Primary batteries - Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries (IEC 60086-4:2014)

This Part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary lithium batteries to ensure
their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.
NOTE Primary lithium batteries that are standardized in IEC 60086-2 are expected to meet all applicable
requirements herein. It is understood that consideration of this part of IEC 60086 might also be given to measuring
and/or ensuring the safety of non-standardized primary lithium batteries. In either case, no claim or warranty is
made that compliance or non-compliance with this standard will fulfil or not fulfil any of the user’s particular
purposes or needs.

Primärbatterien - Teil 4: Sicherheit von Lithium-Batterien (IEC 60086-4:2014)

Piles électriques - Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium (IEC 60086-4:2014)

L'IEC 60086-4:2014 spécifie les essais et les exigences pour les piles électriques au lithium afin d'assurer leur fonctionnement en toute sécurité dans les conditions d'utilisation prévue et en cas de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2007. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: - Harmonisation avec la deuxième édition de l'IEC 62281; - Circuits de protection en variante en 7.1.1; - Plus d'informations relatives aux risques d'ingestion des piles au lithium en (précédemment) 7.2m) et avancement en priorité de cet élément à 7.2a); - Nouvelle Annexe D avec pictogrammes pour certaines des précautions de sécurité en 7.2. Mots clés: piles électriques au lithium

Primarne baterije - 4. del: Varnostni standard za litijeve baterije (IEC 60086-4:2014)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Jun-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Jan-2015
Due Date
23-Mar-2015
Completion Date
17-Jun-2015

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Primarne baterije - 4. del: Varnostni standard za litijeve baterije (IEC 60086-4:2014)Primärbatterien - Teil 4: Sicherheit von Lithium-Batterien (IEC 60086-4:2014)Piles électriques - Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium (IEC 60086-4:2014)Primary batteries - Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries (IEC 60086-4:2014)29.220.10Primary cells and batteriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 60086-4:2015SIST EN 60086-4:2015en01-julij-2015SIST EN 60086-4:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 60086-4:20081DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60086-4:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 60086-4
January 2015 ICS 29.220.10
Supersedes
EN 60086-4:2007
English Version
Primary batteries - Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries (IEC 60086-4:2014)
Piles électriques - Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium (IEC 60086-4:2014)

Primärbatterien - Teil 4: Sicherheit von Lithium-Batterien (IEC 60086-4:2014) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-10-08. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60086-4:2015 E SIST EN 60086-4:2015
EN 60086-4:2015 - 2 -

Foreword The text of document 35/1324/FDIS, future edition 4 of IEC 60086-4, prepared by IEC TC 35 "Primary cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 60086-4:2015. The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2015-07-09 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2017-10-08

This document supersedes EN 60086-4:2007. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 60086-4:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated: IEC 60027-1:1992 NOTE

Harmonized as EN 60027-1:1992. IEC 60068-2-6:1995 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 60068-2-6:1995. IEC 60068-2-27:1987 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 60068-2-27:1987. IEC 60068-2-31:2008 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 60068-2-31:2008. IEC 60086-5:2011 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 60086-5:2011. IEC 60617 (Series) NOTE
Harmonized as EN 60617 (Series). IEC 62133 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 62133. IEC 61960 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 61960. IEC 62281 NOTE
Harmonized as EN 62281.
SIST EN 60086-4:2015
- 3 - EN 60086-4:2015
Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60086-1 2011
Primary batteries -- Part 1: General EN 60086-1 2011
IEC 60086-2 -
Primary batteries -- Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications EN 60086-2 -
SIST EN 60086-4:2015
SIST EN 60086-4:2015

IEC 60086-4 Edition 4.0 2014-09 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Primary batteries – Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

Piles électriques –
Partie 4: Sécurité des piles au lithium

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE W ICS 29.220.10 PRICE CODE CODE PRIX ISBN 978-2-8322-1829-7

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 60086-4:2015 colourinside

– 2 – IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8 2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8 3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8 4 Requirements for safety ................................................................................................. 11 4.1 Design .................................................................................................................. 11 4.2 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 11 5 Sampling ....................................................................................................................... 11 5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11 5.2 Test samples ........................................................................................................ 11 6 Testing and requirements .............................................................................................. 12 6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12 6.1.1 Test application matrix ................................................................................... 12 6.1.2 Safety notice ................................................................................................. 13 6.1.3 Ambient temperature ..................................................................................... 13 6.1.4 Parameter measurement tolerances .............................................................. 13 6.1.5 Predischarge ................................................................................................. 14 6.1.6 Additional cells .............................................................................................. 14 6.2 Evaluation of test criteria ...................................................................................... 14 6.2.1 Short-circuit ................................................................................................... 14 6.2.2 Excessive temperature rise ............................................................................ 14 6.2.3 Leakage ........................................................................................................ 14 6.2.4 Venting .......................................................................................................... 14 6.2.5 Fire ................................................................................................................ 14 6.2.6 Rupture ......................................................................................................... 15 6.2.7 Explosion ....................................................................................................... 15 6.3 Tests and requirements – Overview ...................................................................... 15 6.4 Tests for intended use .......................................................................................... 16 6.4.1 Test A: Altitude .............................................................................................. 16 6.4.2 Test B: Thermal cycling ................................................................................. 16 6.4.3 Test C: Vibration ............................................................................................ 17 6.4.4 Test D: Shock ................................................................................................ 18 6.5 Tests for reasonably foreseeable misuse .............................................................. 19 6.5.1 Test E: External short-circuit ......................................................................... 19 6.5.2 Test F: Impact ............................................................................................... 19 6.5.3 Test G: Crush ................................................................................................ 20 6.5.4 Test H: Forced discharge............................................................................... 21 6.5.5 Test I: Abnormal charging .............................................................................. 21 6.5.6 Test J: Free fall ............................................................................................. 21 6.5.7 Test K: Thermal abuse .................................................................................. 22 6.5.8 Test L: Incorrect installation ........................................................................... 22 6.5.9 Test M: Overdischarge .................................................................................. 23 6.6 Information to be given in the relevant specification .............................................. 24 6.7 Evaluation and report ............................................................................................ 24 7 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 24 SIST EN 60086-4:2015

IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 – 7.1 Safety precautions during design of equipment ..................................................... 24 7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24 7.1.2 Charge protection .......................................................................................... 25 7.1.3 Parallel connection ........................................................................................ 25 7.2 Safety precautions during handling of batteries ..................................................... 25 7.3 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 27 7.4 Handling of battery cartons ................................................................................... 27 7.5 Transport .............................................................................................................. 28 7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28 7.5.2 Air transport .................................................................................................. 28 7.5.3 Sea transport ................................................................................................. 28 7.5.4 Land transport ............................................................................................... 28 7.6 Display and storage .............................................................................................. 28 7.7 Disposal ................................................................................................................ 28 8 Instructions for use ........................................................................................................ 29 9 Marking ......................................................................................................................... 29 9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 29 9.2 Small batteries ...................................................................................................... 30 9.3 Safety pictograms ................................................................................................. 30 Annex A (informative)

Guidelines for the achievement of safety of lithium batteries ............. 31 Annex B (informative)

Guidelines for designers of equipment using lithium batteries ............ 32 Annex C (informative)

Additional information on display and storage ................................... 35 Annex D (informative)

Safety pictograms ............................................................................. 36 D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36 D.2 Pictograms ............................................................................................................ 36 D.3 Instruction for use ................................................................................................. 37 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – Mesh screen ........................................................................................................ 15 Figure 2 – Thermal cycling procedure ................................................................................... 17 Figure 3 – Example of a test set-up for the impact test ......................................................... 19 Figure 4 – Examples of a test set-up for the crush test ......................................................... 20 Figure 5 – Axes for free fall ................................................................................................... 22 Figure 6 – Circuit diagram for incorrect installation ............................................................... 22 Figure 7 – Circuit diagram for overdischarge ......................................................................... 23 Figure 8 – Examples of safety wiring for charge protection ................................................... 25 Figure 9 – Ingestion gauge ................................................................................................... 26 Figure 10 – Example for warning against swallowing,

particularly lithium coin cell batteries ............................................................................................................................... 26 Figure A.1 – Battery design guidelines .................................................................................. 31

Table 1 – Number of test samples ......................................................................................... 12 Table 2 – Test application matrix .......................................................................................... 13 Table 3 – Mass loss limits ..................................................................................................... 14 Table 4 – Tests and requirements ......................................................................................... 16 Table 5 – Vibration profile (sinusoidal) .................................................................................. 18 SIST EN 60086-4:2015

– 4 – IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 Table 6 – Shock parameters ................................................................................................. 18 Table 7 – Resistive load for overdischarge ............................................................................ 23 Table 8 – Parameters to be specified .................................................................................... 24 Table B.1 – Equipment design guidelines (1 of 3) ................................................................. 32 Table D.1 – Safety pictograms (1 of 2) .................................................................................. 36

SIST EN 60086-4:2015

IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 – INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 60086-4 has been prepared by technical committee 35: Primary cells and batteries. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) Harmonisation with the second edition of IEC 62281 [12]1; b) Alternative protective circuits in 7.1.1; ——————— 1

Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography. SIST EN 60086-4:2015

– 6 – IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 c) More information regarding risks of swallowing lithium batteries in (former) 7.2.m) and promotion of this item to 7.2a); d) A new Annex D with pictograms for some of the safety precautions in 7.2. The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 35/1324/FDIS 35/1332/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. NOTE The following print types are used: – requirements: in roman type; – instructions/warnings for consumers: in italic type. A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, under the general title Primary batteries, can be found on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

SIST EN 60086-4:2015

IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 – INTRODUCTION The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property. This standard specifies tests and requirements for lithium batteries and has been prepared in accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account all relevant national and international standards which apply. Lithium batteries are different from conventional primary batteries using aqueous electrolyte in that they contain flammable materials. Consequently, it is important to carefully consider safety during design, production, distribution, use, and disposal of lithium batteries. Based on such special characteristics, lithium batteries for consumer applications were initially small in size and had low power output. There were also lithium batteries with high power output which were used for special industrial and military applications and were characterized as being “technician replaceable”. The first edition of this standard was drafted to accommodate this situation. However, from around the end of the 1980s, lithium batteries with high power output started to be widely used in the consumer replacement market, mainly as a power source in camera applications. Since the demand for such lithium batteries with high power output significantly increased, various manufacturers started to produce these types of lithium batteries. As a consequence of this situation, the safety aspects for lithium batteries with high power output were included in the second edition of this standard. Primary lithium batteries both for consumer and industrial applications are well-established safe and reliable products in the market, which is at least partly due to the existence of safety standards such as this standard and, for transport, IEC 62281. The fourth edition of this standard therefore reflects only minor changes which became necessary in order to keep it harmonized with IEC 62281 and to continuously improve the user information about safety related matters. Guidelines addressing safety issues during the design of lithium batteries are provided in Annex A. Annex B provides guidelines addressing safety issues during the design of equipment where lithium batteries are installed. Both Annex A and B reflect experience with lithium batteries used in camera applications and are based on [20].

Safety is freedom from unacceptable risk. There can be no absolute safety: some risk will remain. Therefore a product, process or service can only be relatively safe. Safety is achieved by reducing risk to a tolerable level determined by the search for an optimal balance between the ideal of absolute safety and the demands to be met by a product, process or service, and factors such as benefit to the user, suitability for purpose, cost effectiveness, and conventions of the society concerned. As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisions and recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this standard, when followed on a judicious “use when applicable” basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards for safety. SIST EN 60086-4:2015

– 8 – IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

1 Scope This Part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary lithium batteries to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. NOTE Primary lithium batteries that are standardized in IEC 60086-2 are expected to meet all applicable requirements herein. It is understood that consideration of this part of IEC 60086 might also be given to measuring and/or ensuring the safety of non-standardized primary lithium batteries. In either case, no claim or warranty is made that compliance or non-compliance with this standard will fulfil or not fulfil any of the user’s particular purposes or needs. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60086-1:2011, Primary batteries – Part 1: General IEC 60086-2, Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. NOTE Certain definitions taken from IEC 60050-482, IEC 60086-1, and IEC Guide 51 are repeated below for convenience. 3.1

battery one or more cells electrically connected and fitted in a case, with terminals, markings and protective devices etc., as necessary for use [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified ("fitted with devices necessary for use, for example case" replaced by "electrically connected and fitted in a case", addition of "etc., as necessary for use")] 3.2

coin cell coin battery small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter Note 1 to entry: In English, the term “coin (cell or battery)” is used for lithium batteries only while the term “button (cell or battery)” is only used for non-lithium batteries. In languages other than English, the terms “coin” and “button” are often used interchangeably, regardless of the electrochemical system. [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-40, modified (term “button” deleted, NOTE “In practice terms, the term coin is used exclusively for non-aqueous lithium cells.” replaced with a different note)] SIST EN 60086-4:2015

IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 – 9 – 3.3
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals and usually separators, that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct conversion of chemical energy [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01] 3.4

component cell cell contained in a battery 3.5

cylindrical (cell or battery) round cell or battery in which the overall height is equal to or greater than the diameter [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-39, modified ("cell with a cylindrical shape" replaced by "round cell or battery")] 3.6

depth of discharge DOD percentage of rated capacity discharged from a battery 3.7

fully discharged state of charge of a cell or battery corresponding to 100 % depth of discharge 3.8

harm physical injury or damage to health of people, or damage to property or the environment [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.3] 3.9

hazard potential source of harm [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.5, modified (removal of NOTE)] 3.10

intended use use of a product, process or service in accordance with information provided by the supplier [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.13] 3.11

large battery battery with a gross mass of more than 12 kg 3.12
large cell cell with a gross mass of more than 500 g SIST EN 60086-4:2015
– 10 – IEC 60086-4:2014 © IEC 2014 3.13

lithium cell cell containing a non-aqueous electrolyte and a negative electrode of lithium or containing lithium [SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004 482-01-06, modified (removal of NOTE)] 3.14

nominal voltage suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell, a battery or an electrochemical sys

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