Indoor air - Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

This part of ISO 16000 is intended as an aid to planning volatile organic compound (VOC) indoor pollution measurements. In the case of indoor air measurements, the careful planning of sampling and the entire measurement strategy are of particular significance since the result of the measurement may have farreaching consequences, for example, with regard to the need for remedial action or the success of such an action. An inappropriate measurement strategy may contribute to the complete uncertainty of the measurement result in a larger extent than the measurement procedure itself. This part of ISO 16000 uses the definition for indoor environment defined in ISO 16000-1.

Innenraumluftverunreinigungen - Teil 5: Probenahmestrategie für flüchtige organische Verbindungen (VOC) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

Dieser Teil der ISO 16000 gibt Hilfestellungen zur Planung von Messungen flüchtiger organischer Verbindungen (VOC) als Innenraumluftschadstoff. Die sorgfältige Planung der Probenahme und der gesamten Messstrategie ist bei Innenraumluftuntersuchungen von besonderer Tragweite, da das Untersuchungsergebnis erhebliche Konsequenzen haben kann, so z. B. hinsichtlich eines Sanierungsbedarfs oder des Erfolgs einer Sanierung.
Eine ungeeignete Messstrategie kann zur Gesamtunsicherheit des Messergebnisses stärker beitragen als das Messverfahren selbst.
In diesem Teil der ISO 16000 wird die Definition für den Innenraum entsprechend der Festlegung in der  
ISO 16000-1 verwendet.

Air intérieur - Partie 5: Stratégie d'échantillonnage pour les composés organiques volatils (COV) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

L'ISO 16000-5:2007 a pour but d'apporter une aide lors de la planification des mesurages de la pollution de l'air intérieur par des composés organiques volatils (COV). Dans le cas des mesurages de l'air intérieur, une planification de l'échantillonnage ainsi que l'ensemble de la stratégie de mesurages élaborée avec soin jouent un rôle particulièrement important, étant donné que le mesurage peut avoir des conséquences importantes, par exemple pour déterminer la nécessité de mesures correctives ou le succès de telles mesures.
Une stratégie de contrôle inappropriée peut contribuer à une incertitude générale des résultats de mesurage, dans une plus grande mesure que la procédure de mesurage elle-même.

Notranji zrak - 5. del: Strategija vzorčenja hlapnih organskih spojin (VOC) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2007
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Aug-2007
Due Date
21-Oct-2007
Completion Date
17-Aug-2007

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
01-september-2007
1RWUDQML]UDNGHO6WUDWHJLMDY]RUþHQMDKODSQLKRUJDQVNLKVSRMLQ 92&  ,62


Indoor air - Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (ISO 16000

-5:2007)

Innenraumluftverunreinigungen - Teil 5: Probenahmestrategie für flüchtige organische

Verbindungen (VOC) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

Air intérieur - Partie 5: Stratégie d'échantillonnage pour les composés organiques volatils

(COV) (ISO 16000-5:2007)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 16000-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2007
ICS 13.040.20
English Version
Indoor air - Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) (ISO 16000-5:2007)

Air intérieur - Partie 5: Stratégie d'échantillonnage pour les Innenraumluftverunreinigungen - Teil 5:

composés organiques volatils (COV) (ISO 16000-5:2007) Probenahmestrategie für flüchtige organische

Verbindungen (VOC) (ISO 16000-5:2007)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 January 2007.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 16000-5:2007: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
EN ISO 16000-5:2007 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 16000-5:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146

"Air quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 "Air quality", the secretariat

of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2007, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by August 2007.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United

Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 16000-5:2007 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 16000-5:2007 without any

modifications.
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16000-5
First edition
2007-02-01
Indoor air —
Part 5:
Sampling strategy for volatile organic
compounds (VOCs)
Air intérieur —
Partie 5: Stratégie d'échantillonnage pour les composés organiques
volatils (COV)
Reference number
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
ISO 2007
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
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ii © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)............................................................................. 1

4 Sources and occurrence...................................................................................................................... 2

5 Measurement technique....................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Short-term measurements ................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Long-term measurements.................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling and measurement planning................................................................................................ 3

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Measurement objective and environmental conditions.................................................................... 4

6.3 Time of sampling .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Duration of sampling and frequency of measurement ..................................................................... 6

6.5 Sampling location................................................................................................................................. 8

6.6 Presentation of results and measurement uncertainty .................................................................... 8

6.7 Quality assurance................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Examples of organic chemicals detected in indoor air.......................................... 10

Annex B (informative) Protocol for recording activities and boundary conditions during sampling ..... 12

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16000-5 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air

and by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264, Air quality in collaboration.
ISO 16000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Indoor air:
⎯ Part 1: General aspects of sampling strategy
⎯ Part 2: Sampling strategy for formaldehyde

⎯ Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds — Active sampling method

⎯ Part 4: Determination of formaldehyde — Diffusive sampling method
⎯ Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

⎯ Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber air by active sampling on

Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

⎯ Part 7: Sampling strategy for determination of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations

⎯ Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions

⎯ Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and

furnishing — Emission test chamber method

⎯ Part 10: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and

furnishing — Emission test cell method

⎯ Part 11: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and

furnishing — Sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens

⎯ Part 12: Sampling strategy for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

(PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

⎯ Part 13: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls and

polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans — Collection on sorbent-backed filters

iv © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
⎯ Part 15: Sampling strategy for nitrogen dioxide (NO )
⎯ Part 16: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling by filtration
⎯ Part 17: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Culture-based method
The following parts are under preparation:

⎯ Part 14: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls and

polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans — Extraction, clean-up and analysis by high-resolution

gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
⎯ Part 18: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling of moulds by impaction
Furthermore, ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 deal with VOC measurements.
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
Introduction

In ISO 16000-1, general requirements relating to the measurement of indoor air pollutants and the important

conditions to be observed before or during the sampling of individual pollutants or groups of pollutants are

described.

This part of ISO 16000 describes basic aspects to be considered when working out a sampling strategy for the

measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. It is intended to be a link between

⎯ ISO 16000-1, Indoor air, General aspects of sampling strategy,

⎯ the analytical procedures described in ISO 16000-6, Indoor air, Determination of volatile organic

compounds in indoor air and test chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal

desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID, and

⎯ the more generic ISO 16017-1, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile

organic compounds by sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 1: Pumped

sampling and ISO 16017-2, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile

organic compounds by sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 2: Diffusive

sampling.
This part of ISO 16000 presupposes knowledge of ISO 16000-1.
[1]

The sampling strategy procedure described in this part of ISO 16000 is based on Guideline VDI 4300 Part 6 .

vi © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
Indoor air —
Part 5:
Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 16000 is intended as an aid to planning volatile organic compound (VOC) indoor pollution

measurements. In the case of indoor air measurements, the careful planning of sampling and the entire

measurement strategy are of particular significance since the result of the measurement may have far-

reaching consequences, for example, with regard to the need for remedial action or the success of such an

action.

An inappropriate measurement strategy may contribute to the complete uncertainty of the measurement result

in a larger extent than the measurement procedure itself.

This part of ISO 16000 uses the definition for indoor environment defined in ISO 16000-1.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 16000-1:2004, Indoor air — General aspects of sampling strategy

ISO 16000-6, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor air and test chamber

air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

ISO 16000-8, Indoor air — Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing

ventilation conditions

ISO 16017-1, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds by

sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 1: Pumped sampling

ISO 16017-2, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds by

sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 2: Diffusive sampling

3 Definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Numerous organic compounds are present in indoor environments. Depending on volatility, these are present

in the gas phase or are bound to suspended particulate matter or deposited dust. A working group of the

[2]

World Health Organization WHO classified organic compounds based on boiling point (see Table 1).

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
[2]
Table 1 — Classification of organic pollutants of indoor air
Saturation
a a
Description Abbreviation Boiling point range vapour Examples of sampling media
pressures
from °C to °C kPa
Very volatile Activated carbon, cooled sampling
organic VVOC < 0 50 to 100 > 15 media, molecular sieves, canister
compounds method
® 1)
Volatile organic Tenax , graphitized carbon or
VOC 50 to 100 240 to 260 > 10
compounds activated carbon
Semi-volatile
−2 −8 b ® 1)
organic SVOC 240 to 260 380 to 400 10 to 10 PUF or XAD-2
compounds
Particulate organic
POM > 380 Filters
matter
The WHO information has been supplemented.
Polyurethane foam.

This classification, based primarily on the boiling point, takes into account aspects of the analysis, especially

gas chromatography. Since the transition points are fluid here, it is not useful to specify sharp limits for the

boiling point ranges and the sampling media to be selected.

NOTE 1 Boiling points of some compounds are difficult or impossible to determine because they decompose before

they boil at atmospheric pressure. Vapour pressure is another criterion for classification of compound volatility that may be

[3]
used for classification of organic chemicals .
NOTE 2 TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) is defined in ISO 16000-6.
4 Sources and occurrence

Several hundred VOCs have been detected in indoor air, stemming from various sources. These sources may

be present in the room continuously or intermittently. The most important continuous sources are all kinds of

building products, furniture, and room textiles. Intermittent sources include household products and products

for renovation, as well as the occupants and a number of their activities, such as smoking and hobby work.

Ambient air shall also be considered as a source although its contribution to indoor air pollution by VOCs is

generally less important.

The various types of sources mentioned in the preceding paragraph emit a wide range of different VOCs into

the indoor air. They also have different emission profiles. As the goal of most indoor air analyses is to provide

as representative information as possible on the air pollution status of a room, taking into account the

emission characteristics, it is important to develop a sound measurement strategy. In addition, it shall be

considered that VOC concentrations in indoor air vary from room to room and are also subject to change over

time.

It is difficult to establish a comprehensive list of which VOCs are emitted from which sources because of the

ongoing variation in the production of products and the resulting change in the composition of the mixture of

VOCs emitted. The VOCs listed in Annex A represent an overview of VOCs that are frequently found in indoor

1) The sorbents listed in Table 1 and elsewhere in this International Standard are those known to perform as specified

under this part of ISO 16000. Each sorbent or product that is identified by a trademarked name is unique and has a sole

manufacturer; however, they are widely available from many different suppliers. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this part of ISO 16000 and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

2 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)

air. A good overview of the VOC concentrations in indoor air of many countries are given in Reference [4]. The

compounds mostly belong to one of the following chemical classes: aliphatic hydrocarbons such as alkanes

and cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, alkoxyalcohols, esters,

ethers, and halocarbons.

This listing does not include a number of groups of compounds such as carboxylic acids, isocyanates or

amines. Although these VOC may be present in the air of a room they will not readily be detected with the

analytical methods routinely applied for VOC. Correct determination of these “special” VOCs, which may also

include a number of polar compounds, requires more complex analytical work.
[5

NOTE Sampling and analysis method for formaldehyde and other low boiling aldehydes are given in ISO 16000-3

[6]
and ISO 16000-4 .
5 Measurement technique
5.1 General

The methods for determining VOCs in indoor air may be divided into short-term and long-term measurement

methods, herewith assuming that determination of individual VOCs is considered. The basics of sampling and

analysis methods used for VOC analysis are described in ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2. When using active

sampling for VOCs from indoor air, ISO 16000-6 shall be used. (A protocol for recording activities and

boundary conditions during sampling is given in Annex B.)
5.2 Short-term measurements

Short-term measurements are generally understood to involve a sampling period from less than one hour to a

few hours depending on the purpose of the measurement.

The VOCs are concentrated in the sampling medium by air being drawn through the sorbent using suction

pumps (active sampling).

The sampling flow rate and the final sampling volume shall be selected as a function of the breakthrough

volumes of single VOCs (see ISO 16017-1).
5.3 Long-term measurements

Although it is possible to perform long-term measurements using active sampling with low air flow rate, for this

[7] to [18]

application, sampling using diffusive samplers is the method of choice . Passive samplers, from here

on called “diffusive samplers”, predominantly work according to the diffusion principle and give an integrated

measurement value as a mean over the selected exposure period (usually from a few days to several days or

weeks). In this method, short-term peak concentrations contribute towards the longer-term mean value given

by ISO 16017-2.
6 Sampling and measurement planning
6.1 General

When carrying out indoor air analysis, the procedure depends on the measurement purpose and the emission

characteristics of possible sources. Since sources that emit continuously and over long periods are typically

the most important, the following subclauses specifically target these types of sources.

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)
6.2 Measurement objective and environmental conditions
6.2.1 General

Before indoor air measurements are carried out, the objective of such measurements shall be clearly defined.

Also, independently of the objectives listed below, it shall be made clear in advance whether it is wished to

determine the concentration of a single organic compound, or a relatively small number of predetermined

VOCs or to record and evaluate the entire VOC profile. If necessary, the measurement strategy shall be

orientated accordingly.

Depending on the objective, different environmental conditions shall be maintained or recorded before and

during measurements. These environmental conditions principally relate to the ventilation condition, the room

temperature and the relative humidity.

6.2.2 Clarification of the reasons for complaints from room occupants, possibly in association with

checking compliance of guideline values for indoor air using short-term measurements

6.2.2.1 General

In many cases, indoor air analyses are initiated by various types of complaints expressed by the room

occupants. Complaints of this type can range, e.g. from the perception of unknown and frequently unpleasant

odours, to headaches, nausea or irritation of the nose, throat or eyes. If VOC guideline values exist and these

are time-related, the measuring or sampling period shall correspond to the specified time interval. VOC

measurement is carried out under the conditions described below.
6.2.2.2 Naturally ventilated rooms (rooms without mechanical ventilation)

After intensive ventilation for 15 min, doors and windows of naturally ventilated rooms are kept closed for

about 8 h (optimally overnight) prior to measurement, without additional sealing measures such as taping over

window and door gaps. Sampling is then performed (see ISO 16000-6) with the room still closed off.

To obtain information on the effectiveness of hourly intensive ventilation, the room is ventilated intensively

after sampling by opening doors and windows for 5 min. Doors and windows are reclosed and after a waiting

time of 1 h a further sample is taken.
6.2.2.3 Rooms with mechanical ventilation

When rooms which are ventilated by mechanical ventilation or air conditioning (VAC) systems are investigated,

the system shall be operated according to the building codes or other normative guidelines and the required

ventilation shall be in operation at least for 3 h before the sampling is started.

The functioning of the ventilation system should be recorded or measured (see ISO 16000-8).

Rooms operated according to specified ventilation instructions (for example, schools and kindergartens where

windows have to be opened after specified time periods), one complete and typical operating cycle has to be

carried out prior to measurement.

If room occupants make complaints during unusual conditions, for clarification, measurements should also be

performed under these conditions. The functioning of the ventilation system shall be recorded or measured

(see ISO 16000-8).

The investigated spaces should preferably be operated according to the building codes or design guidelines

and especially in complaint cases any deviation shall be the reported.

The VOC concentration level depends, if conditions are otherwise constant, on the indoor air temperature to a

large extent, and possibly also on the relative humidity. To obtain meaningful indoor air VOC concentrations, it

is therefore essential to perform the measurement under the climate conditions under which the room being

investigated is usually used. If these conditions are outside the comfort zone, then it shall be indicated that

complying with these conditions should take precedence over other measures for reducing the VOC

concentration.
4 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16000-5:2007
ISO 16000-5:2007(E)

6.2.3 Determination of the average concentration over a relatively long time period (exposure

studies)

To carry out long-term measurements, diffusive samplers are generally used. In these cases, the room does

not need to be prepared if the measurement period exceeds 24 h. Usually the sampling period does not

exceed one month. In each case, the decisive factor is the performance of the sampler used with respect to

stability of the sampling medium and the VOC collected.

In the case of long-term monitoring, the room occupants should continue their usual ventilation behaviour and

other activities. The common activities shall be clarified and documented before the examination. It is of

particular importance here to obtain knowledge of the activity of intermittent sources. If deviations therefrom

occur during the sampling period, these shall also be documented.

NOTE Annex D of ISO 16000-1:2004 gives guidelines for information to be recorded during indoor air measurement.

6.2.4 Determination of the concentration occurring under special conditions

In some cases, it can also be of interest to obtain information on the level of VOC concentrations under

special conditions. Such special conditions may occur, firstly, if a room is used under unfavourable climatic

conditions, for example, at temperatures or relative humidity outside the comfort region without the room

occupants being able to alter this. Secondly, the emission of VOCs from sources which emit temporarily, for

example, when a solvent is used, can also be an unusual situation of this type. Accordingly, a short-term

measurement is performed under the conditions which are expected to give rise to elevated VOC

concentrations.
[19]

NOTE The conditions for thermal comfort of temperate climate are described in ISO 7730 . In the case of extreme

[20] [21] [22]
climatic conditions, ISO 7243 , ISO 7933 or ISO/TR 11079 are available.
6.2.5 Identification of sources

If unusual concentrations of VOCs occur, it is of interest to identify the source. The potential sources, such as

building materials, interior furnishings, office materials or cleaning agents often have typical emissions

reflected in the indoor air. Therefore, it is important to know the emission characteristics of materials and

products. The following procedures are suitable for tracing of material sources:
⎯ odour;
⎯ comparison between
...

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