Textiles and textile products - Smart (Intelligent) textiles - Definitions, categorisation, applications and standardization needs (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

This document provides definitions in the field of “smart” textiles and textile products as well
as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of
development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential
standardization needs.

Textilien und textile Produkte - Intelligente Textilien - Definitionen, Klassifizierung, Anwendungen und Normungsbedarf (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Textiles et produits textiles - Textiles intelligents - Définitions, catégorisation, applications et besoins de normalisation (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Tekstilije in tekstilni izdelki - Inteligentne tekstilije - Definicije, kategorizacija, uporaba in standardizacijske potrebe (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Aug-2020
Publication Date
10-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Dec-2020
Due Date
27-Feb-2021
Completion Date
11-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
01-februar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16298:2012

Tekstilije in tekstilni izdelki - Inteligentne tekstilije - Definicije, kategorizacija,

uporaba in standardizacijske potrebe (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Textiles and textile products - Smart (Intelligent) textiles - Definitions, categorisation,

applications and standardization needs (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Textilien und textile Produkte - Intelligente Textilien - Definitionen, Klassifizierung,

Anwendungen und Normungsbedarf (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Textiles et produits textiles - Textiles intelligents - Définitions, catégorisation, applications

et besoins de normalisation (ISO/TR 23383:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
ICS:
59.080.80 Inteligentne tekstilije Smart textiles
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
CEN ISO/TR 23383
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
December 2020
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 01.040.59; 59.060.01 Supersedes CEN/TR 16298:2011
English Version
Textiles and textile products - Smart (Intelligent) textiles -
Definitions, categorisation, applications and
standardization needs (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

Textiles et produits textiles - Textiles intelligents - Textilien und textile Produkte - Intelligente Textilien -

Définitions, catégorisation, applications et besoins de Definitionen, Klassifizierung, Anwendungen und

normalisation (ISO/TR 23383:2020) Normungsbedarf (ISO/TR 23383:2020)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 6 September 2020. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

248.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38

"Textiles" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles and textile products” the

secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TR 16298:2011.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TR 23383:2020 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TR 23383:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 23383
First edition
2020-11
Textiles and textile products — Smart
(Intelligent) textiles— Definitions,
categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
Textiles et produits textiles — Textiles intelligents — Définitions,
catégorisation, applications et besoins de normalisation
Reference number
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Functional and smart textile products .......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Functional textile products .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile products ....................................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products ......................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products .................................................................................. 3

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products ............................................................................................................ 3

4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products ....................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances .......................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Chromic textile products ........................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Phase change textile products .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Textile products with active ingredients inside the microcapsules ..................................... 6

4.2.5 Shape change (shape memory) textile products .................................................................................. 6

4.2.6 Super-absorbing polymers and gels ............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Auxetic textile products ............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.8 Dilating and shear-thickening textile products ..................................................................................... 7

4.2.9 Piezoelectric textile products ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.10 Electroluminescent textile products ............................................................................................................... 7

4.2.11 Thermo-electric textile products ....................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.12 Photovoltaic textile products ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.13 Electrolytic textile products ................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.14 Capacitive textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Smart textile systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Categories .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Systems without energy or communication function (NoE-NoCom) ..............................11

5.1.3 Systems with energy function, but without communication function

(E-NoCom)..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Systems with communication function but without energy function (noE-Com) 11

5.1.5 With energy and communication function (E-Com) ......................................................................12

5.2 Examples of “Smart textile systems” and their functional analysis ........................................................12

5.2.1 Medical application: monitoring of health situation .....................................................................12

5.2.2 Occupational safety application: work wear and protective clothing ............................13

5.2.3 Leisure and fashion application .......................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Garment based on thermal control by phase change materials (PCM) .........................14

5.2.5 Heated garment, car seats, etc. for comfort or protection ........................................................14

5.2.6 Irradiation system for medical therapeutics ........................................................................................15

5.2.7 Geotextiles applications ..........................................................................................................................................16

6 Considerations for standardization ..............................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Verification of claimed performances ..............................................................................................................................17

6.3 Innocuousness ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Durability of properties ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
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6.6 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Examples of possible standardization of smart (intelligent) textile products and

systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.1 Smart (intelligent) textile products — Phase change materials (PCM) ........................19

6.7.2 Smart textile systems — Heating textile with temperature control .................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles, in collaboration with the

European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 248, Textiles and textile

products, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna

Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Introduction

Terms like “smart textile” and “intelligent textile” mean different things to different people. However,

there is a common agreement that these are textiles or textile products that possess additional intrinsic

and functional properties not normally associated with traditional textiles.

Although adjectives such as “smart” or “intelligent” are mainly intended for marketing purposes, more

technically correct definitions will not prevent the use of this terminology by textile manufacturers or

by the general public. Nor will the unintended inclusion of “non-smart” products make products any

less safe or fit for purpose.

The standardization of smart textiles or smart textile products or systems is not straightforward

because it involves an overlap between the standardization of the “traditional” textile product, e.g.

a fire fighter's jacket, and the standardization of the additional intrinsic functional properties of the

“smart product”. This overlap can manifest itself in a number of areas, possibly including:

— Expertise: the knowledge and experience of standardization for the textile properties and for the

additional properties (temperature sensing, variable thermal insulation properties) can come from

different unrelated standardization groups. To take the above example, there should be input from

standardization groups working in the areas of textiles, medical devices and electric or electronic

devices.

— Testing: there is a need to test the additional functional properties to specific textile test standards

and vice versa. Again, with the same example, the electronic elements should be assessed for their

resistance to cleaning and the textile elements need to be tested for electrical safety.

— Unexpected and/or unintended synergies: these might result from the combination of technologies

in smart textiles and need be recognized and addressed by standardization, wherever possible. For

example, the presence of conductive fibres to incorporate a personal stereo into a smart raincoat might

increase the risk of the wearer suffering a lightning-strike in a thunderstorm. This is despite the fact

that neither rainwear nor personal stereos, when separate, need to be assessed against this risk.

— Legislation: Certain textile product groups, e.g. protective clothing, geotextiles or textile floor

coverings, are in addition subject to specific national and/ or regional legislation. It can be necessary

to simultaneously address the requirements of legislation covering more than one product category.

For example, a “classic” fire fighter's suit needs comply with the requirements for personal protective

equipment, whereas a “smart” fire fighter's suit with built-in electronic and ICT features should also

comply with the applicable provisions for electronic equipment and ICT. Conformity assessment

will therefore need to follow the conformity assessment schemes for all applicable legal provisions.

The purpose of this document is to identify the considerations that need to be addressed when writing

standards for smart textiles or applying existing standards to them. This information can be of use to:

— end-users, in determining whether a product has indeed been fully assessed;

— conformity assessment bodies, as a guide towards assessing products according to the appropriate

standards;

— specification writers, as a guide to writing new specific standards for smart textiles;

— manufacturers of smart textiles, to advise them on appropriate product testing and on suitable

ways to substantiate product claims;

— market surveillance authorities, to help in the assessment of product claims, product safety and

fitness for purpose.

The factual information in this document is available elsewhere in a more comprehensive form and each

individual item will inevitably be common knowledge to at least one group of readers. The aim of this

document is to guide readers through those areas, with which they are not familiar, and to direct them

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

towards further, more specialized reading. In accordance with ISO rules, this document is intended to

be reviewed regularly to keep it in line with technical and market evolutions.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Textiles and textile products — Smart (Intelligent)
textiles— Definitions, categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
1 Scope

This document provides definitions in the field of “smart” textiles and textile products as well

as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of

development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential

standardization needs.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
textile fibre

unit of matter characterised by its flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to maximum transverse

dimension, which render it suitable for textile applications
[SOURCE: Regulation EU 1007/2011, Article 3, 1. (b), (i)]
3.2
textile product

product made of textile fibres (3.1), yarns and/ or fabrics and intended to be used, as such or in

conjunction with other textile or non-textile elements
3.3
functional textile product

textile product to which a specific function is added by means of material, composition, construction

and/or finishing (applying additives, etc.)
3.4
smart textile product
intelligent textile product
interactive textile product

functional textile product (3.3) which interacts reversibly with its environment, or responds or adapts

to changes in the environment

Note 1 to entry: The term “smart textile” can refer to either a “smart textile product” or a “smart textile system”.

Only the context, in which the term is used, determines which one of the two is intended.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
3.5
environment
surroundings

circumstances, objects, or conditions, which surround a textile material or textile product or the user of

that material or product
3.6
non-textile element
product which is not composed of textile fibres (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can include elements used for garment construction, for example slide

fastener(s), press stud(s), button(s), membranes, non-textile patches, prints, coatings, finishes.

Note 2 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can also include elements with functionalities listed in 4.1 and 4.2.

3.7
textile system
assemblage of textile product(s) and non-textile element(s)
3.8
smart textile system

textile-based system which exhibits an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to

changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input
4 Functional and smart textile products
4.1 Functional textile products
4.1.1 General

Functional textile products can be components of smart textile systems and hence functional textile

products, which are relevant for these smart textile systems, are discussed here. This is illustrated by

the following examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A textile resistance heater

— Functional textile product: a conductive material forming the basis of a resistance heater in a textile system.

— Smart textile system: a textile resistance heater as (part of) a textile system, connected to an electrical power

supply which can only be switched on and off manually or a resistance heater as part of a textile system,

connected to an electrical power supply with a regulated power output and equipped with a temperature

sensor as to maintain a constant temperature around the heater.
EXAMPLE 2 Optical fibres
— Functional textile product: optical fibres used as part of a textile system

— Smart textile system: optical fibres as (part of) a textile system, connected to a light source which can only

be switched on and off manually or optical fibres as part of a textile system, connected to a light source with

a regulated power output and equipped with a sensor to adjust the illumination level to the amount of light

present due to other light sources in the surroundings of the textile system.
4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile products

Electrically conductive textile product conducts an electrical current or supply an electric field to a

device. Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through an electrical

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 23383:2021
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

conductor, called an electric current. The charge transport can result as a response to an electric field

or as a result of a concentration gradient in carrier density, i.e. by diffusion.

NOTE A material is considered to have a "good electrical conductivity" if it has a specific conductivity

2 4

(resistivity) of > 10 S/m (<10 Ω·cm). A material is considered to have "ohmic behaviour" if its resistance

follows Ohms law, a fundamental law of electricity, stating that the voltage at the terminals of an ideal resistor

is proportional to the current in the resistor . The materials with the highest specific conductivity are metals.

Some polymers and ceramics can also show ohmic behaviour, e.g. intrinsically conductive polymers (e.g. doped

polyaniline) or indium tin oxide (ITO).
4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products

Thermally conductive textile products conduct heat. The transfer of thermal energy in a substance is

due to a temperature gradient, i.e. from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature,

acting to equalize temperature differences.

Metals have thermal conductivities above approximately 20 W/(m·K) and are considered to be very

good thermal conductors. Their thermal conductivity increases with their electrical conductivity.

There are also non-metallic elements and compounds that are (very) good thermal conductors (e.g.

carbon and boron nitride).

Applications in smart textile systems can be as a heat sink, e.g. for cooling electronic components.

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products

Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products radiate heat, i.e. they emit electromagnetic radiation in

the infrared range of 750 nm to 100 µm from their surface due to their temperature.

Thermal radiation (emission) can be utilized in the form of a resistance heater, where the resistance of

a conductor is used to heat the conductor to a sufficiently high temperature to generate heat radiation

or as a heat exchanger, e.g. a pipe with hot air or hot water flowing through it.

Applications in smart textile products are as thermal heaters, as described in 4.1.1.

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products

Optically conductive textile products transport (visible) light, i.e. electromagnetic radiation in the

range of 400 nm to 750 nm.

Optical fibres from glass or plastic keep the light in their core by total internal reflection, i.e. the fibre

acts as a waveguide. Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits

transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of

communications. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less

loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

Fibres are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry

images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibres are used for a variety of other

applications, including sensors and fibre lasers.
4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products

Fluorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, followed almost instantaneously by the emission

of a less energetic photon. As the emitted photon is of lower energy than the abs

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
01-julij-2020

Tekstilije in tekstilni izdelki - Inteligentne tekstilije - Definicije, kategorizacija,

uporaba in standardizacijske potrebe (ISO PRF/TR 23383:2020)

Textiles and textile products - Smart (Intelligent) textiles - Definitions, categorisation,

applications and standardization needs (ISO/DTR 23383:2020)

Textilien und textile Produkte - Intelligente Textilien - Definitionen, Klassifizierung,

Anwendungen und Normungsbedarf (ISO/DTR 23383:2020)

Textiles et produits textiles - Textiles intelligents - Définitions, catégorisation, applications

et besoins de normalisation (ISO/DTR 23383:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN ISO/TR 23383
ICS:
59.080.80 Inteligentne tekstilije Smart textiles
kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
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kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 23383
First edition
Textiles and textile products — Smart
(Intelligent) textiles— Definitions,
categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN ISO/TR 23383:2020
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Functional and smart textile products .......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Functional textile products .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile product ......................................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products ......................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products .................................................................................. 3

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products ............................................................................................................ 3

4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products ....................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances .......................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Chromic textile products ........................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Phase change textile products .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Textile products with active ingredients inside the microcapsules ..................................... 6

4.2.5 Shape change (shape memory) textile products .................................................................................. 6

4.2.6 Super-absorbing polymers and gels ............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Auxetic textile products ............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.8 Dilating and shear-thickening textile products ..................................................................................... 7

4.2.9 Piezoelectric textile products ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.10 Electroluminescent textile products ............................................................................................................... 7

4.2.11 Thermo-electric textile products ....................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.12 Photovoltaic textile products ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.13 Electrolytic textile products ................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.14 Capacitive textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Smart textile systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Categories .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Systems without energy or communication function (NoE-NoCom) ..............................11

5.1.3 Systems with energy function, but without communication function

(E-NoCom)..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Systems with communication function but without energy function (noE-Com) 11

5.1.5 With energy and communication function (E-Com) ......................................................................12

5.2 Examples of “Smart textile systems” and their functional analysis ........................................................12

5.2.1 Medical application: monitoring of health situation .....................................................................12

5.2.2 Occupational safety application: work wear and protective clothing ............................13

5.2.3 Leisure and fashion application .......................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Garment based on thermal control by phase change materials (PCM) .........................14

5.2.5 Heated garment, car seats, etc. for comfort or protection ........................................................14

5.2.6 Irradiation system for medical therapeutics ........................................................................................15

5.2.7 Geotextiles applications ..........................................................................................................................................16

6 Considerations for standardization ..............................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Verification of claimed performances ..............................................................................................................................17

6.3 Innocuousness ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Durability of properties ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................18

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6.6 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Examples of possible standardization of smart (intelligent) textile products and

systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.1 Smart (intelligent) textile products — Phase change materials (PCM) ........................19

6.7.2 Smart textile systems — Heating textile with temperature control .................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

Terms like “smart textile” and “intelligent textile” mean different things to different people. However,

there is a common agreement that these are textiles or textile products that possess additional intrinsic

and functional properties not normally associated with traditional textiles.

Although adjectives such as “smart” or “intelligent” are mainly intended for marketing purposes, more

technically correct definitions will not prevent the use of this terminology by textile manufacturers or

by the general public. Nor will the unintended inclusion of “non-smart” products make products any

less safe or fit for purpose.

The standardization of smart textiles or smart textile products or systems is not straightforward

because it involves an overlap between the standardization of the “traditional” textile product, e.g.

a fire fighter's jacket, and the standardization of the additional intrinsic functional properties of the

“smart product”. This overlap can manifest itself in a number of areas, possibly including:

— Expertise: the knowledge and experience of standardization for the textile properties and for the

additional properties (temperature sensing, variable thermal insulation properties) can come from

different unrelated standardization groups. To take the above example, there should be input from

standardization groups working in the areas of textiles, medical devices and electric or electronic

devices.

— Testing: there is a need to test the additional functional properties to specific textile test standards

and vice versa. Again, with the same example, the electronic elements should be assessed for their

resistance to cleaning and the textile elements need to be tested for electrical safety.

— Unexpected and/or unintended synergies: these might result from the combination of technologies

in smart textiles and need be recognized and addressed by standardization, wherever possible. For

example, the presence of conductive fibres to incorporate a personal stereo into a smart raincoat might

increase the risk of the wearer suffering a lightning-strike in a thunderstorm. This is despite the fact

that neither rainwear nor personal stereos, when separate, need to be assessed against this risk.

— Legislation: Certain textile product groups, e.g. protective clothing, geotextiles or textile floor

coverings, are in addition subject to specific national and/ or regional legislation. It can be necessary

to simultaneously address the requirements of legislation covering more than one product category.

For example, a “classic” fire fighter's suit needs comply with the requirements for personal protective

equipment, whereas a “smart” fire fighter's suit with built-in electronic and ICT features should also

comply with the applicable provisions for electronic equipment and ICT. Conformity assessment

will therefore need to follow the conformity assessment schemes for all applicable legal provisions.

The purpose of this document is to identify the considerations that need to be addressed when writing

standards for smart textiles or applying existing standards to them. This information can be of use to:

— end-users, in determining whether a product has indeed been fully assessed;

— conformity assessment bodies, as a guide towards assessing products according to the appropriate

standards;

— specification writers, as a guide to writing new specific standards for smart textiles;

— manufacturers of smart textiles, to advise them on appropriate product testing and on suitable

ways to substantiate product claims;

— market surveillance authorities, to help in the assessment of product claims, product safety and

fitness for purpose.

The factual information in this document is available elsewhere in a more comprehensive form and each

individual item will inevitably be common knowledge to at least one group of readers. The aim of this

document is to guide readers through those areas, with which they are not familiar, and to direct them

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towards further, more specialized reading. In accordance with ISO rules, this document is intended to

be reviewed regularly to keep it in line with technical and market evolutions.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Textiles and textile products — Smart (Intelligent)
textiles— Definitions, categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
1 Scope

This document provides definitions in the field of “smart” textiles and textile products as well

as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of

development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential

standardization needs.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
textile fibre

unit of matter characterised by its flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to maximum transverse

dimension, which render it suitable for textile applications
[SOURCE: Regulation EU 1007/2011, Article 3, 1. (b), (i)]
3.2
textile product

product made of textile fibres (3.1), yarns and/ or fabrics and intended to be used, as such or in

conjunction with other textile or non-textile elements
3.3
functional textile product

textile product to which a specific function is added by means of material, composition, construction

and/or finishing (applying additives, etc.)
3.4
smart textile product
intelligent textile product
interactive textile product

functional textile product (3.3) which interacts reversibly with its environment, or responds or adapts

to changes in the environment

Note 1 to entry: The term “smart textile” can refer to either a “smart textile product” or a “smart textile system”.

Only the context, in which the term is used, determines which one of the two is intended.

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3.5
environment
surroundings

circumstances, objects, or conditions, which surround a textile product or textile product or the user of

that material or product
3.6
non-textile element
product which is not composed of textile fibres (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can include elements used for garment construction, for example slide

fastener(s), press stud(s), button(s), membranes, non-textile patches, prints, coatings, finishes.

Note 2 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can also include elements with functionalities listed in 4.1 and 4.2.

3.7
textile system
assemblage of textile product(s) and non-textile element(s)
3.8
smart textile system

textile-based system which exhibits an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to

changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input
4 Functional and smart textile products
4.1 Functional textile products
4.1.1 General

Functional textile products can be components of smart textile systems and hence functional textile

products, which are relevant for these smart textile systems, are discussed here. This is illustrated by

the following examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A textile resistance heater

— Functional textile product: a conductive material forming the basis of a resistance heater in a textile system.

— Smart textile system: a textile resistance heater as (part of) a textile system, connected to an electrical power

supply which can only be switched on and off manually or a resistance heater as part of a textile system,

connected to an electrical power supply with a regulated power output and equipped with a temperature

sensor as to maintain a constant temperature around the heater.
EXAMPLE 2 Optical fibres
— Functional textile product: optical fibres used as part of a textile system

— Smart textile system: optical fibres as (part of) a textile system, connected to a light source which can only

be switched on and off manually or optical fibres as part of a textile system, connected to a light source with

a regulated power output and equipped with a sensor to adjust the illumination level to the amount of light

present due to other light sources in the surroundings of the textile system.
4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile product

Electrically conductive textile product conducts an electrical current or supply an electric field to a

device. Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through an electrical

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conductor, called an electric current. The charge transport can result as a response to an electric field

or as a result of a concentration gradient in carrier density, i.e. by diffusion.

NOTE A material is considered to have a "good electrical conductivity" if it has a specific conductivity

2 4

(resistivity) of > 10 S/m (<10 Ω·cm). A material is considered to have "ohmic behaviour" if its resistance

follows Ohms law, a fundamental law of electricity, stating that the voltage at the terminals of an ideal resistor

is proportional to the current in the resistor . The materials with the highest specific conductivity are metals.

Some polymers and ceramics can also show ohmic behaviour, e.g. intrinsically conductive polymers (e.g. doped

polyaniline) or indium tin oxide (ITO).
4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products

Thermally conductive textile products conduct heat. The transfer of thermal energy in a substance is

due to a temperature gradient, i.e. from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature,

acting to equalize temperature differences.

Metals have thermal conductivities above approximately 20 W/(m·K) and are considered to be very

good thermal conductors. Their thermal conductivity increases with their electrical conductivity.

There are also non-metallic elements and compounds that are (very) good thermal conductors (e.g.

carbon and boron nitride).

Applications in smart textile systems can be as a heat sink, e.g. for cooling electronic components.

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products

Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products radiate heat, i.e. they emit electromagnetic radiation in

the infrared range of 750 nm to 100 µm from their surface due to their temperature.

Thermal radiation (emission) can be utilized in the form of a resistance heater, where the resistance of

a conductor is used to heat the conductor to a sufficiently high temperature to generate heat radiation

or as a heat exchanger, e.g. a pipe with hot air or hot water flowing through it.

Applications in smart textile products are as thermal heaters, as described in 4.1.1.

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products

Optically conductive textile products transport (visible) light, i.e. electromagnetic radiation in the

range of 400 nm to 750 nm.

Optical fibres from glass or plastic keep the light in their core by total internal reflection, i.e. the fibre

acts as a waveguide. Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits

transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of

communications. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less

loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

Fibres are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry

images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibres are used for a variety of other

applications, including sensors and fibre lasers.
4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products

Fluorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, followed almost instantaneously by the emission

of a less energetic photon. As the emitted photon is of lower energy than the absorbed photon, the

emitted light will be of longer wavelength than the absorbed light, which allows, for example, to turn

UV radiation into visible light.
1) www .electropedia .org IEV ref 131–15–08.
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Fluorescence is used in high visibility clothing for safety purposes. Fluorescent textile products are

available in a variety of colours from red to blue-violet. A variety of organic and inorganic materials

show fluorescence.
4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products

Phosphorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, resulting in the formation of an excited state,

followed by the emission of a less energetic photon. Since the emitted photon is of lower energy than

the absorbed photon, the emitted light will be of longer wavelength. The lifetime of the excited state

in phosphorescent materials can be very long, in the order of hours. This means that once activated,

phosphorescent materials will continue to emit light for hours without any external power supply. This

makes them suitable for emergency lighting in the case of power interruptions or for watches, toys,

apparel, giving a "glow in the dark" effect.

Examples of phosphorescent materials are doped (mixed) sulphides (ZnS, (Cd, Zn)S, (Ca, Sr)S) or doped

(mixed) oxides (SrAl O ) but can also be organic molecules.
2 4
4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances

These textile products release substances at a molecular level under the influence of an external

stimulus. The substances used for this purpose are pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, fragrances, etc. They

are bonded to the textile structure by micro-encapsulation or by surface bonding.

[1]

NOTE Some of these textiles are referred to as cosmetotextiles (see CEN/TR 15917 ).

The micro-encapsulation technique makes use of small capsules, in which the substance to be released

is enclosed. When the shell of these capsules is pierced due to an external stimulus, the substance is

released. The different stimuli that can cause piercing of the shell include mechanical force, heat, pH

and contact with water.

The surface bonding technique makes use of substances (loosely) bonded to the surface of the textile

products and released during the use of this material. The nature of the bonding and the surroundings

of the material determines the release rate.
4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products
4.2.1 General

In this subclause, examples (non-exhaustive) for different smart (intelligent) textile products are

described. The described textile products (see 4.2.2 to 4.2.14) can be used on their own or in combination

with other (non)smart textile products or used in textile systems. The latter are described in Clause 5.

NOTE Some of the smart functionalities can also be achieved by non-textile elements. Therefore,

...

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