Geographic information - Schema for coverage geometry and functions (ISO 19123:2005)

ISO 19123:2005 defines a conceptual schema for the spatial characteristics of coverages. Coverages support mapping from a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain to feature attribute values where feature attribute types are common to all geographic positions within the domain. A coverage domain consists of a collection of direct positions in a coordinate space that may be defined in terms of up to three spatial dimensions as well as a temporal dimension. Examples of coverages include rasters, triangulated irregular networks, point coverages and polygon coverages. Coverages are the prevailing data structures in a number of application areas, such as remote sensing, meteorology and mapping of bathymetry, elevation, soil and vegetation.
ISO 19123:2005 defines the relationship between the domain of a coverage and an associated attribute range. The characteristics of the spatial domain are defined whereas the characteristics of the attribute range are not part of ISO 19123:2005.

Geoinformation - Coverage Geometrie- und Funktionsschema (ISO 19123:2005)

Information géographique - Schéma de la géométrie et des fonctions de couverture (ISO 19123:2005)

L'ISO 19123:2005 définit un schéma conceptuel des caractéristiques spatiales des couvertures. Les couvertures servent de base à la cartographie réalisée à partir d'un domaine spatial, temporel ou spatio-emporel permettant ainsi d'obtenir les valeurs attributaires d'entités dont les types d'attributs sont communs à toutes les positions géographiques existant dans le domaine. Un domaine de couverture se compose d'un ensemble de positions directes dans un espace de coordonnées qui peut être défini comme tridimensionnel ou bien temporel. Parmi les exemples de couverture, citons les matrices, les réseaux irréguliers de triangles, les couvertures de points et les couvertures de polygones. Les couvertures sont les structures de données courantes dans divers champs d'application, notamment la télédétection, la météorologie, la bathymétrie, l'altitude, le sol et la végétation.
L'ISO 19123:2005 définit la relation entre le domaine d'une couverture et une plage d'attributs associée. Les caractéristiques du domaine spatial sont définies, mais les caractéristiques des attributs ne font pas partie du domaine d'application de l'ISO 19123:2005.

Geografske informacije – Shema za geometrijo podatkovnega sloja in funkcije (ISO 19123:2005)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
29-Jun-2007
Withdrawal Date
29-Sep-2007
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
21-Mar-2007
Due Date
13-Nov-2007
Completion Date
21-Mar-2007

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
EN ISO 19123:2007
English language
73 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19123:2007
01-junij-2007
Geografske informacije – Shema za geometrijo podatkovnega sloja in funkcije (ISO
19123:2005)
Geographic information - Schema for coverage geometry and functions (ISO
19123:2005)
Geoinformation - Coverage Geometrie- und Funktionsschema (ISO 19123:2005)

Information géographique - Schéma de la géométrie et des fonctions de couverture (ISO

19123:2005)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19123:2007
ICS:
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST EN ISO 19123:2007 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 19123
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2007
ICS 35.240.70
English Version
Geographic information - Schema for coverage geometry and
functions (ISO 19123:2005)

Information géographique - Schéma de la géométrie et des Geoinformation - Coverage Geometrie- und

fonctions de couverture (ISO 19123:2005) Funktionsschema (ISO 19123:2005)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 February 2007.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19123:2007: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN ISO 19123:2007 (E)
Foreword
The text of ISO 19123:2005 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211

"Geographic information/Geomatics” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

and has been taken over as EN ISO 19123:2007 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 287
"Geographic Information", the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2007, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2007.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United

Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19123:2005 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19123:2007 without any

modifications.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19123
First edition
2005-08-15
Geographic information — Schema for
coverage geometry and functions
Information géographique — Schéma de la géométrie et des fonctions
de couverture
Reference number
ISO 19123:2005(E)
ISO 2005
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2005

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and notation ......................................................................... 2

4.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3 Notation ................................................................................................................................................. 7

5 Fundamental characteristics of coverages........................................................................................8

5.1 The context for coverages ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 The coverage schema .......................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 CV_Coverage....................................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 CV_DomainObject............................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 CV_AttributeValues ............................................................................................................................ 13

5.6 CV_CommonPointRule....................................................................................................................... 14

5.7 CV_DiscreteCoverage ........................................................................................................................ 14

5.8 CV_GeometryValuePair...................................................................................................................... 15

5.9 CV_ContinuousCoverage .................................................................................................................. 16

5.10 CV_ValueObject .................................................................................................................................. 17

5.11 CV_InterpolationMethod .................................................................................................................... 18

5.12 Subclasses of CV_ContinuousCoverage ......................................................................................... 18

6 Discrete coverages............................................................................................................................. 18

6.1 Discrete coverage types .................................................................................................................... 18

6.2 CV_DiscretePointCoverage ............................................................................................................... 19

6.3 CV_PointValuePair.............................................................................................................................. 20

6.4 CV_DiscreteGridPointCoverage........................................................................................................ 20

6.5 CV_GridPointValuePair ...................................................................................................................... 21

6.6 CV_DiscreteCurveCoverage .............................................................................................................. 21

6.7 CV_CurveValuePair ............................................................................................................................ 22

6.8 CV_DiscreteSurfaceCoverage ........................................................................................................... 22

6.9 CV_SurfaceValuePair ......................................................................................................................... 24

6.10 CV_DiscreteSolidCoverage ............................................................................................................... 24

6.11 CV_SolidValuePair.............................................................................................................................. 24

7 Thiessen polygon coverage .............................................................................................................. 25

7.1 Thiessen polygon networks .............................................................................................................. 25

7.2 CV_ThiessenPolygonCoverage......................................................................................................... 25

7.3 CV_ThiessenValuePolygon ............................................................................................................... 27

8 Quadrilateral grid coverages ............................................................................................................. 27

8.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 27

8.2 Quadrilateral grid geometry............................................................................................................... 27

8.3 CV_Grid................................................................................................................................................ 30

8.4 CV_GridEnvelope................................................................................................................................ 31

8.5 CV_GridPoint....................................................................................................................................... 31

8.6 CV_GridCoordinate............................................................................................................................. 32

8.7 CV_GridCell ......................................................................................................................................... 32

8.8 CV_Footprint ....................................................................................................................................... 33

8.9 CV_RectifiedGrid ................................................................................................................................ 33

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)

8.10 CV_ReferenceableGrid ....................................................................................................................... 34

8.11 CV_ContinousQuadrilateralGridCoverage ....................................................................................... 35

8.12 CV_GridValueCell................................................................................................................................ 36

8.13 CV_GridPointValuePair ...................................................................................................................... 36

8.14 CV_GridValuesMatrix.......................................................................................................................... 37

8.15 CV_SequenceRule .............................................................................................................................. 38

8.16 CV_SequenceType.............................................................................................................................. 38

9 Hexagonal Grid Coverages ................................................................................................................ 39

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 39

9.2 CV_HexagonalGridCoverage ............................................................................................................. 39

9.3 CV_GridValuesMatrix.......................................................................................................................... 41

9.4 CV_ValueHexagon .............................................................................................................................. 41

10 Triangulated irregular network (TIN) coverages.............................................................................. 41

10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 41

10.2 CV_TINCoverage ................................................................................................................................. 43

10.3 CV_ValueTriangle................................................................................................................................ 43

11 Segmented curve coverages ............................................................................................................. 44

11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 44

11.2 CV_SegmentedCurveCoverage ......................................................................................................... 45

11.3 CV_ValueCurve ................................................................................................................................... 45

11.4 CV_ValueSegment .............................................................................................................................. 46

11.5 Evaluation ............................................................................................................................................ 46

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite........................................................................................................ 47

Annex B (informative) UML Notation .............................................................................................................. 51

Annex C (informative) Interpolation methods................................................................................................ 56

Annex D (informative) Sequential enumeration............................................................................................. 60

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 65

iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 19123 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
Introduction

Geographic phenomena fall into two broad categories — discrete and continuous. Discrete phenomena are

recognizable objects that have relatively well-defined boundaries or spatial extent. Examples include buildings,

streams and measurement stations. Continuous phenomena vary over space and have no specific extent.

Examples include temperature, soil composition and elevation. A value or description of a continuous

phenomenon is only meaningful at a particular position in space (and possibly time). Temperature, for

example, takes on specific values only at defined locations, whether measured or interpolated from other

locations.

These concepts are not mutually exclusive. In fact, many components of the landscape may be viewed

alternatively as discrete or continuous. For example, a stream is a discrete entity, but its flow rate and water

quality index vary from one position to another. Similarly, a highway can be thought of as a feature or as a

collection of observations measuring accidents or traffic flow, and an agricultural field is both a spatial object

and a set of measurements of crop yield through time.

Historically, geographic information has been treated in terms of two fundamental types called vector data and

raster data.

“Vector data” deals with discrete phenomena, each of which is conceived of as a feature. The spatial

characteristics of a discrete real-world phenomenon are represented by a set of one or more geometric

primitives (points, curves, surfaces or solids). Other characteristics of the phenomenon are recorded as

feature attributes. Usually, a single feature is associated with a single set of attribute values. ISO 19107:2003

provides a schema for describing features in terms of geometric and topological primitives.

“Raster data”, on the other hand, deals with real-world phenomena that vary continuously over space. It

contains a set of values, each associated with one of the elements in a regular array of points or cells. It is

usually associated with a method for interpolating values at spatial positions between the points or within the

cells. Since this data structure is not the only one that can be used to represent phenomena that vary

continuously over space, this International Standard uses the term “coverage,” adopted from the Abstract

[1]

Specification of the Open GIS Consortium , to refer to any data representation that assigns values directly to

spatial position. A coverage is a function from a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain to an attribute

range. A coverage associates a position within its domain to a record of values of defined data types.

In this International Standard, coverage is a subtype of feature. A coverage is a feature that has multiple

values for each attribute type, where each direct position within the geometric representation of the feature

has a single value for each attribute type.

Just as the concepts of discrete and continuous phenomena are not mutually exclusive, their representations

as discrete features or coverages are not mutually exclusive. The same phenomenon may be represented as

either a discrete feature or a coverage. A city may be viewed as a discrete feature that returns a single value

for each attribute, such as its name, area and total population. The city feature may also be represented as a

coverage that returns values such as population density, land value or air quality index for each position in the

city.

A coverage, moreover, can be derived from a collection of discrete features with common attributes, the

values of the coverage at each position being the values of the attributes of the feature located at that position.

Conversely, a collection of discrete features can be derived from a coverage, each discrete feature being

composed of a set of positions associated with specified attribute values.
vi © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19123:2005(E)
Geographic information — Schema for coverage geometry and
functions
1 Scope

This International Standard defines a conceptual schema for the spatial characteristics of coverages.

Coverages support mapping from a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain to feature attribute values

where feature attribute types are common to all geographic positions within the domain. A coverage domain

consists of a collection of direct positions in a coordinate space that may be defined in terms of up to three

spatial dimensions as well as a temporal dimension. Examples of coverages include rasters, triangulated

irregular networks, point coverages and polygon coverages. Coverages are the prevailing data structures in a

number of application areas, such as remote sensing, meteorology and mapping of bathymetry, elevation, soil

and vegetation. This International Standard defines the relationship between the domain of a coverage and an

associated attribute range. The characteristics of the spatial domain are defined whereas the characteristics of

the attribute range are not part of this standard.
2 Conformance

This International Standard specifies interfaces for several types of coverage objects. In addition, it supports

the interchange of coverage data independently of those interfaces. Thus, it specifies two sets of conformance

classes: one for implementation of the interfaces, the other for the exchange of coverage data. Each set

includes one conformance class for each type of coverage specified in this International Standard (Table 1).

Table 1 — Conformance classes
Conformance class Subclause
Simple coverage interface A.1.1
Discrete coverage interface A.1.2
Thiessen polygon coverage interface A.1.3
Quadrilateral grid coverage interface A.1.4
Hexagonal grid coverage interface A.1.5
TIN coverage interface A.1.6
Segmented curve coverage interface A.1.7
Discrete coverage interchange A.2.1
Thiessen polygon coverage interchange A.2.2
Quadrilateral grid coverage interchange A.2.3
Hexagonal grid coverage interchange A.2.4
TIN coverage interchange A.2.5
Segmented curve coverage interchange A.2.6
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)

In general, the interface conformance classes require implementation of all attributes, associations and

operations of relevant classes. This set includes a single conformance class (A.2.1) that supports a simple

interface for evaluation of any coverage type, but exposes none of the internal structure of the coverage. The

remainder of the set are conformance classes that support interfaces to specific coverage types that expose

additional information about the internal structure of the coverage.

The interchange conformance classes require only implementation of the attributes and associations of the

relevant classes.

The Abstract Test Suite in Annex A shows the implementation requirements necessary to conform to this

International Standard. Table 1 lists the subclauses of the Abstract Test Suite that apply for each conformance

class.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19107:2003, Geographic information — Spatial schema
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
ISO 19109:2005, Geographic information — Rules for application schema
ISO 19111:2003, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates
ISO 19115:2003, Geographic information — Metadata
4 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and notation
4.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1.1
continuous coverage

coverage that returns different values for the same feature attribute at different direct positions within a

single spatial object, temporal object or spatiotemporal object in its domain

NOTE Although the domain of a continuous coverage is ordinarily bounded in terms of its spatial and/or temporal

extent, it can be subdivided into an infinite number of direct positions.
4.1.2
convex hull
smallest convex set containing a given geometric object
[2]
[adapted from Dictionary of Computing:1996 ]
4.1.3
convex set

geometric set in which any direct position on the straight-line segment joining any two direct positions in

the geometric set is also contained in the geometric set
[2]
[Dictionary of Computing:1996 ]
2 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
4.1.4
coordinate

one of a sequence of n numbers designating the position of a point in n-dimensional space

[ISO 19111:2003]
4.1.5
coordinate dimension

number of measurements or axes needed to describe a position in a coordinate system

[ISO 19107:2003]
4.1.6
coordinate reference system
coordinate system that is related to the real world by a datum
[ISO 19111:2003]
41.7
coverage

feature that acts as a function to return values from its range for any direct position within its spatial,

temporal or spatiotemporal domain

EXAMPLE Examples include a raster image, polygon overlay or digital elevation matrix.

NOTE In other words, a coverage is a feature that has multiple values for each attribute type, where each direct

position within the geometric representation of the feature has a single value for each attribute type.

4.1.8
coverage geometry
configuration of the domain of a coverage described in terms of coordinates
4.1.9
curve
1-dimensional geometric primitive, representing the continuous image of a line
[ISO 19107:2003]
NOTE The boundary of a curve is the set of points at either end of the curve.
4.1.10
Delaunay triangulation

network of triangles such that the circle passing through the vertices of any triangle does not contain, in its

interior, the vertex of any other triangle
4.1.11
direct position

position described by a single set of coordinates within a coordinate reference system

[ISO 19107:2003]
4.1.12
discrete coverage

coverage that returns the same feature attribute values for every direct position within any single spatial

object, temporal object or spatiotemporal object in its domain

NOTE The domain of a discrete coverage consists of a finite set of spatial, temporal, or spatiotemporal objects.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 19123:2005(E)
4.1.13
domain
well-defined set
[ISO/TS 19103]
NOTE Domains are used to define the domain and range of operators and functions.
4.1.14
evaluation

〈coverage〉 determination of the values of a coverage at a direct position within the domain of the coverage

4.1.15
feature
0 abstraction of real world phenomena
[ISO 19101]
4.1.16
feature attribute
characteristic of a feature
[ISO 19101]
4.1.17
function

rule that associates each element from a domain (source or domain of the function) to a unique element in

another domain (target, co-domain or range)
[ISO 19107:2003]
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.