Sustainability of construction works - Assessment of economic performance of buildings - Calculation methods

This European Standard specifies the calculation methods, based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and other quantified economic information, to assess the economic performance of a building, and gives the means for the reporting and communication of the outcome of the assessment. This European Standard is applicable to new and existing buildings and refurbishment projects.
This European Standard gives:
—   the description of the object of assessment;
—   the system boundary that applies at the building level;
—   the scope and procedure to be used for the analysis;
—   the list of indicators and procedures for the calculations of these indicators;
—   the requirements for presentation of the results in reporting and communication;
—   and the requirements for the data necessary for the calculation.
The approach to the assessment covers all stages of the building life cycle and includes all building related construction products, processes and services, used over the life cycle of the building.
The interpretation and value judgments of the results of the assessment are not within the scope of this European Standard.

Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken - Bewertung der ökonomischen Qualität von Gebäuden - Berechnungsmethoden

Diese Europäische Norm legt Berechnungsmethoden zur Bewertung der ökonomischen Qualität eines Gebäudes fest und stellt basierend auf den Lebenszykluskosten (en: Life Cycle Costing, LCC) und anderen quantifizierten ökonomischen Daten fest und stellt Hilfsmittel für das Berichtswesen und die Kommunikation des Ergebnisses dieser Bewertung zur Verfügung. Diese Europäische Norm gilt für neue und bereits bestehende Gebäude sowie für Modernisierungen.
Diese Europäische Norm enthält:
   die Beschreibung des Zwecks der Bewertung;
   die auf der Gebäudeebene geltende Systemgrenze;
   den Anwendungsbereich und das bei der Analyse anzuwendende Verfahren;
   eine Liste von Indikatoren und Verfahren zur Berechnung dieser Indikatoren;
   die Anforderungen an die Darstellung der Ergebnisse im Berichtswesen und bei der Kommunikation; und
   die Anforderungen an die für die Berechnung benötigten Daten.
Dieser Bewertungsansatz deckt alle Phasen des Gebäudelebenszyklus ab und schließt sämtliche im Verlauf des gesamten Lebenszyklus des betreffenden Gebäudes verwendeten gebäudebezogenen Bauprodukte,  prozesse und  dienstleistungen mit ein.
Die Auslegung und Beurteilung der Ergebnisse der Bewertung liegen nicht im Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm.

Contribution des ouvrages de construction au développement durable - Evaluation de la performance économique des bâtiments - Méthodes de calcul

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les méthodes de calcul fondées sur l'approche en coût global (LCC) et d’autres informations économiques quantifiées, qui permettent d’évaluer la performance économique d’un bâtiment. Elle indique également les outils requis pour la production de rapports et la communication des résultats de cette évaluation. La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux bâtiments neufs et existants, ainsi qu’aux projets de réhabilitation.
Cette Norme européenne précise :
-   la description de l’objet de l’évaluation ;
-   la frontière du système qui s’applique à l’échelle du bâtiment ;
-   le domaine d'application et la procédure à suivre pour l'analyse ;
-   la liste des indicateurs et de leurs procédures de calcul ;
-   les exigences relatives à la présentation des résultats dans les rapports et la communication ;
-   et les exigences relatives aux données nécessaires aux calculs.
L'approche adoptée pour l'évaluation couvre toutes les phases du cycle de vie du bâtiment et inclut tous les produits de construction, processus et services liés au bâtiment et utilisés tout au long du cycle de vie de ce bâtiment.
L’interprétation et les jugements de valeur des résultats de l’évaluation n’entrent pas dans le domaine d’application de la présente Norme européenne.

Trajnostnost gradbenih objektov - Ocenjevanje ekonomskih lastnosti stavb - Računska metoda

Ta evropski standard določa računsko metodo, ki temelji na izračunu stroškov v življenjskem cilku (LCC) in drugih količinsko določenih ekonomski informacij, za ocenjevanje ekonomskih lastnosti stavb, in podaja sredstva za poročanje in komunikacijo o rezultatu ocene. Ta evropski standard se uporablja za nove in obstoječe zgradbe in obnovitvene projekte.
Ta evropski standard določa:
– opis predmeta ocene;
– mejo sistema, ki velja za raven stavbe;
– področje uporabe in postopek za analizo;
– seznam indikatorjev in postopkov za izračune teh indikatorjev;
– zahteve za predstavitev rezultatov pri poročanju in komuniciranju;
– zahteve za podatke, ki so potrebni za izračun.
Pristop k oceni zajema vse faze življenjskega cikla stavbe in vključuje vse gradbene proizvode, postopke in storitve, povezane s stavbo, uporabljene v celotnem življenjskem ciklu stavbe.
Razlage in vrednostne ocene rezultatov niso zajete v tem evropskem standardu

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Oct-2013
Publication Date
04-Aug-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Jul-2015
Due Date
10-Sep-2015
Completion Date
05-Aug-2015

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken - Bewertung der ökonomischen Qualität von Gebäuden - BerechnungsmethodenContribution des ouvrages de construction au développement durable - Evaluation de la performance économique des bâtiments - Méthodes de calculSustainability of construction works - Assessment of economic performance of buildings - Calculation methods91.040.01Stavbe na splošnoBuildings in general13.020.20Okoljevarstvena ekonomikaEnvironmental economicsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16627:2015SIST EN 16627:2015en,fr,de01-september-2015SIST EN 16627:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16627:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16627
June 2015 ICS 91.040.01 English Version

Sustainability of construction works - Assessment of economic performance of buildings - Calculation methods

Contribution des ouvrages de construction au développement durable - Évaluation de la performance économique des bâtiments - Méthodes de calcul

Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken - Bewertung der ökonomischen Qualität von Gebäuden - Berechnungsmethoden This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 March 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16627:2015 ESIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................9 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................9 3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................ 10 4 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................... 19 5 The process for setting up the calculations required for the assessment ................................... 20 6 Purpose of the assessment ............................................................................................................... 21 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21 6.2 Expected users ................................................................................................................................... 21 7 Specification of the object of assessment ....................................................................................... 21 7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21 7.2 Functional equivalent ......................................................................................................................... 22 7.3 Reference study period ...................................................................................................................... 23 7.4 System boundary ................................................................................................................................ 24 7.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 24 7.4.2 Boundary of the before use stage (Modules A0-A5) ....................................................................... 25 7.4.3 Boundaries of the use stage (Modules B1 – B7) ............................................................................. 28 7.4.4 Boundary of the end of life stage (Modules C1 – C4) ..................................................................... 32 7.4.5 Boundary for the benefits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D)) ........................ 34 7.5 The building model ............................................................................................................................. 34 7.5.1 Purpose and information needed ...................................................................................................... 34 7.5.2 Description of the physical characteristics of the building ........................................................... 35 8 Scenarios for defining the building life cycle .................................................................................. 36 8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 36 8.2 Requirements for scenarios .............................................................................................................. 36 8.3 Time-related characteristics and associated scenarios ................................................................. 36 8.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 36 8.3.2 Climate conditions .............................................................................................................................. 37 8.3.3 Other specific requirements for scenarios ...................................................................................... 37 8.4 Scenarios for the pre-construction stage (Module A0)................................................................... 37 8.5 Scenarios for the product and construction process stages (Modules A1 – A5) ........................ 37 8.6 Scenarios for use stage (modules B1 to B7) ................................................................................... 38 8.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 38 8.6.2 Scenario related to use stage (except energy and water) – Module B1 ........................................ 38 8.6.3 Scenarios for maintenance, repair, replacement – Module B2, B3 and B4 .................................. 38 8.6.4 Scenarios for refurbishment – Module B5 ....................................................................................... 39 8.6.5 Scenarios for operational energy use – Module B6 ........................................................................ 39 8.6.6 Scenarios for operational water use (Module B7) ........................................................................... 39 8.7 Scenarios for the end of life stage (Modules C1 to C4) .................................................................. 40 8.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 40 8.7.2 Scenarios for deconstruction – Module C1 ..................................................................................... 40 8.7.3 Scenarios for transport – Module C2 ................................................................................................ 40 8.7.4 Scenarios for waste processing for reuse, recycling and energy recovery – Module C3 .......... 40 8.7.5 Scenarios for disposal – Module C4 ................................................................................................. 40 SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 3 8.8 Scenarios beyond the system boundary – Module D ...................................................................... 40 9 Calculation of costs and income related to the building over its life cycle .................................. 41 9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 41 9.2 Calculation of pre-construction costs ............................................................................................... 41 9.3 Calculation of construction costs ..................................................................................................... 41 9.4 Calculation of costs of operation in use, maintenance and repair (B1-B3) .................................. 43 9.5 Calculating costs for replacements (B4) ........................................................................................... 45 9.5.1 Components that will not be replaced under defined conditions .................................................. 45 9.5.2 Replaceable components and costs ................................................................................................. 45 9.5.3 Cost of replacements .......................................................................................................................... 46 9.6 Calculation of energy costs (B6) ....................................................................................................... 46 9.7 Calculation of costs of operational water use .................................................................................. 47 9.8 Calculation of additional cost and income related information (information module D) ............ 47 9.9 VAT ........................................................................................................................................................ 47 10 Selection of economic data for economic assessment .................................................................. 47 10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 47 10.2 Specification of the discount rate ...................................................................................................... 47 10.3 Escalation rates ................................................................................................................................... 48 10.4 Data quality .......................................................................................................................................... 48 11 Calculation of the economic indicators ............................................................................................ 48 11.1 Methods for assessing the economic indicators ............................................................................. 48 11.2 Calculation of the discount factor ..................................................................................................... 49 11.3 Net Present Value (NPV), Net Present Cost (NPC) ........................................................................... 49 11.4 Annual Cost and Annual Equivalent Value (AC or AEV) ................................................................. 49 11.5 Other economic indicators ................................................................................................................. 49 11.6 Costs and related indicators .............................................................................................................. 49 11.7 Calculation methods ........................................................................................................................... 49 12 Reporting of the assessment of results ............................................................................................ 50 12.1 General information on the assessment ........................................................................................... 50 12.2 General information on the object of assessment ........................................................................... 50 12.3 Statement of boundaries and scenarios used in the assessment ................................................. 51 12.4 Data sources ........................................................................................................................................ 51 12.5 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................... 51 12.6 Communication of assessment results ............................................................................................ 52 13 Verification of results .......................................................................................................................... 52 Annex A (informative)

Example building description ................................................................................... 54 Annex B (informative)

Exported energy – Case studies ............................................................................... 56 B.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 56 B.2 Case 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 56 B.3 Case 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 57 B.4 Case 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 57 B.5 Case 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 58 Annex C (informative)

Additional indicators to assess the economic performance of buildings – Rules for assessment ......................................................................................................................... 60 C.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 60 C.2 Value stability and performance ........................................................................................................ 60 C.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 60 C.2.2 Value stability in a short-term perspective ....................................................................................... 60 C.2.3 Value stability and performance in a medium-to long-term perspective ...................................... 60 C.2.4 Additional economic indicators used in ISO 15686-5 ...................................................................... 61 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 62

SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 16627:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 350 “Sustainability of construction works”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2015 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2015. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 5 Introduction The purpose of this European Standard is to provide calculation rules for the assessment of the economic performance of new and existing buildings as one part of an assessment of the sustainability of the building. It complements the European Standard EN 15643-4. In EN 15643-4 the following economic assessment indicators are described: This standard describes the methods and the rules for calculating the cash flows over the life cycle of buildings, with an emphasis on the field of life cycle costing. Principles developed in ISO 15686-5 are included, but have been adapted for sustainability assessment in the European context. This standard describes two approaches to the calculation of economic performance: a) Life Cycle Costing: Economic performance expressed in cost terms over the life cycle, taking account of negative costs related to energy exports and from re-use and recycling of parts of the building during its life cycle and at the end of life. Calculation of this indicator is mandatory for compliance with the standard. b) Life cycle economic balance: Life Cycle Costing (see above) and in addition incomes over the life cycle and at the end of life. Calculation of this additional indicator is optional for compliance with the standard. NOTE 1 Annex C describes a further optional approach, value stability. This European Standard is part of a suite of European Standards, Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for the assessment of the economic performance of buildings that together support quantification of the contribution of the assessed building to sustainable construction and sustainable development. The economic performance of a building is only one aspect of its sustainability. The environmental and social performance of the building are also aspects of sustainability that are assessed as part of a sustainability assessment. These are described in the framework standards (EN 15643-1, EN 15643-2, and EN 15643-3, EN 15643-4). NOTE 2 The economic assessment is undertaken at the building level. However, it requires technical and cost information about individual products and components within the building and its services and systems, including service life data, type and frequency of inspection, replacement, cleaning, maintenance and repair, and deconstruction and disposal. This information is used as input quantities for the calculation of cost in the life cycle of buildings. The evaluation of technical and functional performance is beyond the scope of this European Standard. Technical and functional characteristics are taken into account here by reference to the functional equivalent, which also forms a basis for comparison of the results of assessments. This European Standard is intended to support the decision-making process and documentation of the assessment of the economic performance of a building. Although the assessment results are based on realistic scenarios, they may not fully reflect the actual and future performance of the building. Figure 1 illustrates how the assessment of the economic performance takes place within the concept of the sustainability assessment of buildings. SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 6

Figure 1 — Concept of sustainability assessment of buildings In this European Standard, the assessment method for the quantitative evaluation of the economic performance of the building is based on a life cycle, cash flow approach. The general requirements for sustainability assessment of buildings are described in EN 15643-1 (the general framework standard). It is important to use a consistent model for describing and recording the building and its life cycle for assessing the environmental, social and economic performance. The same reference study period is used for all three elements of the assessment. Additional specific requirements for the assessment of economic performance are given in EN 15643-4, including additional pre-construction activity and costs such as site costs and professional fees, which are quantified and reported in the additional information module A0. The calculation of economic indicators uses a model of the building and its life cycle with associated time and financial costs. An economic performance assessment supports a complete sustainability assessment, including an environmental or social performance assessment or both. The economic assessment can also provide data for: — budgeting, by estimation of future maintenance or operational costs; — tendering, e.g. by estimation of future cleaning costs sensitivity analysis, e.g. estimation of future energy costs (nominal values); — estimating end of life costs and waste streams; — specific economic analyses (e.g. cost benefit analysis); SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 7 — assigning cash flows to individual actors (landlord/tenant); — applying methods of valuation (e.g. investment appraisal). Other European Standards developed by CEN/TC 350 in this area, and how they are related to this European Standard, are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — Work program of CEN/TC 350 NOTE 3 This European Standard is intended for use to assess the economic aspects of sustainable performance of a building. This is a distinct activity from the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 244/2012 of 16 January 2012 supplementing Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, which is a methodology for the setting of energy performance standards in national and regional building regulations by Member States, and not for use on specific buildings. SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 8 NOTE 4 EN 15459 is the European Standard which provides a calculation method for the costs of heating systems and other systems that are involved in the energy use of a building. It does not address the calculation of the whole economic impact of a building. SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 9 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the calculation methods, based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and other quantified economic information, to assess the economic performance of a building, and gives the means for the reporting and communication of the outcome of the assessment. This European Standard is applicable to new and existing buildings and refurbishment projects. This European Standard gives: — the description of the object of assessment; — the system boundary that applies at the building level; — the scope and procedure to be used for the analysis; — the list of indicators and procedures for the calculations of these indicators; — the requirements for presentation of the results in reporting and communication; — and the requirements for the data necessary for the calculation. The approach to the assessment covers all stages of the building life cycle and includes all building related construction products, processes and services, used over the life cycle of the building. The interpretation and value judgments of the results of the assessment are not within the scope of this European Standard. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 15603:2008, Energy performance of buildings — Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings EN 15643-1, Sustainability of construction works — Sustainability assessment of buildings — Part 1: General framework EN 15643-2:2011, Sustainability of construction works — Assessment of buildings — Part 2: Framework for the assessment of environmental performance EN 15643-3, Sustainability of construction works — Assessment of buildings — Part 3: Framework for the assessment of social performance EN 15643-4:2012, Sustainability of construction works — Assessment of buildings — Part 4: Framework for the assessment of economic performance ISO 15392:2008, Sustainability in building construction — General principles ISO 15686-1:2011, Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning — Part 1: General principles and framework ISO 15686-2, Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning — Part 2: Service life prediction procedures SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 10 ISO 15686-7, Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning — Part 7: Performance evaluation for feedback of service life data from practice ISO 15686-8:2008, Buildings and constructed assets — Service-life planning — Part 8: Reference service life and service-life estimation 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 15643-2:2011, EN 15643-4:2012, ISO 15686-1:2011 and the following apply. 3.1 assembled system part of works component or set of components incorporated in the construction works Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definitions in the Construction Products Directive (CPD) Guidance Paper C and from the definition of "construction" in ISO 6707-1:2014, 5.5.6. 3.2 brief written document that states the client’s requirements for a construction project [SOURCE: ISO 6707-2:2014, 3.1] 3.3 building construction works that has the provision of shelter for its occupants or contents as one of its main purposes and is usually enclosed and designed to stand permanently in one place [SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 3.1.3] 3.4 building fabric all construction products that are fixed to the building in a permanent manner, so that the dismantling of the product decreases the performance of the building and the dismantling or replacement of the product constitute construction operations 3.5 building site specified area of land where a building is located or is defined to be located and construction work of the building and associated external works are undertaken Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition of site in ISO 6707-1:2014, 3.1.6. 3.6 built environment collection of buildings, external works (landscape area), infrastructure and other construction works within an area Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition of environment in ISO 6707-1:2014, 10.3. SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 11 3.7 client person or organization that requires a building to be provided, altered or extended and is responsible for initiating and approving the brief [SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 8.3] 3.8 component construction product manufactured as a distinct unit to serve a specific function or functions [SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 6.1.3] 3.9 construction product item manufactured or processed for incorporation in construction works Note 1 to entry: Construction products are items supplied by a single responsible body. Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the definition in ISO 6707-1:2014, 6.1.2 according to the recommendation of ISO/TC59/AHG Terminology. 3.10 construction work activities of forming a construction works [SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 7.1.1] 3.11 construction works everything that is constructed or results from construction operations Note 1 to entry: This covers both building and civil engineering works, and both structural and non-structural elements. Note 2 to entry: Adapted from the definition in ISO 6707-1:2014, 3.1.1. 3.12 decommissioning activities that change a building or an assembled system (part of works) from an operational status to a non-operational status 3.13 delivered energy total energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the technical building system through the system boundary to satisfy the uses taken into account (heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting, appliances etc.) or to produce electricity Note 1 to entry: For active solar and wind energy systems the incident solar radiation on solar panels or on solar collectors or the kinetic energy of wind is not part of the energy balance of the building. Renewable energy produced on site is part of the delivered energy. Note 2 to entry: Delivered energy can be calculated for defined energy uses or it can be measured. [SOURCE: EN 15603:2008, 3.3.4] SIST EN 16627:2015

EN 16627:2015 (E) 12 3.14 design life service life intended by the designer [SOURCE: ISO 15686-1:2011, 3.3] 3.15 disposal waste treatment operation other than recovery Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition in Directive 2008/98/EC. 3.16 durability ability to maintain require

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