Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 1: Basic safety requirements

This European Standard applies to GSE when used in civil air transport as intended by the manufacturer and contains safety requirements relating to the equipment in general. This European Standard specifies the technical requirements to minimise the hazards listed in Clause 4 which can arise during the commissioning, operation and maintenance of GSE when used as intended including misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer or his authorised representative. It also takes into account some requirements recognised as essential by authorities, aircraft and ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as airlines and handling agencies. This part of EN 1915 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (for self-propelled GSE) and EN 1915-4, and with the relevant part of EN 12312 to give the requirements for the types of GSE within the scope of EN 12312. When EN 12312 does not contain a relevant part for a GSE, EN 1915 (all parts) gives general requirements that may apply, although additional machine specific requirements, to be determined by the manufacturer, are likely to be required. This part of EN 1915 does not apply to automotive parts approved for public vehicles in the EU and EFTA, when used on GSE for the purpose for which they are designed. This part of EN 1915 does not establish additional requirements for the following:
a) operation elsewhere than in an airport environment;
b) operation in severe conditions, e.g. ambient temperature below -20 °C or over 50 °C, tropical or saturated salty atmospheric environment, strong magnetic or radiation field;
c) operation subject to special rules, e.g. potentially explosive atmosphere except as regards operation in the vicinity of an aircraft fuel tank during fuelling operation;
d) hazards caused by power supply other than from electrical networks;
e) hazards occurring during construction, transportation, commissioning and decommissioning of the GSE;
f) hazards caused by wind velocity in excess of the figures given in this European Standard;
g) direct contact with food stuffs;
h) earthquake, flood, landslide, lightning and more generally any exceptional natural event;
i) electromagnetic compatibility (EMC);
j) hazards caused by noise and vibration, see EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4.
While this standard gives some basic requirements for wireless remote controls, additional requirements will be necessary. This part of EN 1915 is not applicable to GSE which are manufactured before the date of publication by CEN of this Standard.

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 1: Grundlegende Sicherheitsanforderungen

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für GSE, die entsprechend den vom Hersteller festgelegten Betriebs-bedingungen im zivilen Luftverkehr eingesetzt werden und enthält die allgemeinen Sicherheitsanforderungen an diese Geräte.
Diese Europäische Norm legt die technischen Anforderungen an GSE zur Verminderung der in Abschnitt 4 aufgelisteten Gefährdungen fest, die bei Inbetriebnahme, Betrieb und Wartung auftreten können, wenn diese in Übereinstimmung mit den Anweisungen des Herstellers oder dessen Beauftragten, ausgeführt werden, einschließlich vom Hersteller vernünftigerweise vorhersehbarer Missbrauch. Sie berücksichtigt auch einige Funktions- und Gestaltungsanforderungen, die von offiziellen Stellen, den Herstellern von Luftfahrzeugen und Bodengeräten (GSE) sowie Luftverkehrs- und Abfertigungsgesellschaften als wesentlich erachtet wurden.
Es ist beabsichtigt, diesen Teil von EN 1915 in Verbindung mit EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (für selbstfahrende Fahrzeuge) und EN 1915-4 und mit dem entsprechenden Teil der EN 12312 anzuwenden, um die Anforderungen an GSE innerhalb des Anwendungsbereiches von EN 12312 anzugeben.
Wenn EN 12312 keinen entsprechenden Teil für GSE enthält, gibt EN 1915 (alle Teile) allgemeine Anforde-rungen an, die gelten können, auch wenn zusätzliche maschinenspezifische Anforderungen erforderlich sein können, die vom Hersteller festzulegen sind.
Dieser Teil von EN 1915 gilt nicht für fahrzeugtechnische Teile, die für Fahrzeuge freigegeben sind, in der EU und der EFTA, die an GSE entsprechend ihrer konstruktiven Bestimmung unverändert Verwendung finden.
In diesem Teil von EN 1915 sind für folgende Aspekte keine zusätzlichen Festlegungen enthalten:
a) Betrieb außerhalb des Flughafens;
b) Betrieb unter erschwerten Bedingungen, z. B. bei Umgebungstemperaturen unter −20 °C oder über 50 °C, in tropischer oder gesättigter Salzatmosphäre oder in starken magnetischen oder Strahlungsfeldern;
c) Betrieb, der besonderen Regelungen unterliegt, z. B. in potentiell explosionsfähiger Atmosphäre, mit Ausnahme des Betriebs in der Nähe eines Flugzeugtanks beim Betanken;
d) Gefährdungen aus anderer Energieversorgung als der aus elektrischen Stromnetzen;
e) Gefährdungen, die während Bau, Transport, Inbetriebnahme und Außerbetriebnahme von GSE auftreten;
f) Gefährdungen aus Windgeschwindigkeiten oberhalb der in dieser Europäischen Norm angegebenen Werte;
g) direkter Kontakt mit Nahrungsmitteln;
h) Erdbeben, Überschwemmungen, Erdrutsche, Blitze und allgemein jede Art von Naturkatastrophen;
i) elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV);
j) durch Lärm und Vibration verursachte Gefährdungen, siehe EN 1915-3 und EN 1915-4.
Obgleich diese Norm einige grundlegende Anforderungen an drahtlose Fernbedienungen angibt, werden zusätzliche Anforderungen erforderlich sein.
Dieser Teil von EN 1915 ist nicht auf GSE anzuwenden, die vor der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm durch CEN hergestellt wurden.
Dieser Teil von EN 1915 ist nicht auf GSE anzuwenden, die vor der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm durch CEN hergestellt wurden.

Matériels au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences générales - Partie 1 : Exigences fondamentales de sécurité

La présente Norme Européenne s’applique aux GSE lorsqu’ils sont utilisés dans le transport aérien civil tel
qu’indiqué par le fabricant et contient les exigences de sécurité relatives aux matériels en général.
La présente Norme Européenne spécifie les exigences techniques pour réduire les phénomènes dangereux
énumérés à l’Article 4 qui peuvent survenir lors de l’exploitation et de la maintenance des GSE lorsque cellesci
sont utilisées comme prévu y compris une mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisible par le fabricant,
lorsqu’elles sont réalisées conformément aux spécifications données par le fabricant ou son représentant
légal. Elle prend aussi en compte certaines exigences jugées essentielles par les autorités, les fabricants
d’aéronefs et de matériels au sol pour aéronefs (GSE) ainsi que par les compagnies aériennes et les agences
de manutention.
La présente partie de l’EN 1915 est destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec les EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3
(pour les GSE automoteurs) et l’EN 1915-4, et avec la partie appropriée de l’EN 12312 pour fournir les
exigences concernant les types de GSE dans le cadre de l’EN 12312.
Lorsque l’EN ne contient pas une partie appropriée pour un GSE, l’EN 1915 (toutes les parties) fournit les
exigences qui peuvent s’appliquer, bien que des exigences supplémentaires spécifiques aux machines, à
définir par le fabricant, soient susceptibles d’être exigées.
La présente partie de l’EN 1915 ne s’applique pas aux parties d’origine automobile approuvées pour les
véhicules publics dans l'UE et l'EFTA lorsque celles-ci sont utilisées conformément à l’usage pour lequel elles
ont été conçues.
La présente partie de l’EN 1915 n’établit pas d’exigences supplémentaires pour :
a) l’utilisation en dehors d’un environnement aéroportuaire ;
b) l’utilisation dans des conditions exceptionnelles, par exemple température ambiante inférieure à - 20 °C
ou supérieure à 50 °C, un environnement atmosphérique tropical ou salin saturé, un important champ
magnétique ou de rayonnement ;
c) l’utilisation soumise à des règles spécifiques, par exemple atmosphère explosible à l’exception d’utilisation
au voisinage d’un réservoir de carburant d’aéronef lors des opérations d’avitaillement en carburant ;
d) les phénomènes dangereux entraînés par une alimentation électrique autre qu’en provenance des
réseaux électriques ;
e) les phénomènes dangereux survenant lors de la construction, du transport, de la mise en et hors service des
GSE ;
f) les phénomènes dangereux entraînés par une vitesse de vent supérieure aux données fournies dans la
présente Norme Européenne ;
g) le contact direct avec des produits alimentaires ;
h) les tremblements de terre, les inondations, les glissements de terrain, la foudre et plus généralement, les
catastrophes naturelles ;
i) la compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) ;
j) les phénomènes dangereux entraînés par le bruit et les vibrations, voir l’EN 1915-3 et l’EN 1915-4.
Bien que cette norme donne quelques exigences de base pour les commandes à distance sans fil, des
exigences supplémentaires seront nécessaires.
La présente partie de l’EN 1915 ne s’applique pas aux GSE fabriqués avant la date de publication de la
présente norme par le CEN.

Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Splošne zahteve - 1. del: Osnovne varnostne zahteve

Ta evropski standard se uporablja za podporno opremo na tleh, kadar se uporablja za civilni zračni prevoz, kot ga je predvidel proizvajalec, in vsebuje varnostne zahteve glede opreme na splošno. Ta evropski standard določa tehnične zahteve za zmanjšanje nevarnosti, navedenih v točki 4, do katerih lahko pride pri začetku uporabe, delovanju in vzdrževanju podporne opreme na tleh pri nameravani uporabi, vključno s pričakovano nepravilno uporabo, ki jo določa proizvajalec, ko jih v skladu s specifikacijami izvaja proizvajalec ali njegov zakoniti zastopnik. Upošteva tudi nekatere zahteve, ki jih organi, proizvajalci letal in podporne opreme na tleh, letalske družbe in agencije za oskrbo letal priznavajo za bistvene. Ta del standarda EN 1915 je namenjen za uporabo skupaj s standardi EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (podporna oprema na tleh z lastnim pogonom) in EN 1915-4 ter z ustreznim delom standarda EN 12312, da se zagotovijo zahteve za vrste podporne opreme na tleh v okviru standarda EN 12312. Kadar standard EN 12312 ne vsebuje ustreznega dela za podporno opremo na tleh, se lahko uporabljajo splošne zahteve iz standarda EN 1915 (vsi deli), čeprav bodo najverjetneje zahtevane dodatne posebne zahteve glede na posamezni stroj, ki jih določi proizvajalec. Ta del standarda EN 1915 se ne uporablja za avtomobilske dele, odobrene za javna vozila v EU in EFTA, kadar se uporabljajo pri podporni opremi na tleh za namen, za katerega so bili načrtovani. Ta del standarda EN 1915 ne določa dodatnih zahtev za naslednje:
a) delovanje izven okolja letališča;
b) delovanje v neugodnih razmerah, npr. pri temperaturi okolja, nižji od –20 °C ali nad 50 °C, v tropskem okolju ali nasičenem slanem okolju, v okolju z močnim magnetnim poljem ali poljem sevanja;
c) delovanje po posebnih pravilih, npr. v potencialno eksplozivnem okolju, razen kadar gre za delovanje v bližini rezervoarja za gorivo letala med polnjenjem;
d) nevarnosti, ki jih povzroči energetska oskrba iz omrežij, ki niso električna;
e) nevarnosti, ki se pojavijo med gradnjo, prevozom, začetkom uporabe in prenehanjem uporabe podporne opreme na tleh;
f) nevarnosti, ki jih povzroči hitrost vetra, ki presega vrednosti iz tega evropskega standarda;
g) neposreden stik s hrano;
h) potres, poplava, plaz, bliskanje in na splošno kateri koli izjemen naravni pojav;
i) elektromagnetna združljivost (EMC);
j) nevarnosti, ki jih povzročijo hrup in vibracije, glej standarda EN 1915-3 in EN 1915-4.
Ta standard določa nekaj osnovnih zahtev glede brezžičnega daljinskega vodenja, vendar so potrebne dodatne zahteve. Ta del standarda EN 1915 se ne uporablja za podporno opremo na tleh, izdelano pred datumom objave tega standarda s strani CEN.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
06-Jun-2010
Publication Date
01-Apr-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Mar-2013
Due Date
27-May-2013
Completion Date
02-Apr-2013

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Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1915-1:2013
01-maj-2013
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1915-1:2002+A1:2009
Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Splošne zahteve - 1. del: Osnovne
varnostne zahteve
Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 1: Basic safety
requirements
Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 1: Grundlegende
Sicherheitsanforderungen
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1915-1:2013
ICS:
49.100 Oprema za servis in Ground service and
vzdrževanje na tleh maintenance equipment
SIST EN 1915-1:2013 en,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 1915-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2013
ICS 49.100 Supersedes EN 1915-1:2001+A1:2009
English Version
Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part
1: Basic safety requirements

Matériels au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences générales - Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 1:

Partie 1 : Exigences fondamentales de sécurité Grundlegende Sicherheitsanforderungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1915-1:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 6

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................... 9

4 List of hazards ................................................................................................................................ 11

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures......................................................................... 11

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 11

5.2 Accommodation for driver and other persons .............................................................................. 12

5.3 Driver's cabin ................................................................................................................................. 12

5.4 Controls .......................................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Safety related parts ........................................................................................................................ 15

5.6 Monitoring devices and displays ................................................................................................... 15

5.7 Steering devices ............................................................................................................................. 15

5.8 Brakes for travelling purposes or equivalent devices .................................................................. 16

5.9 Wheel assemblies - Centre split rims ............................................................................................ 17

5.10 Touchable surfaces - Exhaust ....................................................................................................... 17

5.11 Lights and reflectors for traffic purposes ..................................................................................... 17

5.12 Auditory signal devices ................................................................................................................. 18

5.13 Standing areas and walkways on GSE .......................................................................................... 18

5.14 Means of access ............................................................................................................................. 20

5.15 Crushing and shearing points ....................................................................................................... 20

5.16 Securing of load ............................................................................................................................. 21

5.17 Moveable bodies, assemblies and attachments ........................................................................... 21

5.18 Hydraulic and pneumatic systems ................................................................................................ 21

5.19 Stability and strength ..................................................................................................................... 22

5.20 Lifting systems ............................................................................................................................... 23

5.21 Lifting devices ................................................................................................................................ 23

5.22 Lifting/work platforms .................................................................................................................... 24

5.23 Operating speeds ........................................................................................................................... 24

5.24 Towing couplings, drawbars and towbars .................................................................................... 25

5.25 Service connections ...................................................................................................................... 25

5.26 Electrical design, components and batteries ............................................................................... 25

5.27 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................ 26

5.28 Lasers ............................................................................................................................................. 26

6 Information for use ......................................................................................................................... 26

6.1 Marking ........................................................................................................................................... 26

6.2 Instructions .................................................................................................................................... 28

7 Verification of safety requirements and/or measures .................................................................. 28

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 28

7.2 Guard rails ...................................................................................................................................... 29

7.3 Ladders ........................................................................................................................................... 29

Annex A (normative) List of hazards .......................................................................................................... 30

Annex B (informative) Trilingual list of GSE .............................................................................................. 34

Annex C (normative) Design of service brakes ......................................................................................... 35

C.1 Self-propelled GSE ......................................................................................................................... 35

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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)

C.2 GSE trains .......................................................................................................................................3 6

Annex D (normative) Types of access to GSE ...........................................................................................3 7

D.1 Rung type and ladder steps ...........................................................................................................3 7

D.2 Stepladders.....................................................................................................................................4 0

D.3 Stairs ...............................................................................................................................................4 1

D.4 Footholds ........................................................................................................................................4 2

Annex E (informative) Examples of safety measures to reduce the risk of crushing and shearing

under the load carrier when it is not possible to meet the requirements in 5.15 ........................ 44

Annex F (informative) Examples for hose and fittings installation ........................................................... 45

F.1 General ...........................................................................................................................................4 5

F.2 Avoidance of external damage ......................................................................................................4 7

F.3 Reducing bending stress ...............................................................................................................4 7

F.4 Avoidance of torsional stress ........................................................................................................4 7

F.5 Installation aids ..............................................................................................................................4 8

F.6 Protection against external temperature rises ..............................................................................4 9

Annex G (normative) Falling hazard symbol .............................................................................................5 0

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery ............................................................. 51

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................5 2

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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 1915-1:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 274 “Aircraft ground

support equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by July 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1915-1:2001+A1:2009.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.

EN 1915, Aircraft ground support equipment ― General requirements, consists of the following parts:

 Part 1: Basic safety requirements (the present document);
 Part 2: Stability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods;
 Part 3: Vibration measurement methods and reduction;
 Part 4: Noise measurement methods and reduction.

EN 12312, Aircraft ground support equipment ― Specific requirements, consists of the following parts:

 Part 1: Passenger stairs;
 Part 2: Catering vehicles;
 Part 3: Conveyor belt vehicles;
 Part 4: Passenger boarding bridges;
 Part 5: Aircraft fuelling equipment;
 Part 6: Deicers and deicing/antiicing equipment;
 Part 7: Air-craft movement equipment;
 Part 8: Maintenance stairs and platforms;
 Part 9: Container/Pallet loaders;
 Part 10: Container/Pallet transfer transporters;
 Part 11: Container/Pallet dollies and loose load trailers;
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
 Part 12: Potable water service equipment;
 Part 13: Lavatory service equipment;
 Part 14: Disabled/incapacitated passenger boarding vehicles;
 Part 15: Baggage and equipment tractors;
 Part 16: Air start equipment;
 Part 17: Air conditioning equipment;
 Part 18: Nitrogen or Oxygen units;
 Part 19: Aircraft jacks, axle jacks and hydraulic tail stanchions;
 Part 20: Electrical ground power units.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are:
a) Amendment A1:2009 was incorporated;
b) the Scope was updated;
c) Clause 2, Normative references, was updated;
d) more terms and definitions were added;

e) List of hazards was moved to Annex A (the following Annexes were re-numbered);

f) 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 were changed;

g) 5.5, Safety related parts, was inserted, thus making it necessary to re-number the following clauses;

h) 5.6 to 5.28 were changed and re-numbered;
i) 6.2 was changed;
j) Clause 7 was changed;
k) a term was added to the trilingual list of GSE in Annex B;
l) Clauses D.2, D.3 and D.4 were added;
m) Annex G was added;

n) Annex ZA referring to the Machinery directive 98/37/EC was replaced by Annex ZA referring to the new

Machinery directive 2006/42/EC;
o) the Bibliography was updated.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
Introduction

The abbreviation GSE means a complete item of aircraft ground support equipment in the context of this

European Standard.
When compiling this European Standard it was assumed that:
a) GSE is operated only by competent persons on the airport ramp;
b) components without specific requirements are:
1) designed in accordance with good engineering practice and calculation codes;
2) of sound mechanical and electrical construction;
3) made of materials with adequate strength and of suitable quality;
4) made of materials free of defects;
c) materials known to be harmful, such as asbestos, are not used as part of GSE;

d) components are kept in good repair and working order, so that the required characteristics remain despite

wear;

e) by design of the load bearing elements, a safe operation of the machine is assured for loading ranges

from zero to 100 % of the rated possibilities and during tests;
f) the particular conditions of use and place of use have been established;
g) the place of operation allows a safe use of GSE.

The extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the scope of this European Standard.

Enumerations in this European Standard are not to be considered exclusive, they are compiled according to

the present state of the art.

The minimum essential criteria are considered to be of primary importance in providing safe, economical and

usable GSE. Deviations should occur only after careful consideration, extensive testing and thorough in

service evaluation have shown alternative methods or conditions to be satisfactory. Such deviations are

outside the scope of this standard and a manufacturer should be able to demonstrate an equivalent level of

protection.
This European Standard is a Type C standard as defined in EN ISO 12100.
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard applies to GSE when used in civil air transport as intended by the manufacturer and

contains safety requirements relating to the equipment in general.

This European Standard specifies the technical requirements to minimise the hazards listed in Clause 4 which

can arise during the commissioning, operation and maintenance of GSE when used as intended including

misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in accordance with the specifications

given by the manufacturer or his authorised representative. It also takes into account some requirements

recognised as essential by authorities, aircraft and ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as

airlines and handling agencies.

This part of EN 1915 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 (for self-propelled

GSE) and EN 1915-4, and with the relevant part of EN 12312 to give the requirements for the types of GSE

within the scope of EN 12312.

When EN 12312 does not contain a relevant part for a GSE, EN 1915 (all parts) gives general requirements

that may apply, although additional machine specific requirements, to be determined by the manufacturer, are

likely to be required.

This part of EN 1915 does not apply to automotive parts approved for public vehicles in the EU and EFTA,

when used on GSE for the purpose for which they are designed.

This part of EN 1915 does not establish additional requirements for the following:

a) operation elsewhere than in an airport environment;

b) operation in severe conditions, e.g. ambient temperature below -20 °C or over 50 °C, tropical or saturated

salty atmospheric environment, strong magnetic or radiation field;

c) operation subject to special rules, e.g. potentially explosive atmosphere except as regards operation in

the vicinity of an aircraft fuel tank during fuelling operation;
d) hazards caused by power supply other than from electrical networks;

e) hazards occurring during construction, transportation, commissioning and decommissioning of the GSE;

f) hazards caused by wind velocity in excess of the figures given in this European Standard;

g) direct contact with food stuffs;

h) earthquake, flood, landslide, lightning and more generally any exceptional natural event;

i) electromagnetic compatibility (EMC);
j) hazards caused by noise and vibration, see EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4.

While this standard gives some basic requirements for wireless remote controls, additional requirements will

be necessary.

This part of EN 1915 is not applicable to GSE which are manufactured before the date of publication by CEN

of this Standard.
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 894-1, Safety of machinery ― Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control actuators ―

Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

EN 894-3, Safety of machinery ― Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control actuators ―

Part 3: Control actuators

EN 953, Safety of machinery ― Guards ― General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and

moveable guards

EN 982, Safety of machinery ― Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components ―

Hydraulics

EN 983, Safety of machinery ― Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components ―

Pneumatics

EN 1915-2, Aircraft ground support equipment ― General requirements ― Part 2: Stability and strength

requirements, calculations and test methods

EN 1915-3, Aircraft ground support equipment ― General requirements ― Part 3: Vibration measurement

methods and reduction

EN 1915-4, Aircraft ground support equipment ― General requirements ― Part 4: Noise measurement

methods and reduction
EN 12312 (all parts), Aircraft ground support equipment ― Specific requirements

EN 13501-1:2007, Fire classification of construction products and building elements ― Part 1: Classification

using data from reaction to fire tests

EN 60073, Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification ― Coding

principles for indicators and actuators (IEC 60073)

EN 60204-1, Safety of machinery ― Electrical equipment of machines ― Part 1: General requirements

(IEC 60204-1:2005, modified)

EN 60529:1991, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529:1989)

EN 60825-1, Safety of laser products ― Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements

(IEC 60825-1)

EN ISO 3411, Earth-moving machinery ― Physical dimensions of operators and minimum operator space

envelope (ISO 3411)

EN ISO 3457, Earth-moving machinery ― Guards ― Definitions and requirements (ISO 3457)

EN ISO 6682, Earth-moving machinery ― Zones of comfort and reach for controls (ISO 6682)

EN ISO 7731:2008, Ergonomics ― Danger signals for public and work areas ― Auditory danger signals

(ISO 7731:2003)
1) This document is impacted by the draft amendment EN 60529:1991/A1:2000.
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery ― General principles for design ― Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)

EN ISO 13732-1, Ergonomics of the thermal environment ― Methods for the assessment of human

responses to contact with surfaces ― Part 1: Hot surfaces (ISO 13732-1)

EN ISO 13849-1:2008, Safety of machinery ― Safety-related parts of control systems ― Part 1: General

principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2006)

EN ISO 13850, Safety of machinery ― Emergency stop ― Principles for design (ISO 13850)

EN ISO 13857, Safety of machinery ― Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and

lower limbs (ISO 13857)

EN ISO 14122-1:2001, Safety of machinery ― Permanent means of access to machinery ― Part 1: Choice of

fixed means of access between two levels (ISO 14122-1:2001)

EN ISO 14122-2:2001, Safety of machinery ― Permanent means of access to machinery ― Part 2: Working

platforms and walkways (ISO 14122-2:2001)

EN ISO 14122-3:2001, Safety of machinery ― Permanent means of access to machinery ― Part 3: Stairs,

stepladders and guard rails (ISO 14122-3:2001)

EN ISO 14122-4:2004, Safety of machinery ― Permanent means of access to machinery ― Part 4: Fixed

ladders (ISO 14122-4:2004)

ISO 3795, Road vehicles, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry ― Determination of burning

behaviour of interior materials
ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols ― Safety colours and safety signs

ISO 6966-1:2005, Aircraft ground equipment ― Basic requirements ― Part 1: General design requirements

ISO 11228-2, Ergonomics ― Manual handling ― Part 2: Pushing and pulling

DIN 51130:2004, Testing of floor coverings ― Determination of the anti-slip property ― Workrooms and fields

of activities with slip danger, walking method ― Ramp test
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010,

EN ISO 14122-1:2001, EN ISO 14122-2:2001, EN ISO 14122-3:2001 and EN ISO 14122-4:2004 and the

following apply.
3.1
aircraft ground support equipment
GSE
mobile equipment built for the special requirements of aviation

Note 1 to entry: The "special requirements" result from the specific design and turnaround procedure of aircraft, giving

rise to designs not generally used in other areas, in particular:
 GSE for passenger, baggage and cargo handling;
 GSE for aircraft ground handling and servicing;
 mobile parts of passenger boarding bridges (PBB).
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
Note 2 to entry: A trilingual list of GSE is given at Annex B.
3.2
passenger

person other than a crew member, an employee of the carrier in an official capacity, an authorised

representative of a national authority or a person accompanying a cargo consignment, who is carried aboard a

flight handled by the GSE

Note 1 to entry: Passengers exclusively use those types of GSE specifically designed for their access to and from the

aircraft.
3.3
lifting/work platform
platform, cabin or workplace which is designed for lifting loads and/or persons
3.4
workplace

area occupied by operators during normal operation e.g. driver/co-driver seats, passageways, fixed walkways,

stairs, ladders, platforms, standing areas
3.5
standing area

area on GSE where a person stands or works in an upright position during operation

3.6
walkway
area on GSE intended to be used by persons moving from one place to another
3.7
stabiliser

support used to maintain and/or increase the stability and capable of supporting and/or levelling the GSE

3.8
friction-type safeguard

safety equipment which restricts or prevents movement of parts in relation to each other by the use of

frictional forces e.g. brakes, safety gears
3.9
instructions

documents supplied by the manufacturer or supplier describing the intended use of the GSE and containing

information for safe operation, installation, transport and maintenance
3.10
operational use

activities, effects, processes or movements that result from intended use of the GSE

3.11
unintentional movement
movement without operator's conscious intent e.g. caused by failure of the GSE
3.12
unit load device
ULD

assembly of components comprising one of either e.g. an aircraft pallet and pallet net, an aircraft pallet, a

container with integral pallet or an aircraft container
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SIST EN 1915-1:2013
EN 1915-1:2013 (E)
3.13
steering system

all parts of steering equipment providing the means of transmitting steering forces including control devices

and energy supply

Note 1 to entry: It includes all parts from the point where the steering control effort is transformed by mechanical,

hydraulic, electric or combined means.
3.14
steering control

part of the steering equipment through which the driver or operator controls steering operation

3.15
steering control effort
force applied to the steering control in order to steer the GSE
3.16
steering forces
all forces operating in the steering transmission
3.17
steering angle
angle of a given position of steerable wheels with the neutral position
3.18
electric steering

steering transmission in which steering forces, somewhere in the transmission, are transmitted only by electric

means
3.19
hybrid steering

steering transmission in which steering forces are transmitted by more than one means

4 List of hazards

This list of risks and hazards (given at Annex A) is based on EN ISO 12100 and contains the hazards and

hazardous situations, as far as they are dealt with in this European Standard, identified by risk assessment as

significant for this type of machinery and which require action to eliminate or reduce risks. See also the

complementary list of hazards in the other parts of EN 1915 and in the different parts of EN 12312.

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures
5.1 General

GSE shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this clause, with the

requirements of EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 as relevant, as well as with the requirements of the

relevant part of EN 12312. In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of

...

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