This document provides standard procedures for the collection, handling and storage of soil for
subsequent biological testing under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. It applies to the collection,
handling and storage for assessing the effects of soil on microorganisms, invertebrates (e.g. survival,
reproduction, growth, behaviour) and plants (e.g. development, growth). This document is not
applicable to the handling of soil where anaerobic conditions need to be maintained throughout.
This document describes how to minimize the effects of differences in temperature, water content,
and availability of oxygen on aerobic processes as well as the fractionation of soil particles to facilitate
reproducible laboratory determinations[1][2].
This document is mainly applicable to temperate soils. Soils collected from extreme climates (e.g.
permafrost, tropical soils) can require special handling.
NOTE This document does not provide standard procedures on the collection, handling and storage of soil
organisms when assessing the structure and function of soil organism communities in the field. Such standard
procedures are provided in ISO 23611-1 to ISO 23611-6.

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This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed
guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on
— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.
It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other
properties (e.g. physical).
Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a
laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.
NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of
appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.
NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for
soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater
is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in
geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of unconsolidated sediments for the determination
of their geological, physical and chemical properties, as well as the determination of biological,
microbiological and chemical properties at the water and sediment interface. Guidance on achieving
sediment cores is given specifically for the measurement of rates of deposition and detailed strata
delineation. The main emphasis of this document is to provide methods that achieve sediment samples.
The environments considered are
— limnic (rivers, streams and lakes, natural and man-made), and
— estuarine, including harbours.
Industrial and sewage works for sludges, paleolimnological sampling and sampling of open ocean
sediments are specifically excluded from this document (and are addressed in ISO 5667-15), although
some techniques may apply to these situations. Sampling of suspended solids is outside the scope of
this document and reference can be made to ISO 5667-17 for such guidance.

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This document establishes general principles for packing, preservation, transport and delivery of
samples of soil and related materials with an emphasis on requirements for when chemical analysis
of the samples is required, but with the intention that the general procedures are to be adapted as
appropriate when other forms of testing are required (e.g. biological testing, physical tests on disturbed
or undisturbed samples). Special procedures for specific sampling purposes are given in other parts of
ISO 18400 (see also 7.2).
This document is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 18512.

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This document gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be
examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment
that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to
be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the
equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly
taken at different depths.
This document does not cover:
— investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil
quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined;
— sampling of hard strata such as bedrock;
— methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical
methods;
— collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International
Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series);
— investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400-204;
— investigation of radioactively contaminated sites.
NOTE 1 “Sampling technique” is defined in ISO 11074.
NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589
series.

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This International Standard specifies the pretreatments required for soil samples that are to be subjected to physico-chemical analyses of stable and non-volatile parameters and describes the following five types of pretreatment of samples: drying, crushing, sieving, dividing and milling. The pretreatment procedures described in this International Standard are not applicable if they affect the results of the determinations to be made. This International Standard is also not applicable to samples when volatile compounds are measured. In general, International Standards for analytical methods will state when it is necessary to adopt other procedures.

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This International Standard specifies an instrumental method for the routine determination of pH using a glass electrode in a 1:5 (volume fraction) suspension of soil in water (pH in H2O), in 1 mol/l potassium chloride solution (pH in KCL) or in 0,01 mol/l calcium chloride solution (pH in CaCl2). This International Standard is applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples, for example pretreated in accordance with ISO 11464.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the potential cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil buffered at pH = 8,1 and of the determination of the content of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in soil. Applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples.

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Specifies a method for the extraction, with aqua regia, of trace elements from soils and similar materials containing less than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon. Materials containing more than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon will require treatment with additional nitric acid. The resulting solution is suitable for the determination of trace elements using appropriate atomic spectrometric techniques.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the total nitrogen (ammonium-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N and organic N) content of a soil. Nitrogen in N-N-linkages, N-O-linkages and some heterocyclics (especially pyridine) is only partially determined. Applicable to all types of soils.

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Specifies an instrumental method for the routine determination of the specific electrical conductivity in an aqueous extract of soil. The determination is carried out to obtain an indication of the content of water-soluble electrolytes in a soil.

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The method specified can be applied to all types of soil samples. Different procedures are specified for air-dried soil samples, e.g. samples pretreated according to ISO 11464, and for field-moist soil samples. Its principle is drying soil samples to constant mass at 105 °C and using the difference in mass of an amount of soil before and after the drying procedure to calculate the dry matter and water contents on a mass basis. For the determination of soil water content on a volume basis, refer to ISO 11461.

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Specifies a method for the determination of carbonate content in soil samples. Applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the total carbon content in soil after dry combustion. The organic carbon content is calculated from this content after correcting for carbonates present in the sample. If carbonates are removed beforehand, the organic carbon content is measured directly. Applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples.

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Specifies a method for the determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the pH of the soil and for the determination of the content of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in soil. Is applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples; pretreatment according to ISO 11464 is recommended. The determination of CEC as specified here is a modification of the method by Gillman.

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Specifies two methods for the quantitative determination of mineral oil content in soil by IR spectrometry (method A) and gas chromatography (method B). Method A is applicable to mineral oil contents above 20 mg/kg on a dry matter basis, method B to those above 100 mg/kg. Petrol cannot be determined quantitatively with these methods, due to loss of volatile compounds during sample pretreatment. Weak polar compounds of recent biogenic origin may be determined as mineral oil. Relatively high contents of polar compounds give interferences in the determination. Halogenated hydrocarbons also may interfere.

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Specifies a method for the detection of Salmonella in water samples for monitoring purposes. Applicable to all kinds of water, except raw sewage.

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