Prevention of crime - Urban planning and design - Part 2: Urban planning

This European Prestandard specifies the classification of open areas with respect to location and access to the areas. The Prestandard gives means of crime prevention in accordance to the classification.

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 2: Stadtplannung

Diese Europäische Vornorm enthält Richtlinien zu Verfahren ) für die Bewertung der Kriminalitätsgefahr und/oder der Angst vor Verbrechen und Maßnahmen, Verfahren und Prozesse, die auf die Verringerung dieser Gefahren abzielen.
Konstruktionsrichtlinien werden für bestimmten Typen von Umfeldern gegeben, um verschiedenen Kriminalitäts-problemen ) vorzubeugen oder entgegenzuwirken. Darüber hinaus werden Richtlinien für einen Schritt-für-Schritt-Prozess vorgelegt, um alle Beteiligten, die in der Stadtplanung ) und in der Verringerung der Umfeldkriminalität )  mitwirken und genauso wie alle weiteren Beteiligten - vor allem örtliche und regionale Behörden und Bewohner - in der erforderlichen breit gefächerten Wirkung einzubeziehen, um die Gefahren der Kriminalität und die Angst vor Verbrechen zu verringern.
Diese Europäische Vornorm gilt für den Planungsprozess von neuen wie auch von bestehenden Stadtgebieten. Ein Gebiet kann das Umfeld oder die Umgebung, angefangen mit nur wenigen Häusern oder Straßen bis hin zu einem Stadtzentrum, Industriegebiet oder einer großen Freifläche für die öffentliche Nutzung sein.

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 2: Urbanisme

La présente Prénorme européenne donne des lignes directrices sur les méthodes d'évaluation ) du risque de malveillance et/ou de sentiment d'insécurité et des mesures, procédures et processus visant a réduire ces risques.
Des directives architecturales sont données pour des types d'environnements particuliers dans l'optique de prévenir différents problemes de malveillance ) ou d'y remédier. Des directives sont également données pour la mise au point d'un processus par étapes a l'intention de toutes les parties concernées par l'urbanisme ) et par la réduction de la malveillance liée a l'environnement ), ainsi que toutes les autres parties intéressées - principalement les autorités locales et régionales et les résidents -
ce processus visant a impliquer chacun dans les démarches nécessaires aux différents échelons pour minimiser les risques de malveillance et le sentiment d'insécurité.
La présente Prénorme européenne s'intéresse au processus d'urbanisation, qu'il s'agisse de zones nouvelles ou déja construites. Le terme "zone" peut désigner un quartier ou un environnement de taille tres variable - depuis le petit groupe de maisons ou de rues jusqu'au centre-ville, en passant par la zone industrielle ou l'espace ouvert au public.

Preprečevanje kriminala – Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje – 2. del: Urbanistično planiranje

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Mar-2004
Withdrawal Date
04-Feb-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-Jan-2008
Due Date
30-Jan-2008
Completion Date
05-Feb-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ENV 14383-2:2004
01-april-2004
3UHSUHþHYDQMHNULPLQDOD±8UEDQLVWLþQRSODQLUDQMHLQSURMHNWLUDQMH±GHO
8UEDQLVWLþQRSODQLUDQMH
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and design - Part 2: Urban planning
Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 2:
Stadtplannung

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 2:

Urbanisme
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ENV 14383-2:2003
ICS:
13.310
91.020
SIST ENV 14383-2:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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EUROPEAN PRESTANDARD
ENV 14383-2
PRÉNORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE VORNORM
December 2003
ICS 13.310; 91.020
English version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and design - Part 2: Urban
planning

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und

des bâtiments - Partie 2: Urbanisme Gebäudeplanung - Teil 2: Stadtplannung

This European Prestandard (ENV) was approved by CEN on 21 November 2002 as a prospective standard for provisional application.

The period of validity of this ENV is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the ENV can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this ENV in the same way as for an EN and to make the ENV available promptly

at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the ENV) until the final

decision about the possible conversion of the ENV into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2003 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. ENV 14383-2:2003 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
Contents

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................................7

4 Preliminary questions: the area, its crime problems and the stakeholders ...................................................7

4.1 General..............................................................................................................................................................7

4.2 Where: Identification of the area .......................................................................................................................8

4.2.1 Focus on urban environments ....................................................................................................................8

4.2.2 Level at which action can be taken.............................................................................................................9

4.2.3 Type of area..............................................................................................................................................11

4.3 What: Problem identification ...........................................................................................................................12

4.3.1 Crime ........................................................................................................................................................12

4.3.2 Fear of crime.............................................................................................................................................13

4.4 Who: Stakeholders..........................................................................................................................................13

4.5 In sum: identification of 'where', 'what' and 'who' ............................................................................................14

5 Urban Planning and Design Guidelines ............................................................................................................14

5.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................14

5.2 Three categories, 15 strategies, more than 100 measures ............................................................................15

5.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Urban planning strategies.........................................................................................................................15

5.2.3 Urban design strategies............................................................................................................................16

5.2.4 Management strategies ............................................................................................................................16

5.3 How to choose the strategies..........................................................................................................................16

6 Process to prevent and reduce crime problems by urban planning and management...............................17

6.1 General............................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Responsible body, mission Statement, working group ...................................................................................18

6.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.2 Mission statement.....................................................................................................................................18

6.2.3 Working group...........................................................................................................................................18

6.2.4 The planning document of the working group ..........................................................................................19

6.2.5 Consultation mechanisms.........................................................................................................................19

6.3 Steps to be taken ............................................................................................................................................19

6.3.1 Step 1: Crime review or crime assessment..............................................................................................19

6.3.2 Step 2: Objectives/requirements...............................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Step 3: Plan ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.3.4 Step 4: Decision by responsible body.......................................................................................................21

6.3.5 Step 5: Action and implementation...........................................................................................................21

6.3.6 Step 6: Monitor, audit and corrective action .............................................................................................21

6.4 Flow chart........................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Assessment of crime preventive and fear reducing features of a plan

for a new area............................................................................................................................................................23

Annex B (informative) Crime review: problem identification in an existing area ...............................................27

Annex C (informative) Fear of crime........................................................................................................................29

Annex D (informative) Problem x strategy/measure matrices for 8 types of environment ...............................31

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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
Foreword

This document (ENV 14383-2:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 325 'Prevention of

crime by urban planning and building design'. The secretariat of which is held by DS until October 2002 and

since then held by SNV.

The status of European Prestandard (ENV) was proposed to give all countries the opportunity to compare

experiences and to harmonise procedures.

This European Prestandard is one of a series for the “Prevention of crime by urban planning and building

design”, that consists of the following Parts:
 Part 1: Terminology.
 Part 2: Urban planning.
 Part 3: Dwellings.
 Part 4: Offices and Shops.
In the European Prestandard the Annexes A to D are informative.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this European Prestandard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
3
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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
Introduction
Crime and fear of crime as major problems

The European Urban Charter asserts the basic right for citizens of European towns to "a secure and safe town

free, as far as possible, from crime, delinquency and aggression". This basic right to a safe community has

been enshrined into many national and local crime reduction programs all over Europe.

The final declaration of an International Conference organised by the Council of Europe's Congress of Local

and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE; Erfurt 26.-28. February 1997) stated:

"that crime, fear of crime and urban insecurity in Europe are major problems affecting the public (…) and that

finding satisfactory solutions for them is one of the main keys to civic peace and stability."

The first recommendation from this conference was that local and regional authorities in Europe develop

integrated crime reduction action plans, with continuing public involvement, in which crime reduction is

included as a policy in all aspects of the responsibilities of local authorities. Such a plan should define the

nature and type of crime to be tackled, objectives, timetable, proposals for action and be based on a wide

ranging up-to-date survey of statistics and diagnosis of crime.

In this respect the CLRAE conference in Erfurt also stressed the importance to promote collaboration between

the police and professional designers and ensure that police officers are specially trained to advise on the

relationship between crime and the built environment".
Crime prevention and fear reduction by urban planning and building design

The Justice and Home Affairs council of the European Union (meeting 15-03-2001) agreed politically on the

conclusion of the EU experts' Conference 'Towards a knowledge-based strategy to prevent crime' (Sundsvall,

Sweden, 21.-23. February 2001). This conference concluded that "Crime Prevention through Environmental

Design, or Designing out Crime (CPTED/DOC), has proven to be a useful, effective, very concrete and

feasible strategy to prevent crime and feelings of insecurity, integrated in a multidisciplinary approach. Best

practices regarding CPTED/DOC should be collected, evaluated and made accessible for stakeholders. This

process should utilise a common framework of concepts and processes, and transferable principles should be

identified".

This conference also underlined "as regards prevention of the fear of crime, that the fear of crime should be

viewed and treated as a social problem in its own right".

Statements and recommendations about the collaboration between environmental design/planning specialists

and crime experts are becoming more and more common nowadays in European countries. These statements

and recommendations are based on assumptions regarding the inter-relationships between the physical

environment and human behaviour. It is obvious that the results of urban planning and architecture do

influence the choice of conduct and choice of routes of all people (young/old, woman/man, potential

offender/potential victim).

Hence urban planning also has an impact on crime and fear of crime by influencing the conduct and attitudes

of e.g.
— offenders;
— formal guardians such as police;
— informal guardians such as residents surveying an environment;

) Crime and Urban insecurity: the role and responsibilities of local and regional authorities.

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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
— potential victims (and/or targets) of crime or victims of fear of crime.

A great number of experiments have shown that particular types of crime can be reduced by modifying the

opportunity for crime in the built environment. Moving the night-time tavern crowd away from vacant

storefronts after closing time will inevitably reduce the number of burglaries and vandalism incidents to the

stores. Controlling the access into, and natural sightlines through, underground parking areas will increase the

opportunity for offenders to be seen and caught. This in turn will reduce the number of assaults and car crimes

in those parking areas. The list of successful opportunity reduction examples goes on. In Canada and the

USA this has come to be known as crime prevention through environmental design – CPTED (pronounced

sep-ted) .

In Europe the concept is also known as 'the reduction of crime and fear of crime by urban planning and

architectural design'. In short, "Designing out crime" .

There are numerous examples of housing projects where bad design has contributed to the general decay

and decline of urban areas. Badly designed housing estates have been rebuilt with thought and consideration

to diminish criminal opportunity. In many cases after the refurbishment residents have wished to return to the

estates where before they had left as they feared for their safety. New estates and housing projects are now

incorporating good crime prevention features at the design stage.

Shopping centres are another building category that is benefiting from good planning ideas. The siting of the

centre, car parks and transport infrastructure are all being incorporated at design stage to accommodate good

design features. Supermarkets are also adopting designing out crime measures to reduce both internal theft

as well as crime committed by customers.

Researchers have identified reductions in crime following, for example, the introduction of design changes in

large municipal housing estates. There is also overwhelming evidence concerning fear and the built

environment, e.g. pedestrian subways, lack of surveillance, and particularly the level of lighting and dark

streets. Similar parallels can be drawn with regard to vandalism. When questioned, offenders (and victims) of

burglary, car theft and rape/assault, have all mentioned environmental/design factors. The research findings

show that the feelings of insecurity of victims are clearly related to the very same features of the place that

attract offenders to commit a crime.

No wonder more and more local and regional authorities in Europe are now insisting on planning applications

showing proof that the principles of crime prevention and fear reduction by urban planning and building design

have been adopted.
Conclusion

The conclusion from the literature, research and project – or policy evaluations can be summarised as follows:

1) urban planning has an impact on the different types of crime and fear of crime by influencing the conduct,

attitudes, choices and feelings of e.g. offenders, victims, residents, police;
2) crime can be subdivided in specific types (burglary, vandalism etc.);
3) crime and fear of crime are different phenomena;

4) fear of crime is an important issue but it has to be separated from a much broader set of feelings people

have about the whole of their living space and about the degree to which they feel deprived of a good

social and physical environment to live in;

5) a securer and safer city or neighbourhood is the result of a safety policy aiming at the physical and social

environment;

) The concept of CPTED is also used in the world wide association of researchers, specialists and practitioners in this field:

the International CPTED Association (ICA; see: http://cpted.net/

) See also the European Designing Out Crime Association: http://www.e-doca.net/ and the European Crime Prevention Network

(Brussels): http://europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/eucpn/home.html
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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)

6) policymakers and practitioners should never focus on planning and design only. Every newly built

neighbourhood, public space or building needs good maintenance. Planning / design and maintenance are

thus two sides of the same coin.
This Prestandard combines 'contents' and 'process'

• Contents refers to the question: which strategies and measures may ) be implemented to prevent and

reduce crime problems in a given environment.

• Process refers to the question: how to follow an effective and efficient procedure in which stakeholders

shall choose the strategies and measures most effective and feasible to prevent and reduce the crime

problems as defined by the stakeholders.

The process is described in clause 6 (for a summary see table 4). In step 3 of this process the stakeholders

choose strategies and measures. To help stakeholders make this choice they may use the strategies and

measures as presented in clause 5 (and Annex D).

Hence by adopting this Prestandard the process described in clause 6 is adopted while the definitive choice of

strategies and measures (see clause 5 and Annex D) is left to the stakeholders and in the end to a

responsible body (most often local and regional authorities issuing rules for urban planning, building/planning

codes and permits) involved in a concrete plan for building, reconstruction or the management of an area.

Before the contents (see clause 5) and process (see clause 6) are presented, a preliminary set of questions is

elaborated upon in clause 4: the identification of the area (where), the crime problem (what) and the

stakeholders (who).

) Note the word 'may' (and not shall or should) is used deliberately here because the actual choice for certain strategies and

measures can only be made by the stakeholders, and in the end by a responsible body.

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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
1 Scope

This European Prestandard gives guidelines on methods for assessing the risk of crime and/ or fear of crime

and measures, procedures and processes aimed at reducing these risks.

Design guidelines are given for specific types of environments to prevent or counteract different crime

problems . Furthermore, guidelines for a step by step process are presented to involve all stakeholders

7) 8)

engaged in urban planning and environmental crime reduction as well as all other stakeholders - mainly

local and regional authorities and residents - in the multi-agency action needed to minimise the risks of crime

and fear of crime.

This European Prestandard is applicable to the planning process of new, as well as existing, urban areas. An

area can be the neighbourhood or environment ranging from just a few houses or streets to a city centre,

industrial estate or large open space for public use.
2 Normative references

This European Prestandard incorporates, by means of dated or undated references, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text. For dated references,

subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply in this European Prestandard only

when incorporated in it by amendment on revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the publication

referred to applies (including amendments).

prEN 14383-1 Prevention of crime. Urban planning and building design - Part 1 - Terminology

prENV 14383-3 Prevention of crime. Urban planning and building design - Part 3 - Dwellings

prENV 14383-4 Prevention of crime. Urban planning and building design - Part 4 – Offices and shops

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Prestandard, the terms and definitions given in prEN 14383-1 apply.

4 Preliminary questions: the area, its crime problems and the stakeholders
4.1 General

Cities all over the world are facing problems of insecurity and safety: urban violence and other forms of crime,

feelings of insecurity caused by crime, graffiti and anti-social behaviour in the public sphere. These threats to

the urban quality of life are obvious in most European cities.

Local and regional authorities generally react to these problems by more law enforcement input (police,

private security services). However, now most European specialists agree that the actions needed to

counteract the threats mentioned above have to be of an integrated and multi-disciplinary nature. Authorities

and law enforcement specialists, as well as environmental specialists, city maintenance and management

) Méthodes d' évaluation, Bewertungskriterien

) Crime problems = one or more of six types of crime and/or fear of crime; see 4.3.

) People engaged in urban planning: e.g. urban planners, town planners/architects, governmental bodies, municipal services,

private developers/builders, housing associations, consultants, landscape specialists, etc. (see 4.4).

) Note 6 plus police, justice, insurance companies, private security industry, social workers (see 4.4).

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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)

personnel, retailers and other business people, social workers, teachers and, last but not least, citizens are all

stakeholders in this process.

The orchestration of the stakeholders, as well as the type of actions needed in the different urban

environments (city centre, retail neighbourhoods, residential areas, transportation system), is a very difficult

mix to plan and manage.

There are several models for the delivery of crime prevention by urban planning and design. These range

from partnership schemes where a formal lead party is lacking, to police controlled schemes and others based

in the local authority. Wherever urban planning and building design is involved there shall always be a

democratically elected body governing the planning, building or city/neighbourhood management process

directly or indirectly. In clause 6 this body will be called 'the responsible body'. This may be a local council, a

group of planners mandated by local, regional or even national authorities or an interdisciplinary steering

group.

Although there may be a variety of stakeholders involved, in theory, the approach is simple. It starts with

answering three questions:

— where: the identification of the exact location of the area (by co-ordinates, and/or defining boundaries,

and/or postal codes, etc.) and the type of area; this area is either an area comprising an existing

urban fabric of buildings and streets/roads or a planned (new) area.

— what: the first and general identification of the crime problems occurring in this existing area, or the

future crime problems that may occur in this new area;

— who: the identification of the stakeholders involved in defining the crime problems more precisely,

assessing or reviewing them in more depth and implementing/ executing the measures to prevent

and / or reduce the crime problems.
4.2 Where: Identification of the area
4.2.1 Focus on urban environments

The key findings from the International Crime Victims Survey show crime to be a serious urban problem:

For more serious crime, the strongest factor explaining risks across different countries was urbanisation -

with crime increasing with the proportion living in larger cities. Next, lower affluence was significantly

associated with higher risks. Urbanisation and lower affluence alone explained half the variance in

victimisation rates in the 26 countries.

With regard to petty crime, urbanisation was again the strongest factor explaining risks. Levels of affluence

were statistically unrelated to risks however.

) The international Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) is the most far-reaching programme of fully standardized sample

surveys looking at householders' experience of crime in different countries. The first ICVS took place in 1989, the second

in 1992, the third in 1996 and the fourth in 2000. Surveys have been carried out in over 50 countries since 1989,

including a large number of city surveys in developing countries and countries in transition. The citations presented here

are taken from the ICVS report `Criminal Victimization in Eleven industrialized Countries; Key findings from the 1996

ICVS; Pat Mayhew (Home office, United Kingdom), Jan J.M. van Dijk (Ministery of Justice/ University of Leiden, The

Netherlands); WODC./Ministry of Justice The Hague 1997. The conclusions of the 2000 sweep of the ICVS are generally

speaking the same: "Net of other effect, urbanisation continued to be an influencial risk factor. Risks of property crime, for

instance, were 60% higher in the most urban areas compared to the leas urbanised ones" (Key findings from the 2000

ICVS, John van Kesteren, Pat Mayhew and Paul Nieuwbeerta, WODC/Ministry of Justice, The Hague 2000 page 58).

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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)
4.2.2 Level at which action can be taken

Within urbanised areas security and safety can be improved in existing as well as in new and future

environments. As shown in Table 1 seven levels can be distinguished. Levels 1 to 4 are dealt with in

prENV 14383-3 (dwellings) and prENV 14383-4 (offices and shops) while level 5, 6 and 7 are the subject of

this European Prestandard.
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ENV 14383-2:2003 (E)

Table 1 – Levels at which action can be taken to improve security in the built environment

Level of intervention The key players Typical actions What guidance can help?

1 Improving routine security Occupants, management, security staff. Change routine activity, management Guidance and check

precautions – but no physical procedures, patterns of use/occupancy.
change. Security staffing.

2 Up-grading security equipment. Management security staff, security Security equipment including: locking Information on what the current range of

suppliers/consultants, locksmiths, builders. systems, alarms, cctv, lighting, access equipment and security systems can do,

control, sensors. and how effective they are.

3 Refurbishment and alterations to a Owners/occupants, facilities managers, Remodelling of interiors and minor Guidance on secure windows and doors

building. developers, architects, engineers, builders. extensions, replacing windows and and how design modifications can improve

doors, fencing and gates, etc. the security of buildings.

4 Designing a new building Owners/future occupants, developers, architects, The design of the building and its Guidance on how building design can

builders. relationship to its surroundings. influence crime.

5 Large scale developments – Architects, developers, builders, major The layout and planning of groups of Guidance on how layout planning can

shopping centre, housing or tenants/occupiers. buildings, parking, vehicular and influence crime.

industrial development. pedestrian movement, etc.

6 Improving safety in public places. City planners, public services managers Locating public facilities, landscaping Guidance about how the design and

(transport, parks, etc.) local action/pressure open spaces, street lighting. management of public spaces can reduce

groups. crime risk.

7 Neighbourhood planning – a Planners, developers, local action/pressure The gradual/incremental redevelopment Guidance on how urban and

strategy for continuous groups, local politicians, regional government and improvement of urban neighbourhood planning can influence

improvement of safety and agencies, business community. neighbourhoods/districts. crime.

security.
URBAN PLANNING BUILDI
...

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