Building information modelling (BIM) - Semantic modelling and linking (SML) - Part 1: Generic modelling patterns

This document addresses syntactic and semantic interoperability for information describing assets going through their life cycle in the built environment. It assumes the underlying technical interoperability provided already by the Internet/World Wide Web (WWW) technology-stack. The syntactic aspects relate to the Linked Data (LD)/Semantic Web (SW) formats and the SPARQL direct access method provided. The semantic aspects relates to the LD/SW-based information models in the form of thesauri and ontologies giving meaning to the information.
The following information architecture (Figure 1) applies.
Figure 1 - Information architecture with (grey areas indicating the scope of this document)
This document specifies:
-   a conceptual "L1: Information language" with four RDF-based language bindings being SKOS, RDFS, OWL and SHACL, including:
-   a choice of ‘linked data’/RDF-based formats (to be used for all modelling and language levels);
-   a generic Top Level Information Model of a total "M1: Information model", here "an upper ontology", including:
-   a set of generic information modelling patterns for identification, annotation, enumeration datatypes, complex quality/quantity modelling, decomposition and grouping.
This modelling approach for information models and information sets is relevant within the built environment from multiple perspectives such as:
-   wash with water;
-   Building information modelling (BIM);
-   Geographical information systems (GIS);
-   Systems engineering (SE) 1);
-   Monitoring & control (M&C);
-   Electronic document management (EDM).
Annex E discusses in an informative way how the information models and sets relevant for these different worlds can be linked together using LD/SW technology.
This document does not specify a full meta-‘information model’, sometimes referred to as a ‘Knowledge Model (KM)’. prEN ISO 12006-3 provides such an often used model for the built environment. In Annex D, D.3 it is shown how this existing model can be made complient to this document. The only direct support for this meta level comes in the form of the possibility to define ‘types’ (enumeration types or concept types) and ‘objectifications’ as metaconcepts.
This document does not specify a meta-‘information language’ since this is already provided by the concrete RDF-based language bindings (being RDFS).
The scope of this document in general excludes the following:
-   Business process modelling;
-   Software implementation aspects;
-   Information packaging and transportation/transaction aspects already handled by ISO TC59/SC13 Information container for linked document delivery (ICDD) ([13]) respectively various information delivery manual (IDM) / information exchange requirements (EIR)-related initiatives;
-   Domain-specific (here: ‘built environment’-specific) content modelling in the form of concepts, attributes and relations at end-user level (the actual ontologies themselves) beyond a generic top level information model (‘upper ontology’) and modelling and linking patterns.

Semantischer Modellierungs- und Verknüpfungsstandard (SMLS) für die Datenintegration in der gebauten Umwelt

Dieses Dokument befasst sich mit der syntaktischen und semantischen Interoperabilität für informationenbeschreibende Assets, die ihren Lebenszyklus in der gebauten Umwelt durchlaufen. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass die zugrundeliegende technische Interoperabilität bereits durch die Technologieplattform des Internet/World Wide Web (WWW) gegeben ist. Die syntaktischen Aspekte beziehen sich auf die gelieferten Formate Vernetzte Daten (LD)/Semantisches Web (SW) und das direkte Zugriffsverfahren SPARQL. Die semantischen Aspekte beziehen sich auf die LD/SW-basierten Informationsmodelle in Form von Thesauri und Ontologien, die den Informationen Bedeutung verleihen.
Es gilt folgende Informationsarchitektur (Bild 1).
Bild 1 - Informationsarchitektur mit (graue Bereiche weisen auf den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments hin)
Dieses Dokument legt fest:
-   eine konzeptionelle Ebene 'L1: Informationssprache' mit vier RDF-basierten Sprachbindungen, nämlich SKOS, RDFS, OWL und SHACL, einschließlich:
-   einer Auswahl von auf vernetzten Daten/RDF basierenden Formaten (anzuwenden für alle Modellierungs- und Sprachebenen);
-   ein generisches Informationsmodell der oberen Ebene eines gesamten 'M1: Informationsmodells', hier 'eine obere Ontologie', einschließlich:
-   eines Satzes generischer Informationsmodellierungsmuster für Identifizierung, Anmerkung, Aufzählungsdatentypen, komplexe Qualitäts-/Größenmodellierung, Aufteilung und Gruppierung.
Dieser Modellierungsansatz für Informationsmodelle und Informationssätze ist innerhalb der gebauten Umwelt von mehreren Blickpunkten aus relevant, wie etwa:
-   mit Wasser spülen;
-   Bauwerksinformationsmodellierung (BIM);
-   Geographische Informationssysteme (GIS);
-   Systems Engineering (SE) 1);
-   Überwachung und Steuerung (M&C);
-   elektronisches Dokumentenmanagement (EDM).
Anhang E legt auf informative Weise dar, wie die für diese verschiedenen Welten relevanten Informationsmodelle und -sätze mithilfe von LD/SW-Technologie vernetzt werden können.
Dieses Dokument legt kein vollständiges Meta-'Informationsmodell‘, manchmal als 'Wissensmodell(KM)‘ bezeichnet, fest. prEN ISO 12006 3 liefert ein derartiges, oftmals verwendetes Modell für die gebaute Umwelt. In Anhang D, D.3 wird gezeigt, wie dieses bestehende Modell mit diesem Dokument konform verwendet werden kann. Die einzige direkte Unterstützung für diese Meta-Ebene besteht in der Möglichkeit, 'Typen‘ (Aufzählungstypen oder Konzepttypen) und 'Objektifizierungen‘ als Meta-Konzepte festzulegen.
Dieses Dokument legt keine Meta-'Informationssprache‘ fest, da diese bereits durch die konkreten RDF-basierte Sprachbindungen (die RDFS) bereitgestellt ist.
Der Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments schließt grundsätzlich Folgendes aus:
-   Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen;
-   Aspekte der Softwareimplementierung;
-   Informationsbündelungs- und Transport-/Transaktionsaspekte, die bereits durch ISO TC59/SC13 Information container for linked document delivery(ICDD) ([13]), respektive verschiedene Initiativen in Verbindung mit dem Handbuch der Informationslieferungen (IDM)/Informationsaustausch-Anforderungen (EIR), behandelt werden;
-   bereichsspezifische (hier: spezifisch für 'gebaute Umwelt‘) Inhaltsmodellierung in Form von Konzepten, Attributen und Relationen auf Endnutzer-Ebene (die tatsächlichen Ontologien selbst) über ein generisches Informationsmodell der obersten Ebene ('obere Ontologie‘) und Modellierungs- und Vernetzungsmuster hinaus.

Modélisation d'informations de la construction (BIM) - Modélisation et liaisons sémantiques (SML) - Partie 1 : Schémas de modélisation génériques

Le présent document adresse l'interopérabilité syntaxique et sémantique des informations décrivant les actifs tout au long de leur cycle de vie dans l'environnement bâti. Il suppose que l'interopérabilité technique sous-jacente est déjà assurée par la pile technologique Internet/World Wide Web (WWW). Les aspects syntaxiques se rapportent aux formats LD (données liées)/SW (Web sémantique) et à la méthode d'accès direct SPARQL fournie. Les aspects sémantiques se rapportent aux modèles d'information basés sur du LD/SW sous la forme de thésaurus et d'ontologies qui donnent du sens aux informations.
L'architecture suivante de l'information (Figure 1) s'applique.
Figure 1 - Architecture de l'information (les zones grisées indiquent le domaine d'application du présent document)
Le présent document spécifie :
-   un niveau conceptuel « L1 : Langage d'informations », avec quatre déclinaisons en langages basés sur RDF, à savoir SKOS, RDFS, OWL et SHACL, comprenant :
-   un choix de formats basés sur les « données liées »/RDF (à utiliser pour tous les niveaux de modélisation et de langage) ;
-   un modèle d'information générique de haut niveau « M1 : Modèle d'information », ici présenté comme « ontologie de haut niveau », comprenant :
-   un ensemble de schémas génériques de modélisation de l’information pour l'identification, l'annotation, les types de données d'énumération, la modélisation complexe de qualités/grandeurs, la décomposition et le regroupement.
Cette approche de modélisation pour les modèles d'information et les ensembles d'informations est pertinente pour l'environnement bâti selon de multiples perspectives, telles que :
-   le lavage à l'eau ;
-   la modélisation d'informations de la construction (BIM) ;
-   les systèmes d'informations géographiques (SIG) ;
-   l'ingénierie des systèmes (SE)1) ;
-   la surveillance et le contrôle (M&C) ;
-   la gestion électronique de documents (GED).
L'Annexe E discute de manière informative comment les modèles et les ensembles d'informations pertinents pour ces différents mondes peuvent être reliés ensemble à l'aide des technologies LD/SW.
Le présent document ne spécifie pas un méta-« modèle d'information » complet, parfois appelé « modèle de connaissances » (KM, de l'anglais « Knowledge Model »). Le document prEN ISO 12006-3 fournit un tel type de modèle souvent utilisé pour l'environnement bâti. Dans l’Annexe D, paragraphe D.3, il est illustré comment ce modèle existant peut être rendu conforme au présent document. La seule prise en charge directe de ce méta niveau est liée à la possibilité de définir des « types » (types d'énumérations ou types de concepts) et des « objectifications » en tant que métaconcepts.
Le présent document ne spécifie pas un méta-« langage d'informations », car ceci est déjà fourni par les déclinaisons en langages concrets basés sur RDF (à savoir RDFS).
D'une manière générale, le domaine d'application du présent document exclut les aspects suivants :
-   la modélisation des processus métier ;
-   les aspects liés à l'implémentation de logiciels ;
-   les aspects liés au paquetage et au transport/à la transaction d'informations, déjà traités par l'ISO TC59/SC 13 Conteneur d'informations pour la livraison de documents liés (ICDD) [13], par le biais de divers manuels de livraison d'informations (IDM) et d'initiatives en lien avec les exigences d'échange d'informations (EIR), respectivement ;
-   la modélisation de contenus propres à un domaine spécifique (ici : spécifiques à l'environnement bâti), sous la forme de concepts, d'attributs et de relations au niveau de l'utilisateur final (les ontologies réelles proprement dites), au-delà d’un modèle d'information générique de haut niveau (« ontologie de haut niveau ») et de schémas de modélisation/liaison.

Informacijsko modeliranje gradenj (BIM) - Semantični standard za modeliranje in povezovanje (SML)

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17632:2021
01-maj-2021
Informacijsko modeliranje gradenj (BIM) - Semantični standard za modeliranje in
povezovanje (SML)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) - Semantic Modelling and Linking (SML)
Semantischer Modellierungs- und Verknüpfungsstandard (SMLS) für die
Datenintegration in der gebauten Umwelt

Modélisation d'informations de la construction (BIM) - Modélisation et liens sémantiques

(SML)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17632
ICS:
35.240.67 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in building
gradbeništvu and construction industry
91.010.01 Gradbeništvo na splošno Construction industry in
general
oSIST prEN 17632:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17632:2021
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oSIST prEN 17632:2021
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17632
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2021
ICS 35.240.67
English Version
Building Information Modelling (BIM) - Semantic
Modelling and Linking (SML)

Modélisation d'informations de la construction (BIM) - Semantischer Modellierungs- und

Modélisation et liens sémantiques (SML) Verknüpfungsstandard (SMLS) für die
Datenintegration in der gebauten Umwelt

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 442.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17632:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 9

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 12

4.1 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 12

5 Levels of Capability ............................................................................................................................ 14

6 Conceptual L1: Data language ........................................................................................................ 15

7 Concrete L1: Data language bindings .......................................................................................... 17

7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 17

7.2 Identification: URI strategy ............................................................................................................. 20

7.3 Naming conventions .......................................................................................................................... 22

7.4 Annotation ............................................................................................................................................. 22

7.5 Enumeration datatypes .................................................................................................................... 23

7.6 Decomposition (instance level) ..................................................................................................... 24

7.7 Quantity kinds & units ...................................................................................................................... 24

7.8 Quantity modelling ............................................................................................................................. 24

7.9 Grouping................................................................................................................................................. 25

8 Generic M1: Top level data model ................................................................................................ 25

8.1 Top level model ................................................................................................................................... 25

8.2 Systems engineering extension ..................................................................................................... 29

9 Implementing SML in code .............................................................................................................. 31

10 Linking data .......................................................................................................................................... 31

10.1 Types of linking ................................................................................................................................... 31

10.2 Language-level language link sets ................................................................................................ 32

11 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 33

11.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 33

11.2 Conformance on language level ..................................................................................................... 33

11.3 Conformance on semantic level ..................................................................................................... 33

Annex A (normative) Conceptual data language and top level data model ................................ 34

A.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 34

A.2 in SKOS (Turtle format) .................................................................................................................... 34

A.3 in RDFS (Turtle format) .................................................................................................................... 41

A.4 in OWL (Turtle format) ..................................................................................................................... 51

A.5 in SHACL (Turtle format) ................................................................................................................. 64

Annex B (normative) Selected W3C RDF language subsets .............................................................. 80

B.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 80

B.2 XML schema part 2: Datatypes 2nd edition ............................................................................... 80

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B.3 Resource description framework (RDF) .................................................................................... 80

B.4 Simple knowledge organization system (SKOS) ...................................................................... 81

B.5 Resource description framework schema (RDFS) .................................................................. 81

B.6 Web ontology language (OWL) ...................................................................................................... 82

B.7 Shape constraint language (SHACL) ............................................................................................. 83

Annex C (informative) Example in SKOS ................................................................................................. 86

C.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 86

C.2 Example in SKOS (RDF/XML format) ........................................................................................... 86

C.3 Example in SKOS (Turtle format) ................................................................................................. 87

C.4 Example in SKOS (JSON-LD format) ............................................................................................. 89

Annex D (informative) Example in RDFS ................................................................................................. 93

D.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 93

D.2 Example in RDFS (RDF/XML format) ........................................................................................... 93

D.3 Example in RDFS (Turtle format) ................................................................................................. 96

D.4 Example in RDFS (JSON-LD format) .......................................................................................... 100

Annex E (informative) Example in OWL ............................................................................................... 106

E.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 106

E.2 Example in OWL (RDF/XML format) ......................................................................................... 106

E.3 Example in OWL (Turtle format) ............................................................................................... 109

E.4 Example in OWL (JSON-LD format) ........................................................................................... 112

Annex F (informative) Example in SHACL ............................................................................................ 120

F.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 120

F.2 Example in SHACL (RDF/XML format) ..................................................................................... 120

F.3 Example in SHACL (Turtle format) ............................................................................................ 123

F.4 Example in SHACL (JSON-LD format) ........................................................................................ 127

Annex G (informative) Relationships with other asset/product modelling standards ...... 136

G.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 136

G.2 Relationship with ISO 21597 ....................................................................................................... 136

G.3 Relationship with ISO 23387 ....................................................................................................... 136

Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................... 155

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17632:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 422 “Building

Information Modelling (BIM)”, the secretariat of which is held by SN - Norway.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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Introduction

The built environment is the context of this document. In the life cycle of buildings or infrastructure its

assets need to be managed across their entire life cycle, involving programming, design, building and

operation (as defined by ISO 19650 series), and the supply chain producing and delivering them. Vast

amounts of valuable data about them are created, communicated in a diverse range of formats and data

structures - and often lost again. In order to manage the assets efficiently and effectively according to the

standards practised in asset management (as defined by ISO 55000 series), data needs to be findable,

accessible, interoperable end reusable (FAIR) .

The world wide web consortium (W3C) provides so-called linked data (LD) and semantic web (SW)

technologies [1] which are capable of giving data common form (syntax) and meaning (semantics),

making data FAIR in a vendor neutral fashion.

The aim of this document is to standardize the application of this technology for the built environment in

order to enable the data becoming FAIR. This document specifies how the construction and software

industries apply this linked data and semantic web technology.

It hereby follows the principle to keep semantic modelling as simple and as standard as possible

(Table 1).
Table 1 — Aiming for standard and simple semantics
Semantic Standard Proprietary
Simple OK IF NEEDED
Complex IF NEEDED NOT OK

In others words, it is not the intention of this document to persuade anyone to shift the data structures

they already have in place. On the contrary, it is the suggestion of this document to store, model, publish

and link these data in a findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable manner (FAIR). To benefit the

industry from planning and design to construction and operation.

This document complements other ISO standards without any overlap. In the Annex G, related ISO

standards are listed and the exact relationship is described.

Application of this document to new or existing software will result in future proof, semantic data

interoperability that is interoperability so that the meaning of the data model within the context of a

subject area is understood by the participating systems [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19941].

Furthermore, the data sets and data models become compatible, reusable, combinable and thereby

integrally applicable. This document enables decision making in and over every life cycle phase and the

supply chain involved.
1) A common principle by go-fair.org in today’s data management.
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Data management in the built environment is characterized by three main categories:

• Terms and definitions of data (on object level and attribute level);

• Data exchange (transfer of data from one party to another party) and data sharing (publishing of data

by one party where it can be accessed by other parties);
• Data integration involving linking all data together.

For each of these categories the interoperability approaches apply, as defined by the enterprise

interoperability framework (EIF) (ISO 11354-1):
1. Unified approach, featuring some common meta-model;
2. Integrated approach, featuring some common forms;

3. Federated approach, no common forms or meta-model but dynamic accommodation/adjustment.

These approaches, according to the EIF, are valid for business, process, service and data aspects.

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1 Scope

This document discusses an integrated and unified approach for data aspects, specifically for assets in

the built environment, using EIF terminology.
The following data architecture (Figure 1) applies within each category.

Figure 1 — Data architecture with typology (grey areas indicating the scope of this document)

This document specifies:
• a generic Top Level “M1: Data model” as common form;

• a conceptual “L1: Data language” as common meta-model with four ‘linked data’-based concrete

language bindings (SKOS, RDFS, OWL and SHACL), including:

• a choice of RDF-based formats (to be used for all modelling and language levels);

• a set of data modelling patterns (for identification, naming, handling of enumeration types,

quantity modelling, asset decomposition, grouping, etc.).

• a linking approach for interlinking data sets, interlinking data models and linking data sets and data

models which are relevant within the built environment from many perspectives such as:

• Building information modelling (BIM);
• Geo-spatial information systems (GIS);
• Systems engineering (SE) ;
• Monitoring & control (M&C);
• Electronic document management (EDM).

This document does not specify a knowledge model since this is already available in ISO 12006-3.

2) The interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform a set of

stakeholder needs, expectations, and constraints into a solution and to support that solution throughout its life

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017(en), 3.1.65].
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This document does not specify a meta-‘data language’ since this is already provided by the concrete RDF

language bindings (being RDFS).
The scope of this document in general excludes the following:
• Business process modelling;
• Software implementation aspects;

• Data packaging and transportation/transaction aspects (handled by ISO TC59/SC13 Information

container for document delivery (ICDD) respectively various information delivery manual (IDM) /

information exchange requirements (EIR)-related initiatives);

• Domain-specific (here: built environment-specific) content modelling in the form of concepts,

attributes and relations at end-user level (the actual ontologies themselves) beyond a generic upper

ontology and modelling patterns.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements for this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

JSON-LD 1.1, A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data, W3C Candidate Recommendation, 17 April

2020, https://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld11/

OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, Document Overview (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation,

11 December 2012, https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-owl2-overview-20121211/
RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax, W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014,
https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/

RDF 1.1 Turtle, W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014, https://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/

RDF 1.1 XML Syntax, W3C Recommendation 25 February 2014, https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-

grammar/

RDF Schema 1.1, W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014, https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/

SHACL (Shapes Constraint Language), W3C Recommendation, 20 July 2017,
https://www.w3.org/TR/shacl/

SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference, W3C Recommendation, 18 August 2009,

https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/
SPARQL 1.1 Overview, 21 March 2013, W3C Recommendation,

https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-overview/ (referencing, among others, the next two, more specific,

references)
SPARQL 1.1 Query Language, W3C Recommendation, 21 March 2013,
https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-sparql11-query-20130321/
3) From now referred to as just “OWL”.
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SPARQL 1.1 Protocol, W3C Recommendation, 21 March 2013, https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-

protocol/

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, Second Edition, W3C Recommendation, 28 October 2004,

https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6707-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
asset
item, thing or entity that has potential or actual value to an organization

[SOURCE: ISO 55000:2014, 3.2.1, modified — Note 1, 2 and 3 to entry have been removed.]

3.2
machine-readable
able to be read and processed by a computer
3.3
machine-interpretable
able to be semantically interpreted by a computer
3.4
level of capability
LoC

level of semantic level modelling power within a data model to fulfil a use case type

3.5
format
predetermined arrangement of data on a data medium
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.13.12]
3.6
ontology
formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization

Note 1 to entry: An ontology typically includes definitions of concepts and specified relationships between them,

set out in a formal way so that a machine can use them for reasoning.

Note 2 to entry: Applied in this document as a set of concepts, (reference) individuals, value types, (reference)

values, attributes, relations, constraints and derivations.
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.2.03, modified — added Note 2 to entry]
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3.7
typology
hierarchy related to classification/instantiation relations

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 3.2.135, modified — The words "type of" have been removed. The

words "which deals with" have been changed to "related to". The word relationships has been changed

to relations.]
3.8
taxonomy
hierarchy related to generalization/specialization relations

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 3.2.135, modified — The words "type of" have been removed. The

words "which deals with" have been changed to "related to". The word relationships has been changed

to relations. Not mixing concepts, attributes and relations.]
3.9
meronomy
hierarchy related to part-whole (decomposition) relations

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 3.2.135, modified — The words "type of" have been removed. The

words "which deals with" have been changed to "related to". The word relationships has been changed

to relations.]
3.10
built environment

collection of man-made or induced physical objects located in a particular area or region

[SOURCE: ISO 6707-3:2017, 3.1.3]
3.11
triple
statement in the form subject-predicate-object that expresses a relation
3.12
level of capability

modelling power related to the needs of a specific use case type, provided by the linked data languages

3.13
object
any part of the perceivable or conceivable world

Note 1 to entry: An object is something abstract or physical toward which thought, feeling, or action is directed.

Note 2 to entry: Within this draft, the terms instance and individual, are used as synonyms of object.

[SOURCE: ISO 12006-2:2015, 3.1.1, modified — added Note 2 to entry.]
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3.14
concept
abstract entity for determining category membership
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382 :2015, 2122971]
3.15
property
inherent or acquired feature of an object
3.16
attribute

data element for the computer-sensible description of a property, a relation or a class

[SOURCE ISO 22274:2013, 3.2]
3.17
relation
sense in which concepts can be connected, via constituent roles
EXAMPLE Causality is a relation with two constituent roles: cause and effect.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-3:2013, 3.2.119]
3.18
data set

group of data instances directly specifying or describing something you can or could point at in reality

3.19
data model

specification/description of the organization of data giving meaning (semantics) to a data set

3.20
exchange information requirement
EIR
information requirement in relation to an appointment
[SOURCE: ISO 19650-1:2018. 3.3.6]
3.21
systems engineering

interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform a

set of stakeholder needs, expectations, and constraints into a solution and to support that solution

throughout its life
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207:2017, 3.1.65]
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3.22
metadata
data about data (documents, data sets, data models or elements in those)
3.23
top level data model
most generic taxonomy as part of a data model
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
This document does not contain any symbols.
4.2 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
API application programming interface
BIM building information modelling
DT data template [CEN TC 442]
ECMA European computer manufacturers association international
EDM electronic data management
EIF enterprise interoperability framework
EIR exchange information requirements
FAIR findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable [go-fair.org]
FO functional object
GIS geo-spatial information systems
GUID globally unique identifier (typically assigned)
ICDD information container for linked document delivery [ISO]
ID identifier
IDM information delivery manual
IFC industry foundation classes [ISO]
IETF internet engineering task force
IO imaginary object
JSON JavaScript object notation [ECMA]
JSON-LD JavaScript object notation - linked data [W3C]
LBD CG linked building data community group [W3C]
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LD linked data technology [W3C]
LoC level of capability
M&C monitoring & control
OMG object management group
OWL web ontology language [W3C]
QUDT quantities, units & data types [qudt.org]
RDF resource description framework [W3C]
RDFS resource description framework schema [W3C]
RFC request for comments [IETF]
RO real object
SE systems engineering
SHACL shapes constraints language [W3C]
SML semantic modelling and linking [CEN]
SPARQL SPARQL protocol and RDF query language [W3C]
SPFF STEP physical file format [STEP]
STEP standard for the exchange of product model data [ISO]
SSoF single source of facts
SW semantic web technology [W3C]
TO technical object
UML unified modelling language [OMG]
URI uniform resource identifier [W3C]
UUID universally unique identifier [IETF]
XML extensible markup language [W3C]
XSD extensible markup language schema definition [W3C]
W3C world wide web consortium
WWW world wide web [W3C]
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5 Levels of Capability

Different use case types need a specification for different levels of capability (LoC) related to the required

modelling power. This document specifies three main LoCs (Figure 2):
Figure 2 — Three main use case types and related 'Levels of Capability (LoCs)'

The left/grey part of the figure represents the business side, the right/orange side the modelling language

used. The simplest use case type requiring the weakest semantic modelling is the common understanding

and alignment of terms and definitions used to describe assets, their environment and internal structure.

Weak modelling is sufficient here as a first step for human interpretation. A good definition gives an end

user guidance on how to later classify and instantiate their data according to these terms. This level

targets mainly uniformity in human understanding of terms and definitions and at least making sure the

data is machine-processable, with the lowest level of capabilit
...

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