Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies - Part 6-9: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-8, Module M3-8-8

This Technical Report (CEN/TR 15316-6-9) specifies details for EN 15316-4-8 and gives additional information for the application of EN 15316-4-8.

Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in Gebäuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der Anlagen - Teil 6-9: Begleitender TR zur EN 15316-4-8 (Wärmeerzeugung von Warmluft- und Strahlungsheizsystemen)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de calcul des besoins énergétiques et des rendements des systèmes - Partie 6-9: Explication et justification de l’EN 15316-4-8, Module M3-8-8

Le présent rapport technique fait référence à l’EN 15316 4 8:2017, module M3-8.8.
Il contient des informations permettant d’assurer une compréhension, une utilisation et une adaptation nationale correctes de l’EN 15316 4 8:2017.
Le présent Rapport technique ne contient aucune disposition normative.
Le domaine d’application de l’EN 15316 4 8:2017 inclut trois catégories de produits :
   les systèmes de chauffage par air chaud désignent des systèmes comportant un ou plusieurs générateurs d’air chaud pour le chauffage. L’air chaud peut être diffusé dans le local d’installation à partir du générateur ou distribué par le biais d’un réseau de conduits ;
   les systèmes de chauffage suspendus par rayonnement désignent des systèmes utilisant un gaz et conçus pour fournir de la chaleur dans le local d’installation. Le rayonnement peut être généré directement par la flamme (appareils surélevés de chauffage à rayonnement lumineux) ou par circulation des produits de combustion dans un réseau de conduits installé à proximité du plafond (tubes radiants suspendus) ;
   les poêles et les appareils de chauffage locaux désignent des dispositifs locaux fournissant de la chaleur par transfert de la chaleur générée par la combustion dans l’environnement proche.
Les dispositifs types sont illustrés aux Figures 1 à 4.

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Metoda za izračun energijskih zahtev in učinkovitosti sistema - 6-9. del: Razlaga in utemeljitev EN 15316-4-8 - Modul M3-8-8

To tehnično poročilo (CEN/TR 15316-6-9) določa podrobnosti za standard EN 15316-4-8 in podaja dodatne informacije za uporabo standarda EN 15316-4-8.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jan-2017
Publication Date
18-Apr-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Apr-2018
Due Date
10-Jun-2018
Completion Date
19-Apr-2018

Buy Standard

Technical report
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018 - BARVE na PDF-str 9,10
English language
44 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
01-maj-2018

(QHUJLMVNHODVWQRVWLVWDYE0HWRGD]DL]UDþXQHQHUJLMVNLK]DKWHYLQXþLQNRYLWRVWL

VLVWHPDGHO5D]ODJDLQXWHPHOMLWHY(10RGXO0

Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements

and system efficiencies - Part 6-9: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-8, Module

M3-8-8
Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in Gebäuden - Verfahren zur
Berechnung der Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der Anlagen - Teil 6-9:
Begleitender TR zur EN 15316-4-8 (Wärmeerzeugung von Warmluft- und
Strahlungsheizsystemen)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de calcul des besoins énergétiques

et des rendements des systèmes - Partie 6-9: Explication et justification de l’EN 15316-4-

8, Module M3-8-8
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017
ICS:
91.140.10 Sistemi centralnega Central heating systems
ogrevanja
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
May 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 27.160; 91.120.10; 91.140.10
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation
of system energy requirements and system efficiencies -
Part 6-9: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-8,
Module M3-8-8

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in

calcul des besoins énergétiques et des rendements des Gebäuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der

systèmes - Partie 6-9: Explication et justification de Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der

l'EN 15316-4-8, Module M3-8-8 Anlagen - Teil 6-9: Begleitender TR zur EN 15316-4-8

(Wärmeerzeugung von Warmluft- und
Strahlungsheizsystemen)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 27 February 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

228.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Symbols and subscripts ................................................................................................................................ 9

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Subscripts ........................................................................................................................................................ 10

5 Information on the methods .................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Output of the method .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Alternative methods ................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Connection with building needs and zoning ...................................................................................... 11

5.4 Application data............................................................................................................................................ 11

5.5 Using net and gross calorific values ...................................................................................................... 11

6 Single stage heaters ..................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1 Rationale ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.1.2 Losses calculation principle ..................................................................................................................... 12

6.1.3 Auxiliary energy ........................................................................................................................................... 13

6.1.4 Expression of heat losses ........................................................................................................................... 14

6.1.5 Recoverable, recovered and unrecoverable heat losses ............................................................... 14

6.1.6 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

6.1.7 Characterization of a heater ..................................................................................................................... 15

6.1.8 Characterization of local heaters include into lot 20 of Ecodesign regulation ...................... 15

6.1.9 Operating conditions characterization ................................................................................................ 15

6.1.10 Energy balance diagram ............................................................................................................................ 16

6.1.11 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.2 Calculation intervals ................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 18

6.3.1 Product data ................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3.2 System design data ...................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.3 Operating conditions .................................................................................................................................. 21

6.3.4 Constants and physical data ..................................................................................................................... 21

6.4 Calculation procedure ................................................................................................................................ 22

6.4.1 Applicable timestep ..................................................................................................................................... 22

6.4.2 Time with burner ON and OFF ................................................................................................................. 22

6.4.3 Loss factors calculation .............................................................................................................................. 22

6.4.4 Recovered auxiliary energy...................................................................................................................... 23

6.4.5 Energy calculation ....................................................................................................................................... 23

7 Multistage and modulating heaters ....................................................................................................... 24

7.1 Output data ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

7.2 Calculation intervals ................................................................................................................................... 24

7.3 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)

7.3.1 Product data ................................................................................................................................................... 24

7.3.2 System design data ....................................................................................................................................... 24

7.3.3 Operating conditions ................................................................................................................................... 24

7.3.4 Constants and physical data ..................................................................................................................... 24

7.4 Calculation procedure ................................................................................................................................. 24

7.4.1 Applicable calculation interval ................................................................................................................ 24

7.4.2 Operating conditions calculation ............................................................................................................ 24

7.4.3 Time with burner ON and OFF ................................................................................................................. 24

7.4.4 Loss factors calculation .............................................................................................................................. 24

7.4.5 Auxiliary energy at minimum power .................................................................................................... 25

7.4.6 Energy calculation ........................................................................................................................................ 25

8 Stoves and local heaters ............................................................................................................................. 25

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

8.2 Stoves without connection to a water based system ....................................................................... 26

8.2.1 Output data ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

8.2.2 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

8.2.3 Special cases ................................................................................................................................................... 26

8.2.4 Data input for solid fuel local heaters included in Lot 20 of Ecodesign regulation .............. 26

8.3 Stoves and local heaters with a connection to a water based heating system ....................... 26

9 Method selection ........................................................................................................................................... 27

10 Worked out examples ................................................................................................................................. 27

11 Application range ......................................................................................................................................... 27

12 Regulation use ............................................................................................................................................... 27

13 Information on the accompanying spreadsheet ................................................................................ 27

14 Results of the validation tests .................................................................................................................. 27

15 Quality issues ................................................................................................................................................. 28

Annex A (informative) Calculation flowchart .................................................................................................... 29

A.1 Single stage heater ....................................................................................................................................... 29

A.2 Multi-stage and modulating heaters ...................................................................................................... 30

Annex B (informative) Balance formulae and origin of iteration formulae ........................................... 31

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

B.2 Energy balance for single stage heaters ............................................................................................... 31

B.3 Multi-stage or modulating ......................................................................................................................... 32

B.3.1 Expression of losses ..................................................................................................................................... 32

B.3.2 Multi-stage or modulating – on/off attempt ....................................................................................... 34

B.3.3 Multi-stage or modulating – average power calculation ................................................................ 35

Annex C (informative) Example: On-Off heater ................................................................................................ 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 44

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 228

“Heating systems and water based cooling systems in buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
Introduction
The set of EPB standards, technical reports and supporting tools:

In order to facilitate the necessary overall consistency and coherence, in terminology, approach,

input/output relations and formats, for the whole set of EPB-standards, the following documents and

tools are available:
a) a document with basic principles to be followed in drafting EPB-standards:

CEN/TS 16628, Energy Performance of Buildings — Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards [1];

b) a document with detailed technical rules to be followed in drafting EPB-standards;

CEN/TS 16629, Energy Performance of Buildings — Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-

standards [2];
c) the detailed technical rules are the basis for the following tools:

1) a common template for each EPB-standard, including specific drafting instructions for the

relevant clauses;

2) a common template for each technical report that accompanies an EPB standard or a cluster of

EPB standards, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant clauses;

3) a common template for the spreadsheet that accompanies each EPB standard, to demonstrate

the correctness of the EPB calculation procedures.

Each EPB-standards follows the basic principles and the detailed technical rules and relates to the

overarching EPB-standard, EN ISO 52000-1:2017.

One of the main purposes of the revision of the EPB-standards is to enable that laws and regulations

directly refer to the EPB-standards and make compliance with them compulsory. This requires that the

set of EPB-standards consists of a systematic, clear, comprehensive and unambiguous set of energy

performance procedures. The number of options provided is kept as low as possible, taking into

account national and regional differences in climate, culture and building tradition, policy and legal

frameworks (subsidiarity principle). For each option, an informative default option is provided

(Annex B).
Rationale behind the EPB technical reports:

There is a risk that the purpose and limitations of the EPB standards will be misunderstood, unless the

background and context to their contents – and the thinking behind them – is explained in some detail

to readers of the standards. Consequently, various types of informative contents are recorded and made

available for users to properly understand, apply and nationally or regionally implement the EPB

standards.

If this explanation would have been attempted in the standards themselves, the result is likely to be

confusing and cumbersome, especially if the standards are implemented or referenced in national or

regional building codes.

Therefore each EPB standard is accompanied by an informative technical report, like this one, where all

informative content is collected, to ensure a clear separation between normative and informative

contents (see CEN/TS 16629 [2]):

- to avoid flooding and confusing the actual normative part with informative content,

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
- to reduce the page count of the actual standard, and
- to facilitate understanding of the set of EPB standards.

This was also one of the main recommendations from the European CENSE project [4] that laid the

foundation for the preparation of the set of EPB standards.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
1 Scope
This Technical Report refers to EN 15316-4-8:2017, module M3-8.8.

It contains information to support the correct understanding, use and national adaptation of

EN 15316-4-8:2017.
This Technical Report does not contain any normative provision.
The scope of EN 15316-4-8:2017 includes three categories of products:

• air heating systems means a system with one or more warm air generators for heating purpose.

The hot air may be diffused in the installation space from the generator or distributed via a

ductwork.

• overhead radiant heating systems, means systems using gas and designed to provide heat into the

installation room. Radiation may be generated directly by the flame (overhead radiant luminous

heaters) or by circulation of flue gas in a ductwork installed near the ceiling (overhead radiant tube

heaters).

• stoves and local heaters means local devices that provide heat by transferring the heat generated

by combustion into the surrounding environment.
The typical devices are shown in Figures 1 to 4.
Figure 1 — Warm air generator for an air heating system
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
Figure 2 — Overhead radiant luminous heater
Figure 3 — Overhead radiant tube heater
a) b)
Figure 4 — Examples of local space heater: pellet stove and inset
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15316-1, Energy performance of buildings — Method for calculation of system energy requirements

and system efficiencies — Part 1: General and Energy performance expression, Module M3-1, M3-4, M3-9,

M8-1, M8-4

EN 15316-4-8:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies — Part 4-8: Space heating generation systems, air heating and

overhead radiant heating systems, including stoves (local), Module M3-8-8

EN ISO 7345:1995, Thermal insulation — Physical quantities and definitions (ISO 7345:1987)

EN ISO 52000-1:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Overarching EPB assessment — Part 1:

General framework and procedures (ISO 52000-1:2017)

NOTE References in the text of the standard are given as module codes that are detailed in the annex. This

enables flexible references (e.g. to national documents where necessary for local application) and use outside the

CEN environment.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345:1995,

EN ISO 52000-1:2017 and EN 15316-4-8:2017 apply.
NOTE 1 No new definition is given in this Technical Report.

NOTE 2 During public enquiry, it was commented that the term “stove” is not appropriate. The correct term,

which is used in the product standard is “local heaters”, meaning a heater which is not attached to any distribution

system. The term “stove” survived in the title, as a synonym of “local heater” because the title of a standard cannot

be changed during the drafting process.
4 Symbols and subscripts
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this document some special symbols are defined in EN 15316-4-8:2017:

— α is used for losses factors. They are expressed as a percentage, so the usual range is 0 to 100. Some

negative values or values beyond 100 are expected when dealing with condensing heaters.

— β is used for loaf factors. They are expressed in per unit, so the usual range is 0 to 1. Typically β is a

value that changes at each calculation interval depending on load.
— ∇ϑ has been used for the vertical temperature gradient.

NOTE: ∇ϑ is not a temperature difference but a temperature gradient, e.g. a temperature difference per unit

length expressed in °C/m.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
4.2 Subscripts

The subscript “lrh” (“Local Radiant Heaters”) has been used to identify all symbols that are exclusive to

this standard.
5 Information on the methods
5.1 Output of the method

The output of this method is the same as any heat generation sub-system and the same time-step of the

output. If necessary, it is possible to combine different calculation intervals for the input and the output.

This is specified in EN 15316-4-8:2017, 6.2.

No significant dynamic effect is taken into account. There is no difference in the calculation for any

calculation interval from hourly to seasonal.

A more detailed analysis could be required in future for independent heaters with a high heat capacity

(slow release heat stoves).

The heater seasonal efficiency or expenditure factor could be used as a legal requirement. It should be

clear if this indicator has to include or not the effect of auxiliaries and, if so, which weighting factors

shall be used. More information about extracting specific indicators is available in EN 15316-1.

The calculated performance of the heater takes into account:
— type and characteristics of the radiant heater;
— heater settings;
— type of the heater control;
— location of the heater (e.g. indoor/outdoor);
— operating conditions;
— heat requirement.
5.2 Alternative methods
A separate method is given for:
— on-off heaters (EN 15316-4-8:2017, Clause 6);
— multi-stage and modulating heaters (EN 15316-4-8:2017, Clause 7).

No distinction is made between multi-stage and modulating heaters. A linear behaviour is assumed

between minimum and maximum power continuous operation.
An on/off heater is characterized by 2 possible states:
1) burner off (tON);
2) burner on at maximum power (tOFF).

and the calculation procedure determines the duration of t (or the load factor β )

lrh;ON lrh;cmb
A multistage or modulating generator is characterized by 3 states:
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
3) burner off;
4) burner on at minimum power;
5) burner on at maximum power.
It is assumed that only two situations are possible:

6) the burner is operating intermittently as a single stage burner at minimum power;

7) the burner is operating at a constant average power between minimum and maximum power.

A separate complementary procedure is given for heaters that include a heat exchanger to provide heat

to a water based heating system (8.3).
5.3 Connection with building needs and zoning

Since there is no distribution system, a radiant heater or a stove may contribute only to the heating of

the spaces where it is installed.

It is relevant to limit the possibility of the heater to supply heat to the building especially in the case of

wood stoves and other heaters running with biomass to avoid unreal advantages.

This implies that thermal zones are set up so to isolate the part of the building that might be heated by a

local heater. As an alternative, the potential contribution of the local heater or stove to the thermal zone

should be limited to a quota given by the ratio between the area or volume heated and the thermal zone

area or volume.
5.4 Application data
No application data are specified in the normative part of EN 15316-4-8:2017.

EN 15316-4-8:2017, Annex A provides a template to specify the required application data.

EN 15316-4-8:2017, Annex B includes informative default application data for immediate use of the

standard. Other application data can be specified by national standards and regulations, depending on

the purpose of the calculation.
See also EN 15316-4-8:2017, A.1 and B.1.
5.5 Using net and gross calorific values

The method described in EN 15316-4-8 is based on the net calorific value, which is the most common

reference in the legislation, also for safety issues.

If the input data are given with reference to gross calorific values it shall be converted.

If the output data are desired with reference to gross calorific values it shall be converted.

Net and gross calorific values are given by reference to EN ISO 52000-1:2017. A different (e.g. national)

reference can be specified via a specific table complying with EN 15316-4-8:2017, Table A.1.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-9:2017 (E)
6 Single stage heaters
6.1 Rationale
6.1.1 General

The calculation method for air and radiant heaters and stoves is based on the analysis and estimation of

losses.

The main input data are the tested efficiencies at full and minimum power and losses factors.

Measured efficiencies are converted into losses factors.

Operating conditions are taken into account by correcting the losses factors according to actual

operating conditions as compared to test conditions. Default correlations and data are used for the

correction.
A calculation flowchart is given in Annex A of this technical report.
6.1.2 Losses calculation principle

The operation time of the generator t is the total time when the generator is available to supply

lrh;gen

heat as demanded by the temperature control. It is a specified fraction of the calculation interval (tci),

depending on the timing control of the generation.

— For a monthly calculation interval, the operation time depends on the operation schedule

— For an hourly calculation interval, the operation time is usually the entire hour or zero if the hour is

part of a non-heating period.
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.