Corrosion of metals and alloys - Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water salt-deposition process - "Dry" and "wet" conditions at constant absolute humidity (ISO 16539:2013)

This document specifies two accelerated corrosion test procedures, Methods A and B, for the evaluation of corrosion behaviour of surface-treated metals and their alloys with and without paint on them in atmospheric environments. It also specifies the apparatus used. The two tests involve salt deposition and dry/wet conditions at a constant absolute humidity.
Method A applies to: metals and their alloys (including corrosion-resistance alloys)
Method B applies to: metals and their alloys; metals and their alloys with coatings [including metallic coatings (anodic or cathodic), organic coatings, and conversion coatings]

Korrosion von Metallen und Legierungen - Beschleunigte zyklische Korrosionsprüfungen unter Aussetzung von synthetischem Meerwassersalz im Absetzungsprozess - "Trockene" und "feuchte" Bedingungen, bei einer konstanten absoluten Feuchtigkeit (ISO 16539:2013)

Diese Internationale Norm legt zwei beschleunigte Korrosionsprüfverfahren, Verfahren A und Verfahren B, zur Bewertung des Korrosionsverhaltens von oberflächenbehandelten Metallen und deren Legierungen mit und ohne Beschichtungsstoffe(n) in atmosphärischen Umgebungen fest. Sie legt auch die angewendete Prüfeinrichtung fest. Die beiden Prüfungen umfassen Salzbeanspruchung und trockene/feuchte Bedingungen bei einer konstanten absoluten Luftfeuchte.
Verfahren A ist anwendbar für:
   Metalle und deren Legierungen (einschließlich korrosionsbeständiger Legierungen).
Verfahren B ist anwendbar für:
   Metalle und deren Legierungen;
   Metalle und deren Legierungen mit Beschichtungen [einschließlich Metallbeschichtungen (anodisch oder kathodisch), organische Beschichtungen und Konversionsschichten].

Corrosion des métaux et alliages - Essais de corrosion cyclique accélérée avec exposition à l'eau de mer synthétique par procédé de dépôt de sel - Conditions "sèches" et conditions "humides" à taux d'humidité absolue constant (ISO 16539:2013)

Ce document spécifie deux modes opératoires d’essai de corrosion accélérée, les méthodes A et B, pour l’évaluation du comportement à la corrosion des métaux et leurs alliages traités en surface, revêtus ou non d’une protection permanente ou temporaire contre la corrosion dans des environnements extérieurs salins et/ ou de pluie acide. Elle spécifie également l’appareillage utilisé. Les deux essais impliquent le dépôt salin et des conditions «sèches»/«humides» à un taux d’humidité absolue constant.
La méthode A s’applique:
aux métaux et à leurs alliages (y compris les alliages résistants à la corrosion).
La méthode B s’applique:
aux métaux et à leurs alliages;
aux métaux et à leurs alliages avec revêtements [y compris les revêtements métalliques (anodiques et cathodiques), revêtements organiques et couches de conversion].

Korozija kovin in zlitin - Pospešeni ciklični korozijski preskusi z izpostavljanjem sintetični morski vodi s postopkom nanašanja soli - "Suhi" in "mokri" pogoji pri konstantni absolutni vlažnosti (ISO 16539:2013)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
17-May-2022
Publication Date
11-Jul-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jul-2022
Due Date
05-Sep-2022
Completion Date
12-Jul-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
01-september-2022

Korozija kovin in zlitin - Pospešeni ciklični korozijski preskusi z izpostavljanjem

sintetični morski vodi s postopkom nanašanja soli - "Suhi" in "mokri" pogoji pri
konstantni absolutni vlažnosti (ISO 16539:2013)

Corrosion of metals and alloys - Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with exposure to

synthetic ocean water salt-deposition process - "Dry" and "wet" conditions at constant

absolute humidity (ISO 16539:2013)

Korrosion von Metallen und Legierungen - Beschleunigte zyklische Korrosionsprüfungen

unter Aussetzung von synthetischem Meerwassersalz im Absetzungsprozess -

"Trockene" und "feuchte" Bedingungen, bei einer konstanten absoluten Feuchtigkeit

(ISO 16539:2013)
Corrosion des métaux et alliages - Essais de corrosion cyclique accélérée avec

exposition à l'eau de mer synthétique par procédé de dépôt de sel - Conditions "sèches"

et conditions "humides" à taux d'humidité absolue constant (ISO 16539:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 16539:2022
ICS:
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
SIST EN ISO 16539:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
EN ISO 16539
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.060
English Version
Corrosion of metals and alloys - Accelerated cyclic
corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water
salt-deposition process - "Dry" and "wet" conditions at
constant absolute humidity (ISO 16539:2013)

Corrosion des métaux et alliages - Essais de corrosion Korrosion von Metallen und Legierungen -

cyclique accélérée avec exposition à l'eau de mer Beschleunigte zyklische Korrosionsprüfungen unter

synthétique par procédé de dépôt de sel - Conditions Aussetzung von synthetischem Meerwassersalz im

"sèches" et conditions "humides" à taux d'humidité Absetzungsprozess - "Trockene" und "feuchte"

absolue constant (ISO 16539:2013) Bedingungen, bei einer konstanten absoluten
Feuchtigkeit (ISO 16539:2013)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 June 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 16539:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
EN ISO 16539:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
EN ISO 16539:2022 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 16539:2013 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156 "Corrosion of

metals and alloys” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over

as EN ISO 16539:2022 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 262 “Metallic and other inorganic coatings,

including for corrosion protection and corrosion testing of metals and alloys” the secretariat of which is

held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2022, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 16539:2013 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 16539:2022 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16539
First edition
2013-03-01
Corrosion of metals and alloys —
Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests
with exposure to synthetic ocean
water salt-deposition process — “Dry”
and “wet” conditions at constant
absolute humidity
Corrosion des métaux et alliages — Essais de corrosion cyclique
accélérée avec exposition à l’eau de mer synthétique par procédé de
dépôt de sel — Conditions “sèches” et conditions “humides” à taux
d’humidité absolue constant
Reference number
ISO 16539:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Test solution .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Preparation of the mixed salt solution ............................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 pH adjustment ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Preparation of the test solution ................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Component protection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Exposure cabinet ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Salt deposition device ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Temperature and humidity control device ..................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Rinse treatment of specimens ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Types of apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Salt deposition measurement method .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Arrangement of the test specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Operating conditions and procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 4

9 Treatment of specimens after test ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

10 Continuity of tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11 Duration of tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12 Evaluation of results ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

13 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Combined cyclic test instrument with salt deposition unit (two cabinets) .11

Annex B (informative) Combined cyclic test instrument with salt deposition unit (one cabinet) ...12

Annex C (informative) Salt deposition method by manual spraying ................................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Recommended periods of testing ...........................................................................................................15

Annex E (informative) Methods for evaluation of corrosivity of test ...............................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16539 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys.

iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Introduction

Corrosion of metallic materials, with or without corrosion protection, is influenced by many

environmental factors, the importance of which can vary with the type of metallic materials and with

the type of environment. It is impossible, therefore, to design accelerated laboratory corrosion tests in

such a way that all environmental factors influencing resistance to corrosion are taken into account.

Laboratory tests are, therefore, designed to simulate the effects of most important factors, which

enhance the corrosion of metallic materials.

The accelerated corrosion tests described in this International Standard are designed to simulate and

enhance the environmental influence on a metallic material of exposure to outdoor climates, where

exposure to salt-contaminated conditions occurs and can promote corrosion. It has been prepared by

reference to technical papers and reports (see the Bibliography).

The particular advantages of two tests described in this International Standard over conventional

accelerated tests, such as the neutral salt spray test (NSS) as specified in ISO 9227 and the wet (salt

fog)/dry/humidity test as specified in ISO 14993, lies in their better ability to reproduce the corrosion

that occurs in atmospheric environments which contain much sea salt.

Accelerated corrosion tests to simulate atmospheric corrosion in such environments are

intended/expected to include the following requirements.

a) Constant absolute humidity: It is generally observed that temperature and relative humidity change

under a constant absolute humidity in outdoor environments. The water absorption of deposited

salts is an important factor affecting atmospheric corrosion behaviour. The same relationship,

constant absolute humidity, as an actual environment is intended/expected to exist for temperature

and relative humidity during dry/wet cycles.

b) Control of the amount of salt deposition: The amount of the salt deposition on test specimens is

intended/expected to be changed according to the corrosivity of the atmosphere in which the tested

metallic material can be used. A salt-containing test solution is intended/expected to be diluted or

the spraying time is intended/expected to be adjusted to provide the same yearly average amount

of the salt deposition as an actual environment.

Therefore, the tests described in this International Standard involve the salt deposition and cyclic

dry/wet conditions under a constant absolute humidity.

The results obtained do not permit far-reaching conclusions on the corrosion resistance of the

tested metallic material under the whole range of environmental conditions in which it can be used.

Nevertheless, the tests provide valuable information on the relative performance of materials exposed

to salt-contaminated environments similar to those used in the tests.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draws attention to the fact that it is claimed

that compliance with this International Standard can involve the use of a patent concerning the tests

given in Clause 8, Table 3, and Figure 2.

ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity, and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has ensured the ISO that he/she is willing to negotiate licences under

reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world. In

this respect, the statement of the holder of this patent right is registered with ISO. Information can be

obtained from:
JFE Steel Corporation
2-2-3, Uchisaiwaicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011, JAPAN

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or

all such patent rights.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16539:2013(E)
Corrosion of metals and alloys — Accelerated cyclic
corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water
salt-deposition process — “Dry” and “wet” conditions at
constant absolute humidity
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies two accelerated corrosion test procedures, Methods A and B, for

the evaluation of corrosion behaviour of surface-treated metals and their alloys with and without paint

on them in atmospheric environments. It also specifies the apparatus used. The two tests involve salt

deposition and dry/wet conditions at a constant absolute humidity.
Method A applies to:
metals and their alloys (including corrosion-resistance alloys)
Method B applies to:
metals and their alloys

metals and their alloys with coatings [including metallic coatings (anodic or cathodic), organic

coatings, and conversion coatings]
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4628-1, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity

and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 1: General introduction and

designation system

ISO 4628-2, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 2: Assessment of degree of blistering

ISO 4628-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 3: Assessment of degree of rusting

ISO 4628-4, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 4: Assessment of degree of cracking

ISO 4628-5, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 5: Assessment of degree of flaking

ISO 8407, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Removal of corrosion products from corrosion test specimens

ISO 8993, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting

corrosion — Chart method
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 10289, Methods for corrosion testing of metallic and other inorganic coatings on metallic substrates —

Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subjected to corrosion tests
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)

ISO 11130, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Alternate immersion test in salt solution

ISO 14993, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Accelerated testing involving cyclic exposure to salt mist, “dry”

and “wet” conditions

ISO 17872, Paints and varnishes — Guidelines for the introduction of scribe marks through coatings on

metallic panels for corrosion testing
3 Test solution
3.1 Preparation of the mixed salt solution

The mass of reagents shown in Table 1 shall be dissolved in distilled water or deionized water, with

a conductivity of not higher than 20 μS /cm at 25 °C ± 2 °C, to produce a mixed salt solution with a

concentration of 36,0 g/l ± 3,6 g/l.

The composition of the mixed salt solution is the same as typical synthetic ocean water shown in

ISO 11130:2010, A.3 (test solution for simulating the corrosive effects of ocean water).

Table 1 — Reagents and their concentrations of a mixed salt solution
Reagents Concentration
(g/l)
NaCl 24,53
MgCl 5,20
Na SO 4,09
2 4
CaCl 1,16
KCl 0,695
NaHCO 0,201
KBr 0,101
H BO 0,027
3 3
SrCl 0,025
NaF 0,003

WARNING – Handling of SrCl and NaF can be hazardous and shall be restricted to use by

skilled chemists or conducted under their control.
3.2 pH adjustment

To adjust the pH of the solution, 5,0 g ± 0,5 g of NaOH shall be dissolved in water and diluted to total

volume of 1 L to make 0,125 mol/l NaOH solution. It shall be added to the mixed salt solution to adjust

the pH to 8,2 ± 0,1 at 25 °C ± 2 °C.
3.3 Preparation of the test solution

The test solution shall be used as the mixed salt solution or shall be diluted by 1:10 and 1:100 to the mixed

salt solution with a concentration of 36,0 g/l ± 3,6 g/l, 3,60 g/l ± 0,36 g/l, and 0,360 g/l ± 0,036 g/l. When

not specified, the concentration shall be agreed by the interested parties.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
4 Apparatus
4.1 Component protection

All components in contact with the test solution shall be made of, or lined with, materials resistant to

corrosion by the test solution and which do not influence the corrosivity of the atomized test solution.

The apparatus shall include the components described in the following.
4.2 Exposure cabinet

It is essential that temperature and humidity in exposure cabinet are controlled constantly.

4.3 Salt deposition device

The atomizer shall be made of corrosion resistant materials, e.g. glass, plastic, or titanium. The atomized

test solution shall be deposited homogeneously on specimens. The amount of deposited test solution

shall be controlled. The diameter of the atomized test solution should be equal to or less than 100 μm.

The amount of deposited test solution can be controlled in the following manners:

a) by controlling the test period with a continuous atomization;

b) by controlling the amount of test solution, the atomized pressure, and the moving speed of the atomizer.

The compressed air supplied to the atomizer shall be passed through a filter to remove all trace of oil or

solid matter.
4.4 Temperature and humidity control device

The device shall be capable of detecting and controlling the temperature and humidity around specimens.

In the transition period of temperature and humidity, the device shall be capable of controlling the dry

bulb temperature linear to target value and test period. The device shall be capable of controlling the

humidity by keeping the absolute humidity constant to dry bulb temperature at least in every minute.

4.5 Rinse treatment of specimens

After the temperature and humidity cycle, the rinse treatment is conducted before re-depositing the

test solution. Firstly, the test specimens are washed with drinking water, and then with deionized water.

Water drops are then removed carefully with clean air in order not to take off corrosion products from

the surface of the test specimens.
4.6 Types of apparatus

The following are three types of apparatus that satisfy the requirements specified in 4.1 to 4.5.

a) Two-cabinet type (automatic procedures)

Specimens move between salt deposition cabinet and exposure cabinet. The atomizer moves front to

back and side to side, making it possible to change the amount of salt deposition on each specimen. Then,

the specimens are moved to the exposure cabinet and wet/dry cycles and rinse treatment are conducted

automatically (see Annex A).
b) One-cabinet type (automatic procedures)

Specimens are settled in one cabinet. The atomizer is set, and wet/dry cycles and rinse treatment are

conducted automatically (see Annex B).
c) One-cabinet type (manual procedures)
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)

After salt deposition (4.3) by hand, the test specimens shall be settled in the cabinet for wet/dry cycles.

Then, the test specimens shall be taken out from the cabinet and rinse treatment conducted. After the

salt deposition, the test specimens shall be settled up in the cabinet as quickly as possible (see Annex C).

5 Test specimens

5.1 The number and type of test specimens shall be selected according to the specification for the

material or product being tested. When not so specified, these details shall be mutually agreed between

the interested parties.

5.2 The test specimens shall be carefully cleaned prior to testing so as to remove those traces (dirt, oil,

or other foreign matter), which could influence the result. The cleaning method employed shall depend

on the nature of the materials and the contaminants, but shall not include the use of any abrasives or

solvents which can attack the surface of the specimens.

5.3 For the metals or alloy without organic coatings and inorganic coating materials, the specimens

shall be thoroughly cleaned with an appropriate organic solvent using a clean soft brush or an ultrasonic

cleaning device. The cleaning shall be carried out in a vessel full of solvent. After cleaning, the specimens

shall be rinsed with fresh solvent, then dried.

5.4 Unless otherwise specified, specimens intentionally coated with protective organic films should not

be cleaned prior to the test. If cleaning is necessary, specimens shall be wiped with gauze impregnated

with ethanol, taking care not to damage the surface of the specimens.

Care shall be taken that specimens are not contaminated after cleaning by careless handling.

5.5 If the test specimens are cut from a larger coated article, cutting shall be carried out in such a way

that the coating is not damaged in the area adjacent to the cut. Unless otherwise specified, the cut edges

shall be adequately protected by coating them with a suitable material, stable under the conditions of the

test, such as paint, wax, or adhesive tape.
6 Salt deposition measurement method

The test solution shall be applied to make salt deposition on the surface of the specimen. The average

amount of salt deposition shall be measured by the mass change of the specimen before and after salt-

deposition process to the nearest 1 mg. These measurements shall be carried out as quickly as possible

in order to prevent the specimen from drying.
7 Arrangement of the test specimens

After the salt deposition on the test specimens, the test specimens shall be placed in the cabinet. The test

specimens shall be arranged so that they do not come into contact with the cabinet.

The specimen should be placed horizontally.

The specimens may be placed at different levels within the cabinet, as long as the droplet of the moisture

does not drip from specimens or their supports at one level onto specimens placed below them.

8 Operating conditions and procedure

Operating conditions shall be in accordance with those given in Table 2 for Method A, and Table 3 for

Method B. Operation procedure shall be in accordance with those given in Figure 1 for Method A, and

Figure 2 for Method B.
A test solution that has used salt deposition shall not be re-used.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
During the test, pressure in the cabinet
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
01-april-2022

Korozija kovin in zlitin - Pospešeni (stopnjevani) ciklični korozijski preskusi z

izpostavljanjem sintetični morski vodi s postopkom nanašanja soli - "Suhi" in
"mokri" pogoji pri konstantni absolutni vlažnosti (ISO 16539:2013)

Corrosion of metals and alloys - Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with exposure to

synthetic ocean water salt-deposition process - "Dry" and "wet" conditions at constant

absolute humidity (ISO 16539:2013)

Korrosion von Metallen und Legierungen - Beschleunigte zyklische Korrosionsprüfungen

unter Aussetzung von synthetischem Meerwassersalz im Absetzungsprozess -

"Trockene" und "feuchte" Bedingungen, bei einer konstanten absoluten Feuchtigkeit

(ISO 16539:2013)
Corrosion des métaux et alliages - Essais de corrosion cyclique accélérée avec

exposition à l'eau de mer synthétique par procédé de dépôt de sel - Conditions "sèches"

et conditions "humides" à taux d'humidité absolue constant (ISO 16539:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 16539
ICS:
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16539
First edition
2013-03-01
Corrosion of metals and alloys —
Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests
with exposure to synthetic ocean
water salt-deposition process — “Dry”
and “wet” conditions at constant
absolute humidity
Corrosion des métaux et alliages — Essais de corrosion cyclique
accélérée avec exposition à l’eau de mer synthétique par procédé de
dépôt de sel — Conditions “sèches” et conditions “humides” à taux
d’humidité absolue constant
Reference number
ISO 16539:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
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ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Test solution .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Preparation of the mixed salt solution ............................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 pH adjustment ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Preparation of the test solution ................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Component protection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Exposure cabinet ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Salt deposition device ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Temperature and humidity control device ..................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Rinse treatment of specimens ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Types of apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Salt deposition measurement method .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Arrangement of the test specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Operating conditions and procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 4

9 Treatment of specimens after test ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

10 Continuity of tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11 Duration of tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12 Evaluation of results ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

13 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Combined cyclic test instrument with salt deposition unit (two cabinets) .11

Annex B (informative) Combined cyclic test instrument with salt deposition unit (one cabinet) ...12

Annex C (informative) Salt deposition method by manual spraying ................................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Recommended periods of testing ...........................................................................................................15

Annex E (informative) Methods for evaluation of corrosivity of test ...............................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16539 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys.

iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Introduction

Corrosion of metallic materials, with or without corrosion protection, is influenced by many

environmental factors, the importance of which can vary with the type of metallic materials and with

the type of environment. It is impossible, therefore, to design accelerated laboratory corrosion tests in

such a way that all environmental factors influencing resistance to corrosion are taken into account.

Laboratory tests are, therefore, designed to simulate the effects of most important factors, which

enhance the corrosion of metallic materials.

The accelerated corrosion tests described in this International Standard are designed to simulate and

enhance the environmental influence on a metallic material of exposure to outdoor climates, where

exposure to salt-contaminated conditions occurs and can promote corrosion. It has been prepared by

reference to technical papers and reports (see the Bibliography).

The particular advantages of two tests described in this International Standard over conventional

accelerated tests, such as the neutral salt spray test (NSS) as specified in ISO 9227 and the wet (salt

fog)/dry/humidity test as specified in ISO 14993, lies in their better ability to reproduce the corrosion

that occurs in atmospheric environments which contain much sea salt.

Accelerated corrosion tests to simulate atmospheric corrosion in such environments are

intended/expected to include the following requirements.

a) Constant absolute humidity: It is generally observed that temperature and relative humidity change

under a constant absolute humidity in outdoor environments. The water absorption of deposited

salts is an important factor affecting atmospheric corrosion behaviour. The same relationship,

constant absolute humidity, as an actual environment is intended/expected to exist for temperature

and relative humidity during dry/wet cycles.

b) Control of the amount of salt deposition: The amount of the salt deposition on test specimens is

intended/expected to be changed according to the corrosivity of the atmosphere in which the tested

metallic material can be used. A salt-containing test solution is intended/expected to be diluted or

the spraying time is intended/expected to be adjusted to provide the same yearly average amount

of the salt deposition as an actual environment.

Therefore, the tests described in this International Standard involve the salt deposition and cyclic

dry/wet conditions under a constant absolute humidity.

The results obtained do not permit far-reaching conclusions on the corrosion resistance of the

tested metallic material under the whole range of environmental conditions in which it can be used.

Nevertheless, the tests provide valuable information on the relative performance of materials exposed

to salt-contaminated environments similar to those used in the tests.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draws attention to the fact that it is claimed

that compliance with this International Standard can involve the use of a patent concerning the tests

given in Clause 8, Table 3, and Figure 2.

ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity, and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has ensured the ISO that he/she is willing to negotiate licences under

reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world. In

this respect, the statement of the holder of this patent right is registered with ISO. Information can be

obtained from:
JFE Steel Corporation
2-2-3, Uchisaiwaicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011, JAPAN

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or

all such patent rights.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16539:2013(E)
Corrosion of metals and alloys — Accelerated cyclic
corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water
salt-deposition process — “Dry” and “wet” conditions at
constant absolute humidity
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies two accelerated corrosion test procedures, Methods A and B, for

the evaluation of corrosion behaviour of surface-treated metals and their alloys with and without paint

on them in atmospheric environments. It also specifies the apparatus used. The two tests involve salt

deposition and dry/wet conditions at a constant absolute humidity.
Method A applies to:
metals and their alloys (including corrosion-resistance alloys)
Method B applies to:
metals and their alloys

metals and their alloys with coatings [including metallic coatings (anodic or cathodic), organic

coatings, and conversion coatings]
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4628-1, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity

and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 1: General introduction and

designation system

ISO 4628-2, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 2: Assessment of degree of blistering

ISO 4628-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 3: Assessment of degree of rusting

ISO 4628-4, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 4: Assessment of degree of cracking

ISO 4628-5, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and

size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 5: Assessment of degree of flaking

ISO 8407, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Removal of corrosion products from corrosion test specimens

ISO 8993, Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys — Rating system for the evaluation of pitting

corrosion — Chart method
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 10289, Methods for corrosion testing of metallic and other inorganic coatings on metallic substrates —

Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subjected to corrosion tests
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ISO 16539:2013(E)

ISO 11130, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Alternate immersion test in salt solution

ISO 14993, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Accelerated testing involving cyclic exposure to salt mist, “dry”

and “wet” conditions

ISO 17872, Paints and varnishes — Guidelines for the introduction of scribe marks through coatings on

metallic panels for corrosion testing
3 Test solution
3.1 Preparation of the mixed salt solution

The mass of reagents shown in Table 1 shall be dissolved in distilled water or deionized water, with

a conductivity of not higher than 20 μS /cm at 25 °C ± 2 °C, to produce a mixed salt solution with a

concentration of 36,0 g/l ± 3,6 g/l.

The composition of the mixed salt solution is the same as typical synthetic ocean water shown in

ISO 11130:2010, A.3 (test solution for simulating the corrosive effects of ocean water).

Table 1 — Reagents and their concentrations of a mixed salt solution
Reagents Concentration
(g/l)
NaCl 24,53
MgCl 5,20
Na SO 4,09
2 4
CaCl 1,16
KCl 0,695
NaHCO 0,201
KBr 0,101
H BO 0,027
3 3
SrCl 0,025
NaF 0,003

WARNING – Handling of SrCl and NaF can be hazardous and shall be restricted to use by

skilled chemists or conducted under their control.
3.2 pH adjustment

To adjust the pH of the solution, 5,0 g ± 0,5 g of NaOH shall be dissolved in water and diluted to total

volume of 1 L to make 0,125 mol/l NaOH solution. It shall be added to the mixed salt solution to adjust

the pH to 8,2 ± 0,1 at 25 °C ± 2 °C.
3.3 Preparation of the test solution

The test solution shall be used as the mixed salt solution or shall be diluted by 1:10 and 1:100 to the mixed

salt solution with a concentration of 36,0 g/l ± 3,6 g/l, 3,60 g/l ± 0,36 g/l, and 0,360 g/l ± 0,036 g/l. When

not specified, the concentration shall be agreed by the interested parties.
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4 Apparatus
4.1 Component protection

All components in contact with the test solution shall be made of, or lined with, materials resistant to

corrosion by the test solution and which do not influence the corrosivity of the atomized test solution.

The apparatus shall include the components described in the following.
4.2 Exposure cabinet

It is essential that temperature and humidity in exposure cabinet are controlled constantly.

4.3 Salt deposition device

The atomizer shall be made of corrosion resistant materials, e.g. glass, plastic, or titanium. The atomized

test solution shall be deposited homogeneously on specimens. The amount of deposited test solution

shall be controlled. The diameter of the atomized test solution should be equal to or less than 100 μm.

The amount of deposited test solution can be controlled in the following manners:

a) by controlling the test period with a continuous atomization;

b) by controlling the amount of test solution, the atomized pressure, and the moving speed of the atomizer.

The compressed air supplied to the atomizer shall be passed through a filter to remove all trace of oil or

solid matter.
4.4 Temperature and humidity control device

The device shall be capable of detecting and controlling the temperature and humidity around specimens.

In the transition period of temperature and humidity, the device shall be capable of controlling the dry

bulb temperature linear to target value and test period. The device shall be capable of controlling the

humidity by keeping the absolute humidity constant to dry bulb temperature at least in every minute.

4.5 Rinse treatment of specimens

After the temperature and humidity cycle, the rinse treatment is conducted before re-depositing the

test solution. Firstly, the test specimens are washed with drinking water, and then with deionized water.

Water drops are then removed carefully with clean air in order not to take off corrosion products from

the surface of the test specimens.
4.6 Types of apparatus

The following are three types of apparatus that satisfy the requirements specified in 4.1 to 4.5.

a) Two-cabinet type (automatic procedures)

Specimens move between salt deposition cabinet and exposure cabinet. The atomizer moves front to

back and side to side, making it possible to change the amount of salt deposition on each specimen. Then,

the specimens are moved to the exposure cabinet and wet/dry cycles and rinse treatment are conducted

automatically (see Annex A).
b) One-cabinet type (automatic procedures)

Specimens are settled in one cabinet. The atomizer is set, and wet/dry cycles and rinse treatment are

conducted automatically (see Annex B).
c) One-cabinet type (manual procedures)
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)

After salt deposition (4.3) by hand, the test specimens shall be settled in the cabinet for wet/dry cycles.

Then, the test specimens shall be taken out from the cabinet and rinse treatment conducted. After the

salt deposition, the test specimens shall be settled up in the cabinet as quickly as possible (see Annex C).

5 Test specimens

5.1 The number and type of test specimens shall be selected according to the specification for the

material or product being tested. When not so specified, these details shall be mutually agreed between

the interested parties.

5.2 The test specimens shall be carefully cleaned prior to testing so as to remove those traces (dirt, oil,

or other foreign matter), which could influence the result. The cleaning method employed shall depend

on the nature of the materials and the contaminants, but shall not include the use of any abrasives or

solvents which can attack the surface of the specimens.

5.3 For the metals or alloy without organic coatings and inorganic coating materials, the specimens

shall be thoroughly cleaned with an appropriate organic solvent using a clean soft brush or an ultrasonic

cleaning device. The cleaning shall be carried out in a vessel full of solvent. After cleaning, the specimens

shall be rinsed with fresh solvent, then dried.

5.4 Unless otherwise specified, specimens intentionally coated with protective organic films should not

be cleaned prior to the test. If cleaning is necessary, specimens shall be wiped with gauze impregnated

with ethanol, taking care not to damage the surface of the specimens.

Care shall be taken that specimens are not contaminated after cleaning by careless handling.

5.5 If the test specimens are cut from a larger coated article, cutting shall be carried out in such a way

that the coating is not damaged in the area adjacent to the cut. Unless otherwise specified, the cut edges

shall be adequately protected by coating them with a suitable material, stable under the conditions of the

test, such as paint, wax, or adhesive tape.
6 Salt deposition measurement method

The test solution shall be applied to make salt deposition on the surface of the specimen. The average

amount of salt deposition shall be measured by the mass change of the specimen before and after salt-

deposition process to the nearest 1 mg. These measurements shall be carried out as quickly as possible

in order to prevent the specimen from drying.
7 Arrangement of the test specimens

After the salt deposition on the test specimens, the test specimens shall be placed in the cabinet. The test

specimens shall be arranged so that they do not come into contact with the cabinet.

The specimen should be placed horizontally.

The specimens may be placed at different levels within the cabinet, as long as the droplet of the moisture

does not drip from specimens or their supports at one level onto specimens placed below them.

8 Operating conditions and procedure

Operating conditions shall be in accordance with those given in Table 2 for Method A, and Table 3 for

Method B. Operation procedure shall be in accordance with those given in Figure 1 for Method A, and

Figure 2 for Method B.
A test solution that has used salt deposition shall not be re-used.
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)

During the test, pressure in the cabinet shall maintain the atmospheric pressure.

Table 2 — Test conditions in Method A
Procedure Conditions
a) Salt deposition
1) Temperature 1) Room temperature
2) Test solution 2) Described in Clause 3
3) Frequency 3) After every cycle
4) Salt deposition 4) The amount of deposited test solution
on a specimen shall be 250 g/m ± 50 g/
m . The concentration of the solution
should be equal to or greater than 1/1
000 of synthetic ocean water.
b) “Dry” condition Temperature Relative humidity
1) A (49 ± 1) °C (32 ± 5) %
2) B (54 ± 1) °C (25 ± 5) %
3) C (55 ± 1) °C (24 ± 5) %
4) D (54 ± 1) °C (25 ± 5) %
5) E (49 ± 1) °C (32 ± 5) %
c) “Wet” condition (30 ± 1) °C (90 ± 5) %
d) Rinse treatment Clean drinking water
Not exceeding 40 °C
e) Length and composition of a single “Wet” 6 h 36 min
exposure cycle “Dry” 10 h 48 min
(A single exposure cycle is 24 h.) “Wet” 6 h 36 min
f)   Time to reach the specified condi- “Wet” to “Dry (A)” 2 h 22 min
tion within a single exposure cycle “Dry (A)” to “Dry (B)” 1 h 40 min
“Dry (B)” to “Dry (C)” 1 h 22 min
“Dry (C)” to “Dry (D)” 1 h 22 min
“Dry (D)” to “Dry (E)” 1 h 40 min
“Dry (E)” to “Wet” 2 h 22 min

NOTE 1 Temperature and humidity shall be changed linearly at specified time intervals

[see f) in this table]. Consecutive dry conditions A to E give the same absolute humidity, dew

point 30°C.

NOTE 2 The tolerances (±) given for temperature and relative humidity are the allowable

fluctuations of the parameter concerned about the given value under equilibrium conditions.

This does not mean that the value can vary by plus/minus the amount indicated from the

given value.
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Key
T temperature, °C s salt deposition
R relative humidity, %RH r rinse treatment
t time, h
Figure 1 — Test procedure in Method A
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Table 3 — Test conditions in Method B
Procedure Conditions
a) Salt deposition
1) Temperature 1) Room temperature
2) Test solution 2) Described in Clause 3
3) Frequency 3) After 8 and 11 cycles
4) Salt deposition 4) The amount of deposited test solu-
tion on a specimen shall be 28,0 g/m ±
2,8 g/m . The concentration of the solu-
tion should be equal to or greater than
1/1 000 of synthetic ocean water.
b) “Dry” condition Temperature Relative humidity
(60 ± 1) °C (35 ± 5) %
c) “Wet” condition (40 ± 1) °C (95 ± 5) %
d) Rinse treatment Clean drinking water
Not exceeding 40 °C
e) Length and composition of a single “Dry” 3 h
exposure cycle “Wet” 3 h
(A single exposure cycle is 8 h) Time to reach the specified conditions
“Dry” to “Wet” 1 h
“Wet” to “Dry” 1 h
f) Test procedures 1. Salt deposition.
2. Dry/wet exposure cycle: 8 cycles.
After dry/wet cycle, the specimens shall
be removed from the cabinet imme-
diately after the temperature reaches
60 °C.
3. Rinse treatment.
4. Salt deposition.
Rinse treatment and salt deposition shall
be accomplished during dry conditions.
5. Dry/wet exposure cycle: 11 cycles.
After dry/wet cycle, the specimens shall
be removed from the cabinet imme-
diately after the temperature reaches
60 °C.
6. Rinse treatment.

NOTE 1 Temperature and humidity shall be changed at the same absolute humidity, dew

point 39 °C.

NOTE 2 The tolerances (±) given for temperature and relative humidity are the allowable

fluctuations of the parameter concerned about the given value under equilibrium conditions.

This does not mean that the value can vary by plus/minus the amount indicated from the

given value.
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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
ISO 16539:2013(E)
Key
T temperature, °C s salt deposition
R relative humidity, %RH r rinse treatment
C cycles
Figure 2 — Test procedure in Method B

Rinse treatment shall be conducted immediately after the temperature reaches 60 °C.

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oSIST prEN ISO 16539:2022
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9 Treatment of specimens after test

At the end of the test period, the test specimens shall be removed from the cabinet and allowed to dry

for 0,5 h to 1 h before rinsing in order to reduce th
...

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