Electrical energy storage (EES) systems- Part 4-4: Standard on environmental issues battery-based energy storage systems (BESS) with reused batteries - requirements

Električne naprave za shranjevanje energije (EES) - 4-4. del: Standard o okoljskih vprašanjih na osnovi baterijskih sistemov za shranjevanje energije (BESS) s ponovno uporabljenimi baterijami - Zahteve

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oSIST prEN IEC 62933-4-4:2023
Električne naprave za shranjevanje energije (EES) - 4-4. del: Standard o okoljskih
vprašanjih na osnovi baterijskih sistemov za shranjevanje energije (BESS) s
ponovno uporabljenimi baterijami - Zahteve
Electrical energy storage (EES) systems- Part 4-4: Standard on environmental issues
battery-based energy storage systems (BESS) with reused batteries - requirements
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN IEC 62933-4-4:2023
27.010 Prenos energije in toplote na Energy and heat transfer
splošno engineering in general
oSIST prEN IEC 62933-4-4:2023 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN IEC 62933-4-4:2023

IEC 62933-4-4 ED1
2023-02-03 2023-04-28
120/272/CD, 120/277B/CC

Japan Mr Hideki HAYASHI

SC 8A,TC 21,SC 21A,TC 69,TC 77,TC 111
Other TC/SCs are requested to indicate their interest, if
any, in this CDV to the secretary.
Attention IEC-CENELEC parallel voting
The attention of IEC National Committees, members of
CENELEC, is drawn to the fact that this Committee Draft
for Vote (CDV) is submitted for parallel voting.
The CENELEC members are invited to vote through the
CENELEC online voting system.

This document is still under study and subject to change. It should not be used for reference purposes.
Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of
• any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation,
• any relevant “in some countries” clauses to be included should this proposal proceed. Recipients are
reminded that the enquiry stage is the final stage for submitting "in some countries" clauses. See

Electrical energy storage (EES) systems- Part 4-4: Standard on environmental issues battery-
based energy storage systems (BESS) with reused batteries – requirements


Copyright © 2022 International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC. All rights reserved. It is permitted to
download this electronic file, to make a copy and to print out the content for the sole purpose of preparing National
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This CDV has been revised based on observations made by 120/277B/CC. Also, the title of this
standard has been changed below to reflect his CH4 and CH5 observations of 120/277B/CC.
New tile of 62933-4-4:
"Environmental issues on battery-based energy storage systems (BESS) with reused batteries –

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5 1 Scope . 7
6 2 Normative references . 7
7 3 Terms and definitions . 7
8 4 General . 9
9 5 Identifying environmental issues of EES systems . 9
10 5.1 General . 9
11 5.2 Guide for addressing environmental issues . 9
12 5.3 Aspects resulting from the implementation of reuse batteries in a BESS . 10
13 6 Environmental guidelines of EES system . 11
14 6.1 Environmental aspects resulting from a BESS with reuse batteries . 11
15 6.1.1 General . 11
16 6.1.2 Requirements at the design stage . 11
17 6.1.3 Requirements at the procurement and acquisition stage . 12
18 6.1.4 Requirements at the assembly and installation stage . 13
19 6.1.5 Requirements at the operation stage . 14
20 6.1.6 Requirements at the maintenance stage . 14
21 6.1.7 Requirements at the disassembly stage . 15
22 6.1.8 Requirements for customer information . 15
23 6.2 Guidelines on environment impacts on the BESS system . 15
24 6.3 Guidelines on environment impacts from the BESS system . 15
25 Annex A (informative) Battery Specific Emissions into Environment . 16
26 Annex B (informative) Reference to the IEC TS 62933-4-1 - Guidance on
27 environmental aspects . 18
28 Bibliography . 19

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32 ____________
34 Electrical energy storage (EES) systems
36 Part 4-4: Environmental issues on
37 battery-based energy storage systems (BESS) with reused batteries –
38 requirements
42 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
43 all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international
44 co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and
45 in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,
46 Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their
47 preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with
48 may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising
49 with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for
50 Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.
51 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international
52 consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all
53 interested IEC National Committees.
54 3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
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56 Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
57 misinterpretation by any end user.
58 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
59 transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between
60 any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the lat ter.
61 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity
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64 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
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69 Publications.
70 8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is
71 indispensable for the correct application of this publication.
72 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent
73 rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
74 IEC 62933-4-4 has been prepared by subcommittee WG4: Environment issues, of IEC
75 technical committee TC120: Electrical Energy Storage (EES) System. It is an International
76 Standard.
78 The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
80 Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in
81 the above table.
82 The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

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83 This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in
84 accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available
85 at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are
86 described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.
87 The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the
88 stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the
89 specific document. At this date, the document will be
90 • reconfirmed,
91 • withdrawn,
92 • replaced by a revised edition, or
93 • amended.

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96 The increased use of renewable energy is enhancing the decarbonization of energy production
97 by reducing CO2 emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels. The production of renewable
98 energy with solar and wind power is however associated with large temporal output fluctuations.
99 This causes increased voltage and frequency instabilities in the power grid. These irregularities
100 can be advantageously counteracted with battery-based energy storage systems (BESS).
101 Such battery-based energy storage systems can be assembled with reuse batteries coming
102 from other electric energy storage installations or electric vehicles.
103 The reuse of batteries enhances all facets of the life cycle thinking (LCT) by reducing premature
104 product obsolescence.
105 Reuse cells, modules or battery assemblies require a particular attention toward the possible
106 impact on the environment they will have due to their state of being a pre-aged component.
107 The impacts to the environment resulting from reuse batteries are reviewed and appropriate
108 requirements are defined.
109 This document complements, when reuse batteries are involved, the information and guidance
110 provided by IEC TS 62933-4-1.

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120 1 Scope
121 This part of the IEC 62933 series describes environmental issues when reuse batteries are
122 considered for a BESS.
123 It provides details and requirements for identifying and preventing environmental issues in each
124 life cycle stage i.e., from the design to the disassembly of such reuse batteries in a BESS.
126 2 Normative references
127 The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
128 constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.
129 For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
130 amendments) applies.
131 IEC TS 62933-4-1: Electric Energy Storage System – Part 4-1: Guidance On Environmental
132 Issues.
134 3 Terms and definitions
135 For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
136 ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following
137 addresses:
138 • IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
139 • ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
141 3.1
142 battery energy storage system
143 BESS
144 electrical energy storage system with an accumulation subsystem based on batteries with
145 secondary cells
146 Note 1 to entry: Battery energy storage systems include flow battery energy systems.
147 [SOURCE: IEC 60050-631 :2021]

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149 3.2
150 reuse
151 operations by which secondary batteries that are not waste and are used again in an application
152 Note 1 to entry: Reuse can be distinguished between refurbishing and repurposing.
153 3.3
154 life-cycle thinking
155 LCT
156 consideration of all relevant environmental aspects during the entire (product) life-cycle
157 [SOURCE: IEC Guide 109: definition 3.10 with modifications]
158 3.4
159 life-cycle assessment
160 LCA
161 compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts
162 product system throughout its life cycle
163 [SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, definition 3.2]
164 3.5
165 environment
166 surroundings in which a product or system exists, including air, water, land, natural resources,
167 flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation
168 [SOURCE: IEC Guide 109:2012, 3.3]
169 3.6
170 environmental aspect
171 element of an organization's activities or products that can interact with the environment
172 Note 1 to entry: A significant environmental aspect has or can have a significant environmental impact.
173 [SOURCE: IEC Guide 109:2012, 3.4]
174 3.7
175 environment impact
176 change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partly resulting from
177 environmental aspects
178 [SOURCE: IEC Guide 109: 2012, 3.5, modified-The expression "an organization's" has been
179 omitted]
180 3.8
181 life cycle
182 consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or
183 generation from natural resources to the final disposal
184 [SOURCE: IEC Guide 109:2012, 3.8]
185 3.9
186 installation
187 One apparatus or set of devices and/or apparatuses associated in a given location to fulfil
188 specified purposes, including all means for their satisfactory operation.
189 [SOURCE: IEC 60050-151: 151-11-26]

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190 3.10
191 service life
192 total period of useful life of a cell or battery in operation
193 [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482: 482-03-46 – modified with - notes deleted]
194 3.11
195 customer
196 organization or person that receives a product or service
197 Note 1 to entry: The customer will be the user or a distributor.
198 [SOURCE: ISO 9000 with modification]
200 4 General
201 Batteries of the BESS accumulation subsystem can be derived from installations and systems
202 where they have been operated with specific user profiles and environmental conditions for
203 sizable periods of time. Details of these use conditions can be fragmentary or unknown,
204 complicating the reuse of the batteries.
205 The following clauses provide guidance and requirements to properly select and use reuse
206 batteries for a BESS and thus prevent premature failures and unwanted negative impacts on
207 the environment.
209 5 Identifying environmental issues of EES systems
210 5.1 General
211 The guidance on general environmental aspects and their impacts caused by EES systems is
212 given in IEC TS 62933-4-1.
213 Environmental aspects and requirements specific for the use of reuse batteries in the
214 accumulation subsystem of a BESS, are addressed in the present document.
215 5.2 Guide for addressing environmental issues
216 ISO Guide 64 is addressing environmental issues in product standards and outlines the
217 relationship between provisions in product standards and the environmental aspects and
218 impacts of the product.
219 It recommends the use of life-cycle thinking when defining environmental provisions for a
220 product for which a standard is drafted.
221 The following clauses in ISO Guide 64 are referred in this document.
222 – Clause 3. Basic principles and approaches
223 – Clause 4. Environmental aspects to be considered for systematically addressing in product
224 standards
225 – Clause 5. Identifying product environmental aspects using a systematic approach.

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226 – Clause 6. Guidance for integrating environmental provisions in the product standard
227 The major stages in the life-cycle-thinking process referred to in the ISO Guide 64 are as follows:
228 • Design, procurement and acquisition - such as design, procurement of
229 products/components and location of assembly where some EES systems, depending on
230 storage technologies, can be integrated as a system in a factory while others can be integrated
231 as a system on-site
232 • Assembly and installation - such as on-site deployment of an already integrated EES
233 system, on-site integration of products/components, on-site test and checking of operations and
234 commissioning test
235 • Operation and maintenance – such as on-site repair, partial replacement of a
236 product/component
237 • Disassembly - such as disassembly into products/components and shift in location,
238 depending on storage technologies, of an already integrated EES system.
239 The service life of a product i.e., an ESS starts from the commissioning test at the end of the
240 “installation stage” and ends when it is removed from its intended use during the “disassembly
241 stage”.
242 Annex B, Table B.1 shows the relationship between the stages of the life-cycle and the relative
243 clause of the present document.
244 5.3 Aspects resulting from the implementation of reuse batteries in a BESS
245 A reuse battery of a BESS can have its origin in single cells and modules reclaimed from a
246 disassembled electric vehicle (EV) or a BESS or consist in complete battery assemblies, with
247 or without attached battery management and environmental control systems, coming from
248 similar sources.
249 One of the key tasks when planning to reuse batteries is the assessment that all of their
250 components satisfy the requirements of homogeneity in terms of design, manufacturing, age
251 and operating history, and that their present status allows their economically viable, safe and
252 environmentally sound operation in the future BESS.
253 The following relevant product life stages can be identified
254 • Specification of the required performance of the battery in the BESS
255 • Selection and procurement of the reuse battery
256 • Fit-for-service verification of the reuse battery
257 • Installation of reuse battery

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