Adhesives for leather and footwear materials - Preparation of bonded test pieces by moulding-on processes
This document specifies procedures for the preparation of test pieces comprising adhesive coated leather or other footwear upper material onto which a soling material is moulded directly. The procedures described simulate direct vulcanising of rubber, injection moulding of thermoplastics and reaction moulding of polyurethane.
The prepared test pieces are suitable for the test procedures described in EN 1392, to meet the requirements of EN 522 and EN 1391.
Klebstoffe für Leder und Schuhwerkstoffe - Herstellung von Verbund-Proben nach dem Anformverfahren
Diese Norm legt Verfahren zur Herstellung von Proben aus Leder oder einem anderen Schaftwerkstoff fest, an die eine Sohle aus einem bestimmten Sohlenwerkstoff unmittelbar auf den aufgetragenen Klebstoff angeformt wird. Die beschriebenen Verfahren simulieren das Direktvulkanisieren von Kautschuk, das Spritzgießen von thermoplastischen Kunststoffen und das Reaktionsgießen von Polyurethan.
Die hergestellten Proben sind für die in EN 1392 beschriebenen Prüfverfahren und zur Erfüllung der Anforderungen von EN 522 und EN 1391 geeignet.
Adhésifs pour cuir et matériaux de la chaussure - Préparation d'éprouvettes collées par moulage direct sur tige
La présente norme spécifie des modes de préparation d'éprouvettes en cuir ou en toute autre matiere a dessus de chaussure enduites d'adhésif et sur lequel un matériau solide est directement moulé. Les modes opératoires décrits simulent la vulcanisation directe du caoutchouc, l'injection de thermoplastiques et le moulage par réaction de polyuréthanne.
Les éprouvettes préparées conviennent aux modes opératoires d'essai décrites dans l'EN 1392 et respectent les exigences de l'EN 522 et de l'EN 1391.
Lepila za usnjene in obutvene materiale - Izdelava lepljenih preskušancev s postopki direktnega podplatenja
Standards Content (Sample)
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Lepila za usnjene in obutvene materiale - Izdelava lepljenih preskušancev s postopki direktnega podplatenjaKlebstoffe für Leder und Schuhwerkstoffe - Herstellung von Verbund-Proben nach dem AnformverfahrenAdhésifs pour cuir et matériaux de la chaussure - Préparation d'éprouvettes collées par moulage direct sur tigeAdhesives for leather and footwear materials - Preparation of bonded test pieces by moulding-on processes83.180LepilaAdhesives61.060ObuvalaFootwearICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14294:2004SIST EN 14294:2005en01-marec-2005SIST EN 14294:2005SLOVENSKI
SIST EN 14294:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14294September 2004ICS English versionAdhesives for leather and footwear materials - Preparation ofbonded test pieces by moulding-on processesAdhésifs pour cuir et matériaux de la chaussure -Préparation d'éprouvettes collées par moulage direct surtigeKlebstoffe für Leder und Schuhwerkstoffe - Herstellung vonVerbund-Proben nach dem AnformverfahrenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 July 2004.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36
B-1050 Brussels© 2004 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14294:2004: ESIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword.3 1 Scope.5 2 Normative references.5 3 Terms and definitions.5 4 Principle.6 5 Safety.6 6 Adhesives and materials.6 7 Apparatus.7 8 Test pieces.8 9 Preparation of moulded-on assemblies.9 10 Report.13 Bibliography.14
SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 14294:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 193 “Adhesives”, the secretariat of which is held by AENOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2005. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 4 Introduction Documents EN 522, EN 1391 and EN 1392 specify methods of testing and evaluation of adhesives for leather and footwear materials in ‘stuck-on’ assemblies.
Most footwear produced in Europe is manufactured using stuck-on processes, but a significant proportion is produced by ‘moulding-on’ processes such as vulcanising, injection moulding and reaction moulding. This document specifies the preparation of bonded test pieces by moulding-on processes.
The form and dimensions of the test pieces produced allows testing according to the test methods specified in EN 1392, and evaluation of the bond strength obtained according to EN 522 or EN 1391. This document therefore complements the above mentioned series of documents, and together they allow the simulation, testing and evaluation of almost all bonds occurring in common footwear constructions. SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 5 1 Scope This document specifies procedures for the preparation of test pieces comprising adhesive coated leather or other footwear upper material onto which a soling material is moulded directly.
The procedures described simulate direct vulcanising of rubber, injection moulding of thermoplastics and reaction moulding of polyurethane. The prepared test pieces are suitable for the test procedures described in EN 1392, to meet the requirements of EN 522 and EN 1391. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 923, Adhesives - Terms and definitions EN 1392, Adhesives for leather and footwear materials - Solvent-based and dispersion adhesives - Test methods for measuring the bond strength under specified conditions EN ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite - Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore hardness) (ISO 868:2003) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 923 and EN 1392 and the following apply: 3.1 moulding-on process process for soling footwear in which the soling material is directly moulded onto the bottom of the shoe in a mould closed by the shoe upper or other footwear component.
NOTE The other footwear component can be an outsole or midsole onto which another soling layer is to be moulded. 3.2 vulcanising moulding process in which uncured rubber is inserted or extruded into the mould and is shaped and crosslinked by heat and pressure. 3.3 injection moulding moulding process in which molten thermoplastic material is injected into the mould and sets on cooling. 3.4 reaction moulding moulding process in which reactive chemicals are poured or injected into the mould and polymerise and crosslink by chemical reaction. SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 6 4 Principle The surface of the leather, other footwear upper material or other footwear component material used is treated in a manner specific to the nature of the material.
Strips of specified length and width are cut from the treated material. One or more of these strips are coated with adhesive and attached, with the bonding surface uppermost, to the bottom plate of a mould.
Soling material is introduced to fill the mould and allowed to cure or set as appropriate to produce an assembly of soling bonded to upper material. The moulded assembly, and test pieces cut from it, are stored under specified conditions before testing. 5 Safety Persons using this document shall be familiar with normal laboratory practice. This document does not purport to address all the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish safety and health practices and to ensure compliance with any European or national regulatory conditions. 6 Adhesives and materials 6.1 Footwear adhesives The adhesive used shall be identified in the report, in particular note name and/or designation, manufacturer, date of manufacture or supply and/or lot number, main polymer and colour.
For two-part adhesives the nature of the crosslinking agent and the mixing ratio of the components shall be identified. Reference footwear test adhesives are one or two-part adhesives with specified properties (e.g. Test adhesive CR 1, Test adhesive CR 2, Test adhesive PU 1, Test adhesive PU 2). If a reference footwear test adhesive in accordance with EN 1391 is used, record its designation in the report. NOTE For direct vulcanising processes, and injection moulding processes with styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic rubber (SBSR), special types of adhesive are required.
6.2 Footwear materials 6.2.1 General Identify all footwear materials used in the report. 6.2.2 Upper materials (or other footwear materials) Record the name and/or designation, manufacturer, date of manufacture or supply and type of leather, other footwear upper material (or other footwear material) used.
For leathers list colour, thickness and type of tannage (if known). If reference test Leather 1 is used in accordance with EN 522, record its designation. 6.2.3 Soling moulding materials 220.127.116.11 General The soling moulding material required depends on the moulding-on process to be simulated. SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 7 18.104.22.168 Direct vulcanising materials Record the name and/or designation, manufacturer, date of manufacture or supply, colour, polymer base and Shore hardness in accordance with EN ISO 868 of the material used. NOTE Uncured compounds of acrylonitrile-butadiene (nitrile) rubber (NBR) or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) are mainly used. 22.214.171.124 Injection moulding materials Record the name and/or designation, manufacturer, date of manufacture or supply, colour, polymer base and Shore hardness in accordance with EN ISO 868 of the material used. NOTE PVC compounds or styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic rubber (SBSR) compounds are mainly used. 126.96.36.199 Reaction moulding materials Record the name and/or designation, manufacturer, date of manufacture or supply, colour, chemical nature of the reactive constituents and the catalysts used, if any. NOTE Polyurethane chemicals are mainly used, consisting of a prepolymer and a resin which are mixed in the appropriate proportions before moulding. If a catalyst is also required, this can be added to the resin prior to the weighing out of the constituents. 7 Apparatus 7.1 General The items required depend on the types of material used and the type of moulding-on process. 7.2 Cutting knife, sharp for cutting test pieces in accordance with 8.1.
The angle between the inner and outer cutting surface shall be approximately 20°. 7.3 Adhesive applicator, brush, roller or coating machine for applying a uniform coat of the adhesive under test. 7.4 Platen press, a heated platen press suitable for direct vulcanisation of rubber, capable of: maintaining platen temperatures of (105 ± 5) °C for the bottom platen and (180 ± 5) °C for the top platen. applying a pressure up to 5 MPa to the mould. 7.5 Rectangular mould, of approximate dimensions 150 mm x 100 mm x 5 mm for direct vulcanisation.
The wall of the mould base should include a 10 mm wide shelf all round, half way up, to accept excess rubber displaced from the cavity. 7.6 Surface pyrometer, suitable for measuring the operating temperatures of the press platens. 7.7 Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of (75 ± 10) °C to pre-heat the rubber prior to moulding. 7.8 Gloves, heat resistant, suitable for handling the hot mould. 7.9 Injection moulding machine, fitted with a mould of approximate dimensions 150 mm x 100 mm x 5 mm for the preparation of flat test plaques.
A commercial single station low pressure screw injection moulder is suitable. 7.10 Mould, for polyurethane reaction moulding, having: SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 8 flat rigid base with a rectangular cavity of approximate dimensions 300 mm x 200 mm x 6,5 mm. rigid hinged lid which can be held in place, for example by two wing nuts. rebate a few millimetres deep across the two corners of the base away from the hinge.
This provides a gap which can assist in opening of the mould. 7.11 Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of (50 ± 5)°C to heat the mould prior to moulding. 7.12 Mould release agent, suitable for polyurethanes. 7.13 Solvent, such as 2-butanone (MEK), suitable for removing mould release agent. 7.14 General purpose balance, reading up to 300 g with an accuracy of 0,1 g.
7.15 Metal mixing cans, of approximate volume 400 cm3 capable of holding about 300 g of the polyurethane constituents in liquid form.
7.16 Paper weighing cups, of approximate volume 200 cm3, to weigh the polyurethane prepolymer prior to mixing. 7.17 High speed stirrer, suitable for mixing the viscous polyurethane constituents in a metal can. A stirrer with a mixing head comprising a horizontal spoked metal wheel with rectangular teeth around the edge is suitable. 7.18 Polyethylene gloves. 7.19 Safety goggles. 7.20 Adhesive tape, double side adhesive tape. 8 Test pieces 8.1 General The form and dimensions of the test pieces prepared from the moulded-on assemblies shall comply with the requirements for test pieces for peel tests at (23 ± 2) ºC, and test pieces for peel tests under constant load and at a constant elevated temperature (“creep test”) in EN 1392. 8.2 Number of test pieces Prepare sets of test pieces in accordance with EN 1392. 8.3 Preparation of test strips 8.3.1 General Condition the footwear upper material in accordance with EN 1392. 8.3.2 Cutting of material strips Cut strips of the required size as indicated in EN 1392 from the upper material.
Alternatively, if the material does not allow the cutting of strips of the required dimensions, smaller and/or shorter strips can be used, subject to their dimensions and bonding length being recorded in the report. SIST EN 14294:2005
EN 14294:2004 (E) 9 8.3.3 Preparation of the bonding surface Prepare the surface of the upper material in accordance with EN 1392. In some cases upper materials are solvent wiped immediately before moulding on the sole material (see 9.2.3 and 9.3.4). 8.4 Preparation of the adhesive Prepare the adhesive in accordance