Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object characterization (ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

This document defines terms related to the characterization of nano-objects in the field of
nanotechnologies.
It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry
and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6: Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten (ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt Begriffe im Zusammenhang mit der Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten auf dem Gebiet der Nanotechnologien fest. Damit soll die Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen und Einzelpersonen aus Forschung und Industrie und anderen interessierten Parteien und denen, die mit diesen interagieren, erleichtert werden.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 6. del: Karakterizacija nanoobjektov (ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Nov-2020
Publication Date
03-May-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Apr-2021
Due Date
27-Jun-2021
Completion Date
04-May-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 6. del: Karakterizacija nanoobjektov (ISO/TS 80004-
6:2021)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object characterization (ISO/TS 80004-

6:2021)

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6: Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten

(ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/TS

80004-6:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
CEN ISO/TS 80004-6
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
April 2021
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 01.040.07; 07.120 Supersedes CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object
characterization (ISO/TS 80004-6:2021)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6:

Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/TS 80004- Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten (ISO/TS 80004-

6:2021) 6:2021)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 December 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229

"Nanotechnologies" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 352 “Nanotechnologies” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-6
Second edition
2021-03
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2021
ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions (General terms) ........................................................................................................................................ 1

4 Terms related to size and shape measurement .................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape ...................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Terms related to scattering techniques ............................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Terms related to aerosol characterization ...................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Terms related to separation techniques ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Terms related to microscopy ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 Terms related to surface area measurement .............................................................................................................12

5 Terms related to chemical analysis ................................................................................................................................................13

6 Terms related to measurement of other properties ....................................................................................................18

6.1 Terms related to mass measurement ...............................................................................................................................18

6.2 Terms related to thermal measurement ........................................................................................................................18

6.3 Terms related to crystallinity measurement ..............................................................................................................19

6.4 Terms related to charge measurement in suspensions ....................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, in collaboration

with Technical Committee IEC/TC 113, Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems

and with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 352,

Nanotechnologies, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013), which has been

technically revised throughout.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TS 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
Introduction

Measurement and instrumentation techniques have effectively opened the door to modern

nanotechnology. Characterization is key to understanding the properties and function of all nano-

objects.

Nano-object characterization involves interactions between people with different backgrounds

and from different fields. Those interested in nano-object characterization might, for example, be

materials scientists, biologists, chemists or physicists, and might have a background that is primarily

experimental or theoretical. Those making use of the data extend beyond this group to include

regulators and toxicologists. To avoid any misunderstandings, and to facilitate both comparability and

the reliable exchange of information, it is essential to clarify the concepts, to establish the terms for use

and to establish their definitions.
The terms are classified under the following broad headings:
— Clause 3: General terms;
— Clause 4: Terms related to size and shape measurement;
— Clause 5: Terms related to chemical analysis;
— Clause 6: Terms related to measurement of other properties.

These headings are intended as a guide only, as some techniques can determine more than one property.

Subclause 4.1 lists the overarching measurands that apply to the rest of Clause 4. Other measurands are

more technique-specific and are placed in the text adjacent to the technique.

It should be noted that most techniques require analysis in a non-native state and involve sample

preparation, e.g. placing the nano-objects on a surface or placing them in a specific fluid or vacuum.

This could change the nature of the nano-objects.

The order of the techniques in this document should not be taken to indicate a preference and the

techniques listed in this document are not intended to be exhaustive. Equally, some of the techniques

listed in this document are more popular than others in their usage in analysing certain properties of

nano-objects. Table 1 lists alphabetically the common techniques for nano-object characterization.

Subclause 4.5 provides definitions of microscopy methods and related terms. When abbreviated terms

are used, note that the final “M”, given as “microscopy”, can also mean “microscope” depending on the

context. For definitions relating to the microscope, the word “method” can be replaced by the word

“instrument” where that appears.

Clause 5 provides definitions of terms related to chemical analysis. For these abbreviated terms, note

that the final “S”, given as “spectroscopy”, can also mean “spectrometer” depending on the context. For

definitions relating to the spectrometer, the word “method” can be replaced by the word “instrument”

where that appears.

This document is intended to serve as a starting reference for the vocabulary that underpins

measurement and characterization efforts in the field of nanotechnologies.
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Table 1 — Alphabetical list of the common techniques for nano-object characterization

Property Common techniques
Size centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS)
atomic-force microscopy (AFM)
differential mobility analysing system (DMAS)
dynamic light scattering (DLS)
variants of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
particle tracking analysis (PTA)
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Shape atomic-force microscopy (AFM)
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method
“Surface” chemistry Raman spectroscopy
secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Chemistry of the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)
“bulk” sample
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
Crystallinity selected area electron diffraction (SAED)
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Electrokinetic electrophoretic mobility
potential in
suspensions
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to the characterization of nano-objects in the field of

nanotechnologies.

It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry

and other interested parties and those who interact with them.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions (General terms)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.2
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.3
nanoparticle

nano-object (3.2) with all external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1) where the lengths of the longest

and the shortest axes of the nano-object do not differ significantly

Note 1 to entry: If the dimensions differ significantly (typically by more than three times), terms such as nanofibre

(3.6) or nanoplate (3.4) may be preferred to the term “nanoparticle”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.4]
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
3.4
nanoplate

nano-object (3.2) with one external dimension in the nanoscale (3.1) and the other two external

dimensions significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The larger external dimensions are not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: See 3.3, Note 1 to entry.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.6]
3.5
nanorod
solid nanofibre (3.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.7]
3.6
nanofibre

nano-object (3.2) with two external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1) and the third dimension

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: The terms “nanofibril” and “nanofilament” can also be used.
Note 3 to entry: See 3.3, Note 1 to entry.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.5]
3.7
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (3.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.8]
3.8
quantum dot

nanoparticle (3.3) or region which exhibits quantum confinement in all three spatial directions

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-12:2016, 4.1, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]

3.9
particle
minute piece of matter with defined physical boundaries
Note 1 to entry: A physical boundary can also be described as an interface.
Note 2 to entry: A particle can move as a unit.
Note 3 to entry: This general particle definition applies to nano-objects (3.2).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.1]
3.10
agglomerate

collection of weakly or medium strongly bound particles (3.9) where the resulting external surface area

is similar to the sum of the surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an agglomerate together are weak forces, for example van der Waals forces or

simple physical entanglement.

Note 2 to entry: Agglomerates are also termed “secondary particles” and the original source particles are termed

“primary particles”.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.4]
3.11
aggregate

particle (3.9) comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area

is significantly smaller than the sum of surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example covalent or ionic bonds,

or those resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement, or otherwise combined former primary

particles.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed “secondary particles” and the original source particles are termed

“primary particles”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.5]
3.12
aerosol
system of solid and/or liquid particles (3.9) suspended in gas
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2020, 3.1]
3.13
suspension

heterogeneous mixture of materials comprising a liquid and a finely dispersed solid material

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.246]
3.14
dispersion

multi-phase system in which discontinuities of any state (solid, liquid or gas: discontinuous phase) are

distributed in a continuous phase of a different composition or state

Note 1 to entry: This term also refers to the act or process of producing a dispersion; in this context the term

“dispersion process” should be used.

Note 2 to entry: If solid particles (3.9) are distributed in a liquid, the dispersion is referred to as a suspension (3.13).

If the dispersion consists of two or more immiscible liquid phases, it is termed an “emulsion”. A suspoemulsion

consists of both solid and liquid phases distributed in a continuous liquid phase.

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 13097:2013, 2.5, modified — In the definition, “in general, microscopic” has been

deleted and “distributed” has replaced “dispersed”. Notes 1 and 2 to entry have replaced the original

Note 1 to entry.]
4 Terms related to size and shape measurement
4.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape
4.1.1
particle size

linear dimension of a particle (3.9) determined by a specified measurement method and under specified

measurement conditions

Note 1 to entry: Different methods of analysis are based on the measurement of different physical properties.

Independent of the particle property actually measured, the particle size can be reported as a linear dimension,

e.g. as the equivalent spherical diameter.
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
4.1.2
particle size distribution

distribution of the quantity of particles (3.9) as a function of particle size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Particle size distribution may be expressed as cumulative distribution or a distribution density

(distribution of the fraction of material in a size class, divided by the width of that class).

Note 2 to entry: The quantity can be, for example, number, mass or volume based.
4.1.3
particle shape
external geometric form of a particle (3.9)

[SOURCE: ISO 3252:2019, 3.1.59, modified — “powder” has been deleted before “particle”.]

4.1.4
aspect ratio
ratio of length of a particle (3.9) to its width
[SOURCE: ISO 14966:2019, 3.7]
4.1.5
equivalent diameter

diameter of a sphere that produces a response by a given particle-size measurement method that is

equivalent to the response produced by the particle (3.9) being measured

Note 1 to entry: Physical properties are, for example, the same settling velocity or electrolyte solution displacing

volume or projection area under a microscope. The physical property to which the equivalent diameter refers

should be indicated using a suitable subscript (see ISO 9276-1:1998), e.g. subscript “V” for equivalent volume

diameter and subscript “S” for equivalent surface area diameter.

Note 2 to entry: For discrete-particle-counting, light-scattering instruments, an equivalent optical diameter is used.

Note 3 to entry: Other parameters, e.g. the effective density of the particle in a fluid, are used for the calculation

of the equivalent diameter such as Stokes diameter or sedimentation equivalent diameter. The parameters used

for the calculation should be reported additionally.

Note 4 to entry: For inertial instruments, the aerodynamic diameter is used. Aerodynamic diameter is the

diameter of a sphere of density 1 000 kg m that has the same settling velocity as the particle in question.

4.2 Terms related to scattering techniques
4.2.1
radius of gyration

measure of the distribution of mass about a chosen axis, given as the square root of the moment of

inertia about that axis divided by the mass

Note 1 to entry: For nano-object (3.2) characterization, physical methods that measure radius of gyration to

determine particle size (4.1.1) include static light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering (4.2.2) and small-angle

X-ray scattering (4.2.4).
[SOURCE: ISO 14695:2003, 3.4, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.2.2
small-angle neutron scattering
SANS

method in which a beam of neutrons is scattered from a sample and the scattered neutron intensity is

measured for small angle deflection

Note 1 to entry: The scattering angle is usually between 0,5° and 10° in order to study the structure of a material

on the length scale of approximately 1 nm to 200 nm. The method provides information on the sizes of the

particles (3.9) and, to a limited extent, the shapes of the particles dispersed in a homogeneous medium.

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4.2.3
neutron diffraction

application of elastic neutron scattering for the determination of the atomic or magnetic structure

of matter

Note 1 to entry: The neutrons emerging from the experiment have approximately the same energy as the incident

neutrons. A diffraction pattern is formed that provides information on the structure of the material.

4.2.4
small-angle X-ray scattering
SAXS

method in which the elastically scattered intensity of X-rays is measured for small-angle deflections

Note 1 to entry: The angular scattering is usually measured within the range 0,1° to 10°. This provides structural

information on macromolecules as well as periodicity on length scales typically larger than 5 nm and less than

200 nm for ordered or partially ordered systems.

[SOURCE: ISO 18115-1:2013, 3.18, modified — Notes 2 and 3 to entry have been deleted.]

4.2.5
light scattering

change in propagation of light at the interface of two media having different optical properties

4.2.6
hydrodynamic diameter

equivalent diameter (4.1.5) of a particle (3.9) in a liquid having the same diffusion coefficient as a

spherical particle with no boundary layer in that liquid

Note 1 to entry: In practice, nanoparticles (3.3) in solution can be non-spherical, dynamic and solvated.

Note 2 to entry: A particle in a liquid will have a boundary layer. This is a thin layer of fluid or adsorbates close

to the solid surface, within which shear stresses significantly influence the fluid velocity distribution. The fluid

velocity varies from zero at the solid surface to the velocity of free stream flow at a certain distance away from

the solid surface.
4.2.7
dynamic light scattering
DLS
photon correlation spectroscopy
PCS
DEPRECATED: quasi-elastic light scattering
DEPRECATED: QELS

method in which particles (3.9) in a liquid suspension (3.13) are illuminated by a laser and the time

dependant change in intensity of the scattered light due to Brownian motion is used to determine

particle size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent intensity of the scattered light can yield the translational

diffusion coefficient and hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (4.2.6) using the Stokes–Einstein

relationship.

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (3.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 1 nm to 6 000 nm. The upper limit is due to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.

Note 3 to entry: DLS is typically used in dilute suspensions where the particles do not interact amongst

themselves.
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2021(E)
4.2.8
nanoparticle tracking analysis
NTA
particle tracking analysis
PTA

method in which particles (3.9) undergoing Brownian and/or gravitational motion in a suspension (3.13)

are illuminated by a laser and the change in position of individual particles is used to determine particle

size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent particle position yields the translational diffusion coefficient and

hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (4.2.6) using the Stokes-Einstein relationship.

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (3.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 10 nm to 2 000 nm. The lower limit requires particles with high refractive index and the upper limit is due

to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.

Note 3 to entry: NTA is often used to describe PTA. NTA is a subset of PTA since PTA covers larger range of

particle sizes than nanoscale (3.1).
4.2.9
static multiple light scattering
SMLS

technique in which transmitted or backscattered light intensity is measured after multiple successive

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2020
01-november-2020

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 6. del: Karakterizacija nanoobjektov (ISO/PRF TS 80004-

6:2020)
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object characterization (ISO/PRF TS
80004-6:2020)

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6: Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten

(ISO/PRF TS 80004-6:2020)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/PRF TS

80004-6:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-6
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-6
Second edition
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in IEC/TC
113 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-6:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to size and shape measurement .................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape ...................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Terms related to scattering techniques ............................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Terms related to aerosol characterization ...................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Terms related to separation techniques ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Terms related to microscopy ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.6 Terms related to surface area measurement .............................................................................................................12

5 Terms related to chemical analysis ................................................................................................................................................13

6 Terms related to measurement of other properties ....................................................................................................17

6.1 Terms related to mass measurement ...............................................................................................................................17

6.2 Terms related to thermal measurement ........................................................................................................................18

6.3 Terms related to crystallinity measurement ..............................................................................................................18

6.4 Terms related to charge measurement in suspensions ....................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, in collaboration

with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 352,

Nanotechnologies, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013), which has been

technically revised throughout.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TS 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

Measurement and instrumentation techniques have effectively opened the door to modern

nanotechnology. Characterization is key to understanding the properties and function of all nano-

objects.

Nano-object characterization involves interactions between people with different backgrounds

and from different fields. Those interested in nano-object characterization might, for example, be

materials scientists, biologists, chemists or physicists, and might have a background that is primarily

experimental or theoretical. Those making use of the data extend beyond this group to include

regulators and toxicologists. To avoid any misunderstandings, and to facilitate both comparability and

the reliable exchange of information, it is essential to clarify the concepts, to establish the terms for use

and to establish their definitions.
The terms are classified under the following broad headings:
— Clause 3: General terms;
— Clause 4: Terms related to size and shape measurement;
— Clause 5: Terms related to chemical analysis;
— Clause 6: Terms related to measurement of other properties.

These headings are intended as a guide only, as some techniques can determine more than one property.

Subclause 4.1 lists the overarching measurands that apply to the rest of Clause 4. Other measurands are

more technique-specific and are placed in the text adjacent to the technique.

It should be noted that most techniques require analysis in a non-native state and involve sample

preparation, e.g. placing the nano-objects on a surface or placing them in a specific fluid or vacuum.

This could change the nature of the nano-objects.

The order of the techniques in this document should not be taken to indicate a preference and the

techniques listed in this document are not intended to be exhaustive. Equally, some of the techniques

listed in this document are more popular than others in their usage in analysing certain properties of

nano-objects. Table 1 lists alphabetically the common techniques for nano-object characterization.

Subclause 4.5 provides definitions of microscopy methods and related terms. For these abbreviated

terms, note that the final “M”, given as “microscopy”, can also mean “microscope” depending on the

context. For definitions relating to the microscope, the word “method” can be replaced by the word

“instrument” where that appears.

Clause 5 provides definitions of terms related to chemical analysis. For these abbreviated terms, note

that the final “S”, given as “spectroscopy”, can also mean “spectrometer” depending on the context. For

definitions relating to the spectrometer, the word “method” can be replaced by the word “instrument”

where that appears.

This document is intended to serve as a starting reference for the vocabulary that underpins

measurement and characterization efforts in the field of nanotechnologies.
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Table 1 — Alphabetical list of the common techniques for nano-object characterization

Property Common techniques
Size analytical centrifugation
atomic-force microscopy (AFM)
differential mobility analysing system (DMAS)
dynamic light scattering (DLS)
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Shape atomic-force microscopy (AFM)
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method
“Surface” chemistry Raman spectroscopy
secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Chemistry of the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)
“bulk” sample
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
Crystallinity selected area electron diffraction (SAED)
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Electrokinetic electrophoretic mobility
potential in
suspensions
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-6:2020(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to the characterization of nano-objects in the field of

nanotechnologies. It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in

research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.2
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.3
nanoparticle

nano-object (3.2) with all external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1) where the lengths of the longest

and the shortest axes of the nano-object do not differ significantly

Note 1 to entry: If the dimensions differ significantly (typically by more than three times), terms such as nanofibre

(3.6) or nanoplate (3.4) may be preferred to the term “nanoparticle”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.4]
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3.4
nanoplate

nano-object (3.2) with one external dimension in the nanoscale (3.1) and the other two external

dimensions significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The larger external dimensions are not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: See 3.3, Note 1 to entry.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.6]
3.5
nanorod
solid nanofibre (3.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.7]
3.6
nanofibre

nano-object (3.2) with two external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1) and the third dimension

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: The terms “nanofibril” and “nanofilament” can also be used.
Note 3 to entry: See 3.3, Note 1 to entry.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.5]
3.7
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (3.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.8]
3.8
quantum dot

nanoparticle (3.3) or region which exhibits quantum confinement in all three spatial directions

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-12:2016, 4.1, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]

3.9
particle
minute piece of matter with defined physical boundaries
Note 1 to entry: A physical boundary can also be described as an interface.
Note 2 to entry: A particle can move as a unit.
Note 3 to entry: This general particle definition applies to nano-objects (3.2).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.1]
3.10
agglomerate

collection of weakly or medium strongly bound particles (3.9) where the resulting external surface area

is similar to the sum of the surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an agglomerate together are weak forces, for example van der Waals forces or

simple physical entanglement.

Note 2 to entry: Agglomerates are also termed “secondary particles” and the original source particles are termed

“primary particles”.
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[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.4]
3.11
aggregate

particle (3.9) comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area

is significantly smaller than the sum of surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example covalent or ionic bonds,

or those resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement, or otherwise combined former primary

particles.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed “secondary particles” and the original source particles are termed

“primary particles”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.5]
3.12
aerosol
system of solid or liquid particles (3.9) suspended in gas
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.1]
3.13
suspension

heterogeneous mixture of materials comprising a liquid and a finely dispersed solid material

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.246]
3.14
dispersion

multi-phase system in which discontinuities of any state (solid, liquid or gas: discontinuous phase) are

distributed in a continuous phase of a different composition or state

Note 1 to entry: This term also refers to the act or process of producing a dispersion; in this context the term

“dispersion process” should be used.

Note 2 to entry: If solid particles (3.9) are distributed in a liquid, the dispersion is referred to as a suspension (3.13).

If the dispersion consists of two or more immiscible liquid phases, it is termed an “emulsion”. A suspoemulsion

consists of both solid and liquid phases distributed in a continuous liquid phase.

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 13097:2013, 2.5, modified — In the definition, “in general, microscopic” has been

deleted and “distributed” has replaced “dispersed”. Notes 1 and 2 to entry have replaced the original

Note 1 to entry.]
4 Terms related to size and shape measurement
4.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape
4.1.1
particle size

linear dimension of a particle (3.9) determined by a specified measurement method and under specified

measurement conditions

Note 1 to entry: Different methods of analysis are based on the measurement of different physical properties.

Independent of the particle property actually measured, the particle size can be reported as a linear dimension,

e.g. as the equivalent spherical diameter.
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4.1.2
particle size distribution

distribution of the quantity of particles (3.9) as a function of particle size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Particle size distribution may be expressed as cumulative distribution or a distribution density

(distribution of the fraction of material in a size class, divided by the width of that class).

Note 2 to entry: The quantity can be, for example, number, mass or volume based.
4.1.3
particle shape
external geometric form of a particle (3.9)

[SOURCE: ISO 3252:2019, 3.1.59, modified — “powder” has been deleted before “particle”.]

4.1.4
aspect ratio
ratio of length of a particle (3.9) to its width
[SOURCE: ISO 14966:2019, 3.7]
4.1.5
equivalent diameter

diameter of a sphere that produces a response by a given particle-size measurement method that is

equivalent to the response produced by the particle (3.9) being measured

Note 1 to entry: Physical properties are, for example, the same settling velocity or electrolyte solution displacing

volume or projection area under a microscope. The physical property to which the equivalent diameter refers

should be indicated using a suitable subscript (see ISO 9276-1:1998), e.g. subscript “V” for equivalent volume

diameter and subscript “S” for equivalent surface area diameter.

Note 2 to entry: For discrete-particle-counting, light-scattering instruments, an equivalent optical diameter is used.

Note 3 to entry: Other parameters, e.g. the effective density of the particle in a fluid, are used for the calculation

of the equivalent diameter such as Stokes diameter or sedimentation equivalent diameter. The parameters used

for the calculation should be reported additionally.

Note 4 to entry: For inertial instruments, the aerodynamic diameter is used. Aerodynamic diameter is the

diameter of a sphere of density 1 000 kg m that has the same settling velocity as the particle in question.

4.2 Terms related to scattering techniques
4.2.1
radius of gyration

measure of the distribution of mass about a chosen axis, given as the square root of the moment of

inertia about that axis divided by the mass

Note 1 to entry: For nano-object (3.2) characterization, physical methods that measure radius of gyration to

determine particle size (4.1.1) include static light scattering (4.2.5), small-angle neutron scattering (4.2.2) and

small-angle X-ray scattering (4.2.4).
[SOURCE: ISO 14695:2003, 3.4, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.2.2
small-angle neutron scattering
SANS

method in which a beam of neutrons is scattered from a sample and the scattered neutron intensity is

measured for small angle deflection

Note 1 to entry: The scattering angle is usually between 0,5° and 10° in order to study the structure of a material

on the length scale of approximately 1 nm to 200 nm. The method provides information on the sizes of the

particles (3.9) and, to a limited extent, the shapes of the particles dispersed in a homogeneous medium.

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4.2.3
neutron diffraction

application of elastic neutron scattering for the determination of the atomic or magnetic structure

of matter

Note 1 to entry: The neutrons emerging from the experiment have approximately the same energy as the incident

neutrons. A diffraction pattern is formed that provides information on the structure of the material.

4.2.4
small-angle X-ray scattering
SAXS

method in which the elastically scattered intensity of X-rays is measured for small-angle deflections

Note 1 to entry: The angular scattering is usually measured within the range 0,1° to 10°. This provides structural

information on macromolecules as well as periodicity on length scales typically larger than 5 nm and less than

200 nm for ordered or partially ordered systems.

[SOURCE: ISO 18115-1:2013, 3.18, modified — Notes 2 and 3 to entry have been deleted.]

4.2.5
light scattering

change in propagation of light at the interface of two media having different optical properties

4.2.6
hydrodynamic diameter

equivalent diameter (4.1.5) of a particle (3.9) in a liquid having the same diffusion coefficient as a

spherical particle with no boundary layer in that liquid

Note 1 to entry: In practice, nanoparticles (3.3) in solution can be non-spherical, dynamic and solvated.

Note 2 to entry: A particle in a liquid will have a boundary layer. This is a thin layer of fluid or adsorbates close

to the solid surface, within which shear stresses significantly influence the fluid velocity distribution. The fluid

velocity varies from zero at the solid surface to the velocity of free stream flow at a certain distance away from

the solid surface.
4.2.7
dynamic light scattering
DLS
photon correlation spectroscopy
PCS
DEPRECATED: quasi-elastic light scattering
DEPRECATED: QELS

method in which particles (3.9) in a liquid suspension (3.13) are illuminated by a laser and the time

dependant change in intensity of the scattered light due to Brownian motion is used to determine

particle size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent intensity of the scattered light can yield the translational

diffusion coefficient and hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (4.2.6) using the Stokes–Einstein

relationship.

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (3.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 1 nm to 6 000 nm. The upper limit is due to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.

Note 3 to entry: DLS is typically used in dilute suspensions where the particles do not interact amongst

themselves.
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4.2.8
nanoparticle tracking analysis
NTA
particle tracking analysis
PTA

method in which particles (3.9) undergoing Brownian and/or gravitational motion in a liquid suspension

(3.13) are illuminated by a laser and the change in position of individual particles is used to determine

particle size (4.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent particle position yields the translational diffusion coefficient and

hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (4.2.6) using the Stokes-Einstein relationship.

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (3.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 10 nm to 2 000 nm. The lower limit requires particles with high refractive index and the upper limit is due

to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.

Note 3 to entry: NTA is often used to describe PTA. NTA is a subset of PTA since PTA covers larger range of

particle sizes than nanoscale (3.1).
4.2.9
static multiple light scattering
SMLS

technique in which transmitted or backscattered light intensity is measured after multiple successive

scattering events of incident light in a medium

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 21357:—, 3.1, modified — “medium” has replaced “random scattering medium” in

the definition.]
4.3 Terms related to aerosol characterization
4.3.1
condensation particle counter
CPC

instrument that measures the particle (3.9) number concentration of an aerosol (3.12) using a

condensation effect to increase the size of the aerosolized particles

Note 1 to entry: The sizes of particles detected are usually smaller than several hundred nanometres and larger

than a few nanometres.

Note 2 to entry: A CPC is one possible detector suitable for use with a differential electrical mobility classifier

(DEMC) (4.3.2).

Note 3 to entry: In some cases, a condensation particle counter may be called a “condensation nucleus

counter (CNC)”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 12025:2012, 3.2.8, modified — Note 4 to entry has been deleted.]
4.3.2
differential electrical mobility classifier
DEMC

classifier that is able to select aerosol (3.12) particles (3.9) according to their electrical mobility and

pass them to its exit

Note 1 to entry: A DEMC classifies aerosol particles by balancing the electrical force on each particle with its

aerodynamic drag force in an electrical field. Classified particles are in a narrow range of electrical mobility

determined by the operating conditions and physical dimensions of the DEMC, while they can have different sizes

due to difference in the number of charges that they have.
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.7]
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/CD TS 21357:2020.
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4.3.3
differential mobility analysing system
DMAS

system to measure the size distribution of submicrometre aerosol (3.12) particles (3.9) consisting of a

differential electrical mobility classifier (DEMC) (4.3.2), flow meters, a particle detector, interconnecting

plumbing, a computer and suitable software
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.8]
4.3.4
Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer
FCAE

system designed for the measurement of electrical charges carried by aerosol (3.12) particles (3.9)

Note 1 to entry: A FCAE consists of an electrically conducting and electrically grounded cup as a guard to cover

the sensing element that includes aerosol filtering media to capture charged aerosol particles, an electrical

connection between the sensing element and an electrometer circuit, and a flow meter.

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.12, modified — “system” has replaced “electrometer” in the definition.]

4.4 Terms related to separation techniques
4.4.1
field-flow fractionation
FFF

separation technique whereby a field is applied to a liquid suspension (3.13) passing along a narrow

channel in order to cause separation of the particles (3.9) present in the liquid, dependent on their

differing mobility under the force exerted by the field

Note 1 to entry: The field can be, for example, gravitational, centrifugal, a liquid flow, electrical or magnetic.

Note 2 to entry: Using a suitable detector after or during separation allows determination of the size and size

distribution of nano-objects (3.2).
4.4.2
asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation
AF4

separation technique that uses a cross flow field applied perpendicular to the channel flow to achieve

separation based on analyte diffusion coefficient or size
Note 1 to entry: Cross flow occurs by means of a semipermeable (accumulatio
...

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