appropriate level within the saturated zone for the purposes of water level measurement, hydraulic pressure measurement or groundwater sampling NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 81. 2.16 receptor 〈sampling of ground water〉 entity that is vulnerable to the adverse effect(s) of a hazardous substance or agent [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 100] NOTE An entity is something that may suffer harm or damage if exposed to the hazard, e.g. humans, animals, aquatic ecosystems, vegetation or building services. 2.17 groundwater response zone section of a borehole or groundwater monitoring point that is open to the host strata 2.18 saturated zone part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are completely water-saturated [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 119] 2.19 well screen section of borehole casing that is perforated with either slots or holes to allow the entry of groundwater SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) 4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 2.20 tremmie pipe narrow (25 mm to 50 mm) diameter plastic pipe placed down the annulus of an installation for the purpose of adding filter materials and sealants 2.21 unsaturated zone part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are not totally filled with water [ISO 6107-2:2006[7], 150] 3 Principle 3.1 General The installation and operation of groundwater monitoring points generally forms one part of an investigation or operation that also involves other technical considerations and objectives. This guidance includes consideration of the broader objectives of the investigation and the purpose of boreholes or monitoring points, and the need to build in flexibility. The development of a design plan is recommended. This plan should consider all potential factors that can influence monitoring point installation and operation. This includes whether the facility is required for short-term or long-term use, the range of parameters that are to be measured or determined, acceptable tolerances, and quality of data. The design framework in Figure 1 can be used to support the process and allow the relevant factors and key considerations for monitoring point design and construction to be considered. 3.2 Monitoring objectives The principal objective of all groundwater quality monitoring installations is to obtain a representative groundwater sample to be collected. The purpose for which the sample is being obtained should fall into one of three categories: a) strategic: monitoring to obtain background or baseline information on groundwater quality and to identify wide-scale trends in quality due to changing natural conditions or pollution; b) defensive: monitoring around a known activity such as a waste disposal site, around a sensitive receptor (e.g. a groundwater dependent wetland) or to monitor remediation of groundwater; c) investigative: monitoring to investigate and characterise groundwater below or adjacent to areas of known or suspected contamination — this also includes monitoring of free-phase liquids (e.g. LNAPLs). Objectives may change during the lifetime of a groundwater quality monitoring installation and they may also have multiple objectives at any one time. The monitoring installation should be designed to be as versatile as possible. SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5 ObjectivesInitial designAbandon projectStartDesignConstructionOperationActions:Refine objectives:

lifespan;
monitoring requirements;
screen requirements;
location;
identify conflicting
objectivesActions:Consider:
drilling techniques;
diameter;
numbering system;
health and safety;
installation materials;
screen depthInformation requirements:
geology;
hydrogeology;
subsurface infrastructure;
contaminants:
near surface;
at depth;
phase;
concentrationsInformation requirements:
the objectives;
groundwater chemistry;

provisional budgetCollect further dataYesNoNoYesYesNoYesDetaileddesignDrilling andinstallationDevelopmentDe-commissioningSampling andmaintenanceIs sufficientinformationavailable?Is sufficientbudgetavailable?Can objectives ordesign berefined?Can informationbe collected while drilling the GQMP without compromisingobjectives?Actions:Specify:

drilling method -
depth and diameter;
location;
installation materials:
screen;
casing;
filter packs;
seals;
grout;
headworks;
health and safetyInformation requirements:
as intial design;
site owner requirementsActions:Drill, install and developConsider:
cleanliness;
cross-contamination;
health and safety;
material properties;
record keeping;
waste storage and disposalConsider:
health and safety;
record keeping;
casing strength;
borehole strength or stability;
groundwater chemistry;
contamination;
collection, storage and

disposal of waterNo Figure 1 — Design and Installation flow chart SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) 6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 4 Design 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 General The design considerations for a groundwater quality monitoring installation can be divided into two phases: a) initial design and b) detailed design. Initial design represents a preliminary assessment of the considerations, while detailed design represents a thorough in-depth examination of the issues and the decision-making leading to installation. 4.1.2 Initial design The initial design phase should be a quick and relatively simple process. It should consider the design basics and available options. This includes drilling method (and flushing medium to be used), borehole location and depth, outline design and cost estimates, and identification of information gaps. This stage of work should form the basis of the information needed to hold preliminary discussions with stakeholders, clients, and drillers. Following the initial design stage, potential difficulties should have been identified along with potential solutions, the likely costs, and any significant health and safety issues. 4.1.3 Detailed design At this stage, the groundwater quality monitoring installation design is developed in detail to allow the specification to be finalised, and procurement and construction commissioning processes to be put in place. 4.2 Conceptual model 4.2.1 General An understanding of the subsurface environment is vital if the groundwater quality monitoring installation is to operate effectively. This understanding can be developed within the context of a conceptual site model. The conceptual site model represents a collection of information that allows the subsurface conditions to be visualised. For groundwater quality monitoring installations, it should comprise geological or hydrogeological information. The geological environment is the most significant factor in the selection of a drilling technique. The strata type and thickness influence drilling methodology, choice of materials and design of response zones. The degree of understanding required to allow a suitable design is determined by: a) the (anticipated) complexity of the environment; b) cost-benefit analysis, e.g. whether the cost of further investigation is justified by improved design or understanding; c) type of installation being considered, e.g. multi-level installations require more detailed information. Examples of the geological information that is required for soils and rock are listed in the following. For soils, the following factors may influence drilling technique selection: 1) degree of cohesion, where fine soils are more likely to stand open than coarse soils; 2) density of coarse, granular deposits, where temporary casing is almost always required in granular deposits, which tend to “blow” below the water table and require the addition of water; 3) absence or presence of cobbles, boulders, and stones which some soil-drilling techniques may be unable to penetrate; SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 7 4) thickness, where difficult drilling conditions may often be overcome if the soil is thin, but may require specialist techniques when they are thick; 5) saturated or unsaturated conditions, where unsaturated sands may run into the hole while saturated sands may blow. For rock, the important factors are: i) rock strength, where weak rock can often be penetrated using soil-drilling techniques, while strong rock slows drilling progress and causes refusal of some techniques; ii) depth or thickness to be penetrated; iii) presence of weathered or weak zones, which may require the borehole to be supported by temporary casing; iv) presence of voids such as fractures, solution features, and mine workings, which may cause loss of flushing medium. 4.2.2 Rock strength The relative strength of a geological deposit affects the rate of drilling, the need for support of the borehole walls and the strength required of the installation materials. Loose, coarse and soft, fine deposits always need support with temporary casing or the use of drilling muds, except where direct push installation methods are used. Support may also be needed in highly-fractured rock where blocks or wedges may move into the borehole. Drilling through mine workings may encounter loose ground which can block the borehole. Swelling clays can lead to difficulties during drilling and installation, as these deposits can swell into the borehole void, reducing the effective diameter. If support cannot be given to the borehole walls (either because of the drilling method or the risk of having temporary casing seize in the hole), then installation should immediately follow drilling to reduce the potential loss of the hole. Chemical additives may slow or eliminate the swelling effect; however, because of their potential effect on groundwater chemistry, additives should only be used after careful consideration. Loose sands below the water table often “blow” into the borehole. This results from a head difference between the water level inside the temporary casing and the surrounding soil, leading to sand moving into the casing. This effect may be further enhanced by suction created by the drilling action, which draws more material inwards. The potential outcome is that the temporary casing fills with sand at a faster rate than the drilling operation can remove it, and it can then become difficult to remove the temporary casing. To minimise the effect of blowing, it may be necessary to maintain the water level inside the temporary casing above that of the outside, by adding water. 4.2.3 Depth The required depth of the groundwater quality monitoring point (GQMP) influences the choice and quantity of casing materials and the choice of drilling technique (see 4.3). Most techniques are capable of drilling shallow boreholes, but as depth increases, so does its impact on the design. Some drilling techniques are limited in the depth to which they can penetrate because of physical constraints, such as excessive frictional resistance in augering and direct push techniques. Cable tool drilling is usually limited by the rate of progress, which decreases with depth, and by the size of equipment needed, where larger rigs are required for deeper holes. Rotary drilling techniques can be used in shallow boreholes, but the ancillary equipment and relatively expensive mobilization can constitute a large outlay. SIST ISO 5667-22:2011

ISO 5667-22:2010(E) 8 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved The depth of the borehole and the depth to the water table determine the choice of installation materials and casing diameter. The casing string should be of sufficient strength to accommodate the extensional stresses incurred by its own mass when hanging in the borehole. The weakest point on a casing string is usually the joints, and material suitability is an important consideration for deep boreholes. For buoyant materials, the critical length when calculating the maximum extensional stress is the depth to the water table. 4.2.4 Hydrogeological considerations The depth to the water table influences the choice of drilling method, casing and screen materials. For the drilling technique, some materials may behave differently when saturated or unsaturated, and the drilling penetration rate and stra

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