Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 3: Control room layout (ISO 11064-3:1999)

Ergonomische Gestaltung von Leitzentralen - Teil 3: Auslegung von Wartenräumen (ISO 11064-3:1999)

ISO 11064-3 legt ergonomische Grundsätze für die Auslegung von Wartenräumen fest. Enthalten sind Anforderungen, Empfehlungen und Richtlinien für die Auslegung der Wartenräume, die Anordnungen der Arbeits-plätze, die Anwendung getrennt angeordneter Anzeigeeinrichtungen und die Instandhaltung von Wartenräumen. ISO 11064-3 umfaßt alle Arten von Leitzentralen, einschließlich der für Verfahrenstechnik, Transportsysteme und Leitsysteme für Notdienste. Obwohl ISO 11064-3 in erster Linie für ortsfeste Leitzentralen vorgesehen ist, könnten viele Grundsätze für ortsveränderliche Leitzentralen, wie solchen auf Schiffen und in Flugzeugen, zutreffen und angewendet werden.

Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 3: Agencement de la salle de commande (ISO 11064-3:1999)

La présente partie de l'ISO 11064 établit les principes ergonomiques applicables à l'agencement des salles de commande. Elle inclut les exigences, recommandations et directives relatives à l'agencement des salles de commande, à la disposition des postes de travail, à l'usage des dispositifs d'affichage partagés et à la maintenance de la salle de commande.Elle couvre tous les types de centres de commande, y compris ceux destinés à l'industrie de transformation, aux transports, ainsi qu'aux systèmes de surveillance et de communication des services d'urgence. Bien que la présente partie de l'ISO 11064 ait été conçue à l'origine pour les centres de commande fixes, bon nombre des principes s'appliquent également aux centres mobiles, tels que ceux présents à bord des navires et des avions.

Ergonomsko načrtovanje krmilnih centrov - 3. del: Ureditev krmilnega prostora (ISO 11064-3:1999)

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
Ergonomic design of control centres - Part 3: Control room layout (ISO 11064-3:1999)
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Leitzentralen - Teil 3: Auslegung von Wartenräumen (ISO
Conception ergonomique des centres de commande - Partie 3: Agencement de la salle
de commande (ISO 11064-3:1999)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11064-3:1999
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
25.040.10 9HþRSHUDFLMVNLVWURML Machining centres
SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
First edition
Ergonomic design of control centres —
Part 3:
Control room layout
Conception ergonomique des centres de commande —
Partie 3: Agencement de la salle de commande
Reference number
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
© ISO 1999

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO/FDIS 11064-3:1999(E)
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© ISO 1999
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ii © ISO 1999 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
Contents Page
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Ergonomic design of control centres . 5
4.1 Process for control room layout . 5
4.2 General considerations for control room layout . 6
4.3 Architectural/building recommendations . 9
4.4 Workstation arrangements . 13
4.5 Shared visual displays, off-workstation . 15
4.6 Personnel circulation and maintenance access . 17
Annex A: Examples of control room layout . 22
Annex B: Anthropometric data of the world population:. 34
Bibliography . 35
© ISO/FDIS 1996
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
© ISO 1999 – All rights reserved iii

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO
member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical
committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in
liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commis-
sion (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standard are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard ISO 11064-3 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics,
Subcommittee SC 4, Ergonomics of human-system interaction.
ISO 11064 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic design of control centres:
— Part 1: Principle for the design of control centres.
— Part 2: Principles of control suite arrangement
— Part 3: Control room layout
— Part 4: Workstation layout and dimensions
— Part 5: Displays and controls
— Part 6: Environmental requirements for control centres
— Part 7: Principles for the evaluation of control centres
— Part 8: Ergonomic requirements for specific applications
Annexes A and B of this part of ISO 11064 are for information only.
© ISO 1999
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
iv © ISO 1999 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
This part of ISO 11064 establishes ergonomic requirements, recommendations and guidelines for control room lay-
User requirements are a central theme of this part of ISO 11064 and the processes described are designed to take
account of needs of users at all stages. The overall strategy for dealing with the user requirements as strategy to be
adopted for control room design is presented in ISO 11064-1.
ISO 11064-2 provides guidance on the design and planning of the control room in relation to its supporting areas.
Requirements for the design of workstations, displays and controls and the physical working environment are pre-
sented in ISO 11064-4 to ISO 11064-6. Evaluation principles are dealt with in ISO 11064-7.
ISO 11064-1 to ISO 11064-7 cover general principles of ergonomic design appropriate to a range of industries and
service providers. The specific requirements appropriate to particular sectors or applications areas are covered in
ISO 11064-8. The requirements presented in ISO 11064-8 are to be read in conjunction with ISO 11064-1 to
ISO 11064-7.
The ultimate beneficiaries of this part of ISO 11064 will be the control room operator and other users. It is the needs
of these users that provide the ergonomic requirements used by the developers of International Standards. Although
it is unlikely that the end user will read this part of ISO 11064, or even know of its existence, its application should
provide the user with interfaces that are more usable and a working environment which is more consistent with oper-
ational demands. It should result in a solution which will minimize error and enhance productivity.
For determining design dimensions, the practice of providing formulae, into which appropriate user population data
is inserted, is adopted. A table of anthropometric data is presented in annex B.
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
Ergonomic design of control centres —
Part 3:
Control room layout
1 Scope
This part of ISO 11064 establishes ergonomic principles for the layout of control rooms. It includes requirements,
recommendations and guidelines on control room layouts, workstation arrangements, the use of off-workstation
visual displays and control room maintenance.
It covers all types of control centres, including those for the process industry, transport and dispatching systems in
the emergency services. Although this part of ISO 11064 is primarily intended for non-mobile control centres, many
of the principles could be relevant/applicable to mobile centres, such as those found on ships and aircraft.
2 Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this part of ISO ISO 11064. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these
publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 11064 are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC
maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 7250:1996, Basic human body measurements for technological design.
ISO 9241-3:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 3: Visual
display requirements.
ISO 9241-5:1998, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 5:
Workstation layout and postural requirements.
ISO 11428:1996, Ergonomics – Visual danger signals – General requirements, design and testing.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this part of ISO 11064, the following terms amd definitions apply.
NOTE To assist with the interpretation of these definitions, descriptive Figures 1 and 2 are included in this clause.
control centre
combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the
same site (see Figure 1)
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
control console
structural framework which supports equipment, worksurfaces and storage and which together comprise a control
control panel
discrete surface on which groups of displays and controls are mounted; control panels may be mounted on the
control workstation or on walls (see Figure 2)
control room
core functional entity, and its associated physical structure, where control room operators are stationed to carry out
centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities
control room operator
individual whose primary duties relate to the conduct of monitoring and control functions, usually at a control
workstation, either on their own or in conjunction with other personnel both within the control room or outside
control suite
group of functionally related rooms, co-located with the control room, and including it, which house the supporting
functions to the control room, such as related offices, equipment rooms, rest areas and training rooms (see Figure 1)
control workstation
single or multiple working position, including all equipment such as computers and communication terminals and
furniture at which control and monitoring functions are conducted (see Figure 2)
direct operator supervision
supervision of control room operators, and other staff, by direct observation and/or via direct speech links
device for presenting information that can change with the aim of making things visible, audible or discriminable by
tactile or proprioceptive perception
functional groups
grouping of control workstations where the operational duties are such that close, direct liaison is required and
therefore benefit from proximity to one another
functional layout
layout in which the general location of differing control functions in a control room are indicated
gross area
overall number of square metres designated for a control room
any reduction in normal capacity due to mental or physical factors which prevents an individual from experiencing or
performing a full complement of activities [8]
intimate zone
distance at which the presence of another person is unmistakable through such factors as sight, olfaction, heat and
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
local control station
operator interface that is located near the equipment or system being monitored and/or controlled
off-workstation display
displays which are not mounted on the control workstation; such displays, often visual, may be display panels, mimic
diagrams and observation windows (see Figure 2)
primary information
information which is essential for the satisfactory exercise of control functions
primary workstation
control workstation that is usually staffed and is in the main control area
secondary information
information which is either of secondary importance to the control function or which does not need to be immediately
available to the control room operator
secondary workstation
workstation on which supportive tasks are undertaken, or on which an overload of tasks can be carried out during
periods of peak workloads
shared visual display device
on-workstation visual display which needs to be used by more than one control room operator while they are at their
control workstations
stature (body height)
vertical distance from the floor to the highest point of the head (vertex)
[ISO 7250:1996]
individual whose primary responsibilities relate to the satisfactory conduct of control functions by the control room,
the supervision of staff and equipment and, when necessary, the conduct of control tasks
task analysis
analytical process employed to determine the specific behaviours required of people when operating equipment or
doing work
[ISO 9241-5:1998]
usable area
gross area less deduction for unusable spaces, such as around pillars, awkward corners and nearby entrances/exits
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
1 Control room
2 Control suite
3 Control centre
4 Control room
5 Equipment
6 Kitchen
7 Eating and rest areas
Figure 1 — Schematic illustrations of control room, control suite and control centre
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
1 Off-workstation visual display
2 Wall-mounted control panel
3 Control console
5 Control panel
6 Control workstation
(consistsof3,4,and 5)
Figure 2 — Illustration of definitions associated with control workstation and off-workstation
visual displays
4 Ergonomic design of control centres
4.1 Process for control room layout
The following flowchart summarizes a general procedure for the control room layout, where only the main activities
have been noted (see Figure 3).
For the purposes of this part of ISO 11064, it is assumed that a number of control room characteristics have been
largely finalized and act as an input to the process summarized in the flowchart. These ergonomic features include
job descriptions, staffing profiles, equipment specifications and overall operating procedures. For many control room
projects, at the stage where layouts need to be undertaken, not all of the ergonomic features have been finalized. In
order to proceed with the ergonomic design process in accordance with this part of ISO 11064, it is necessary to
agree upon working assumptions for those aspects where final information is not available. This information and the
finalized ergonomic features are recorded in an Operational Specification or Functional Specification.
The flowchart refers to information input during the preparation of “functional layouts”. This information will include
the number of control workstations as well as any required arrangements of workstations. Grouping should be based
on functional linkages, for example, equipment sharing, direct lines of sight and requirements for direct speech.
The development of a preferred control room layout will, typically, include the following activities. Based on the
operational requirements summarized in a functional link analysis, workstation arrangement and layouts should be
prepared within the available space. These layouts should take account of such functional links, as face to face
communications and sightlines to shared off-workstation overview displays, as noted in the functional link analysis.
Functional layout need only be approximately to scale. A number of different functional layout options are prepared
which meet, to varying degrees, the requirements in the Operational Specification. Translating these functional
layouts to possible room layouts is achieved by replacing functional groups with approximate workstation footprint
sizes and adjusting the layouts to maintain required circulation and maintenance access. A similar process can be
used for room layouts where no space has been decided for the control room, under which circumstances the
functional layouts/room layouts can be used to specify the space to be provided for these functions.
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
Once having determined alternative control room layouts, these shall be tested by control room operators/users
against the requirements contained within the Operational Specification. Through a process of iteration, the best
control room layout should be sought.
The final control room layout selected should be validated against documented performance criteria, and a record
made of the performance of the room against these criteria and any compromises made (see 4.2.6).
4.2 General considerations for control room layout
This subclause summarizes some general considerations for the planning and layout of control rooms. A fuller
account of these is presented later in this part of ISO 11064 together with other requirements concerned with control
room layout.
4.2.1 Architectural considerations Entrances/exits
Main entrances and exits should not form part of the working visual fields of the control room operator, unless the
operators have some specific responsibility for checking on the entry/exit of staff (see 4.4.1).
Entrances and exits should not be positioned behind the control room operator (see 4.3.3). Personnel safety
Features, such as guard-rails and handrails, should be provided to minimize safety hazards in control rooms (see
4.3.2) where various floor levels are found. Future expansion
Control rooms should allow for expansion: provision for expansion will be influenced by such factors as the built-in
life-span of the control room and predicted changes in workload or logistics: typically allowance for approximately
25 % increase in working positions and equipment has been found from practical experience to be prudent
(see 4.3.2).
4.2.2 Operational considerations Task analysis
Room layouts should be based on an agreed set of principles derived from operational feedback (if available), task
analysis and an understanding of the worker population including workers with disabilities: these underlying
principles should be fully documented (see 4.1). Team working
The layout of control rooms, where many of the control room operators work, should facilitate team working
opportunities and social interaction for operators where this factor is deemed important for the primary tasks to be
performed (see 4.4.1). Organizational factors
The control room layout should reflect the allocation of responsibilities and the requirements for supervision. Operational links
Optimizing key operational links, including sightlines, or direct speech communication should be a goal in control
room layouts (see 4.4.1).
4.2.3 Workstation arrangements Room layout
Control rooms which exhibit either overcrowding of workpositions, or widely dispersed workpositions, are not
recommended. Layouts should allow, wherever practical, direct verbal communication between the control room
operators and avoid excessively short separations between adjacent operators (see 4.4.1).
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
NOTE Feedback loops can occur at any stage of the process.
Figure 3 — General procedure for control room layout
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E) Consistency
Control rooms with similar functions and in the same plant or facility, such as occur in a control complex, should
adopt the same ergonomic principles of room layout to facilitate decision-making and teamwork. Physically disadvantaged
Where physically disadvantaged control room operators or visitors (those exhibiting a disability) are expected to use
the control room, adequate facilities should be provided (see 4.4.5).
NOTE National regulations may take precedence over the requirements in this part of ISO 11064. Posture variation
There are ergonomic benefits in varying postures during periods of work. Wherever practicable, it is recommended
that control workstation layouts and work regimes allow control room operators to change their posture at the control
workstation and to move from their workstations from time to time (see ISO 9241-5:1998). Under no circumstances
should this interfere with primary control duties or be undertaken as part of a time-critical activity.
NOTE This may be achieved by locating some off-workstation equipment at a distance from the main operating positions. Body size
Room dimensions and control workstation layout dimensions and features for which peoples’ sizes are relevant, e.g.
seated view over workstations, shall take account of the range of control room operators for which these items are
being provided (see 4.5.1). Windows
Control room operators using visual displays should not be facing windows unless these windows are a primary
information source. The location of control workstations where windows are behind the operator should be avoided
since this may give rise to reflections on the display screen. If control room operators do have to face windows,
whilst using visual display terminals, the differences in luminances should not lead to glare. See clause A.4.
4.2.4 Off-workstation shared visual displays
The layout of the control room shall ensure that all off-workstation visual displays, necessary for the control room
operators’ task, are visible from all relevant control workstations (see 4.5.1).
4.2.5 Circulation of personnel and maintenance access
Circulation of control room staff, maintenance staff and all visitors should be achieved with minimum disruption to the
work of control room operators (see 4.6.1).
Where it is anticipated that the supervisory positions will give rise to additional circulation from outside the control
room, it is recommended that these positions be located close to main entrances (see 4.6.1).
Operational areas should have a means of restricting thoroughfare access (see 4.6.1).
All aspects of control room layout shall take account of the requirements for maintenance access (see 4.6.2).
4.2.6 Verification and validation of control room layout
Verification is the process of determining that something has been designed and constructed according to a defined
specification. Validation is the process of determining that the object, which has been built/developed, is able to
carry out the task for which it is intended.
Verification and validation should be integrated with the design process and should be performed in parallel with top
level design, detailed design and during the development of prototypes. Verification and validation should be an
iterative process during the development of the design. It should give feedback to the designer in moving towards
the best possible solution. It may include a number of different methods and techniques.
Examples of these are
— guideline evaluations (or use of checklists), i.e., using human factor guidelines and standards to check the
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SIST EN ISO 11064-3:2001
ISO 11064-3:1999(E)
— different task analysis techniques like link analysis or time-line analysis, where communication and co-ordination
— the use of “walk and talk through” techniques, where the idea is to work through scenarios/sequences in the new
These techniques need appropriate representations of the new design which could be
— representations based on drawings and photographs,
— traditional full-scale mock-ups or small models, or
— computer models, as produced by computer-aided design tools.
Finally, as an advanced tool, mock-ups based on virtual reality technology could also be used.
4.2.7 Documentation
Evaluation criteria, compromises and decisions based on ergonomic principles should be documented and securely
stored so that future modifications can take proper account of these factors (see Figure 3).
4.3 Architectural/building recommendations
The recommendations in this subclause relate to the provision of space within buildings for control rooms.
4.3.1 Plan space provision Selection of space
In particular the following factors have to be taken into account.
— The selection of a space for a control room should be based on the usable area, not the gross area.
— Obstructions and structural features, such as pillars and awkward corners, within a proposed/planned control
area, will severely reduce the available space and could result in sub-optimal work layouts.
2 2
— A heuristic value for planning floor-space allocation is to allow for 9 m to 15 m per working position with a
minimum of not less than 9 m . This has been found to be satisfactory for rooms with more than one control
room operator and which are permanently staffed, and takes account of typical equipment volumes, seating
space and maintenance access. Precise requirements shall be based on a task analysis. This space provision
is based on the use of “usable” area.
NOTE 1 The figures presented are based on a survey of spaces actually used in operational rooms which were themselves
2 2
based on an ergonomic design process. These figures, of 9 m to 15 m per working position, are typically associated with
control rooms comprising single workstations (or clusters of workstations) and no large, off-workstation shared visual display.
In some control rooms, where large, shared overview displays are a dominant operational feature, space allocations of up to
50 m have been measured.
— If additional staff need to be accommodated during off-normal operations, within the control room, sufficient
space should be allowed for these additional staff to be housed.
— Temporary positions should be provided alongside permanent control room operator positions, where these
additional staff are expected to be present during shift changes.
— Square, circular and hexagonal spaces are preferred for the arrangement of functional groups, because they
offer the potential of maximizing the number of links (see Figure 4); long narrow spaces should be avoided since
they can unduly reduce options.
NOTE 2 It is recognized that certain shapes of room are more likely to concentrate noise, which can sometimes lead to
problems: su

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