Paints and varnishes - Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)

Beschichtungsstoffe – Begriffe (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)

Peintures et vernis - Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)

Barve in laki - Slovar (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)

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Due Date
06-Jun-2022
Completion Date
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
01-maj-2022
Barve in laki - Slovar (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)
Paints and varnishes - Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Begriffe (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)
Peintures et vernis - Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS 4618:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 4618
ICS:
01.040.87 Industrija barv (Slovarji) Paint and colour industries
(Vocabularies)
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 4618
ISO/TC 35 Secretariat: NEN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2022-03-14 2022-06-06
Paints and varnishes — Vocabulary
ICS: 87.040; 01.040.87
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. © ISO 2022
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Alphabetical index .................................................................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 4618:2014), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— the title has been changed from “Terms and definitions” to “Vocabulary”;

— the following terms have been added: brush marks, cold checking, creeping, distinctness of image,

DOI, drawdown blade, film applicator, dry spray, sheariness, clouding, holiday, nanocomposite

coating, nanoparticle, primary particle, single particle, pigment binder ratio, semi-volatile organic

compound, SVOC, semi-volatile organic compound content, SVOC content, SVOCC;

— the following terms have been deleted: after tack, blast cleaning, bubbling, chemical pretreatment,

cutting in, electrostatic spraying, flash point, flocculation, flow properties, graining, marbling,

rheopexy, rheopectic behaviour, shear-thickening flow behaviour, dilatant flow behaviour, shear-

thinning flow behaviour, pseudoplastic flow behaviour, sheen, thixotropy, thixotropic behaviour,

viscoelasticity, viscosity, yield point, yield stress, yield value;
— many definitions have been amended;

— the text has been editorially revised and the normative references have been updated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
Paints and varnishes — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms used in the field of coating materials (paints, varnishes and raw materials

for paints and varnishes).

Terms relating to specific applications and properties are dealt with in standards concerning

those applications and properties, e.g. corrosion protection (see ISO 12944), coating powders (see

ISO 8130-14), electro-deposition coatings (see ISO 22553-1) and rheology (see ISO 3219-1).

Terms on nanotechnologies are harmonized with ISO/TS 80004-4.
Terms on pigments and extenders are harmonized with ISO 18451-1.

In addition to terms in English and French (two of the three official ISO languages), this document

gives the equivalent terms in German; these are published under the responsibility of the member

body for Germany (DIN). However, only the terms and definitions given in the official languages can be

considered as ISO terms and definitions.

NOTE Those terms that are defined elsewhere in this International Standard are shown in italics.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
abrasion

process of removing matter or deformation of a surface by friction as a result of

rubbing
3.1.2
abrasion

process of removing matter in the surface as a result of friction or impact

3.2
accelerator
additive to increase the speed of chemical reactions
3.3
acid value

mass in milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize 1 g of a sample under specified

test conditions
3.4
acrylic resin

synthetic resin resulting from the polymerization or copolymerization of acrylic and/or methacrylic

monomers, frequently together with other monomers
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.5
additive

substance, which, when added in small quantities to a coating material, improves or modifies one or

more properties

Note 1 to entry: A surfactant or surface-active agent is an additive that has the fundamental property of reducing

the interfacial tension between a solid and liquid or a liquid and air.
3.6
adhesion

phenomenon of attachment at the interface between a solid surface and another material caused by

molecular forces
Note 1 to entry: Adhesion should not be confused with cohesion.
3.7
adhesive strength
force required to detach a coating from a substrate or another coating
3.8
aerosol
solid or liquid particles in dispersion in a gaseous medium
3.9
ageing
change of one or more initial properties of a coating during the passage of time
3.10
alkyd resin

synthetic resin resulting from the polycondensation of fatty acids (or oils) and carbonic acids with

polyols
3.11
amino resin

synthetic resin resulting from the condensation of urea or melamine or derivatives such as benzo-

guanamine with formaldehyde
Note 1 to entry: These resins are often etherified with alcohols.
3.12
anti-blocking agent

additive that usually rises to the surface during the drying process and thus prevents blocking

3.13
anti-foaming agent

additive that prevents foaming or reduces the foaming tendency of a coating material

Note 1 to entry: See also defoaming agent.
3.14.1
anti-fouling paint

coating material applied on a marine structure to prevent the accumulation of fouling or

biological growth
3.14.2
antifouling paint

coating material applied on buildings to prevent dirt pick-up or biological growth

3.15
anti-settling agent

additive that prevents or retards the settling of pigments and/or extenders during storage of a coating

material
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
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3.16
anti-skinning agent
additive that prevents or retards skinning caused by oxidation during storage
3.17
apparent density
ratio between the mass and the volume of a non-tamped powder
Note 1 to entry: See also bulk density and tamped density.
3.18
appearance
visual characteristics of a surface

Note 1 to entry: Appearance is not a single measure or a general property of a material. It is not characterized

by a single parameter but a combination of colour, gloss, distinctness of image (DOI), haze, surface structure,

texture, orange peel, etc.

Note 2 to entry: The word appearance has no special paint related meaning but is included here for clarification

for non-English speakers.
3.19
application rate

quantity of a coating material that is required to produce, under defined working conditions, a dry film

or coat of given thickness on unit area
3.20
barrier coating material

coating material used to isolate a coating system from the substrate to which it is applied, in order to

prevent chemical or physical interaction, e.g. to prevent bleeding or migration from an underlying coat

or substrate

Note 1 to entry: The German term “Isoliermittel” which is still currently used should be avoided, in order to

prevent confusion with heat- and sound-deadening materials as well as with electrical insulators.

3.21
binder
non-volatile part of a medium

Note 1 to entry: The main purpose of the binder is to build-up a network around the coating component.

3.22
biocide

additive added to a coating material to prevent organisms responsible for microbiological degradation

from attacking a substrate, a coating material or a film thereof
3.23
blast-cleaning

impingement of a kinetic-energy stream of an abrasive on the surface to be prepared

3.24
bleeding (verb)

migration of a coloured substance from a material into another material in contact with it, which could

produce an undesirable staining or discoloration

Note 1 to entry: The substance could be a constituent of the coating or of the substrate to which the coating is

applied.
3.25
blister

convex deformation in a coating, arising from local detachment of one or more of the constituent coats

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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.26
blocking

unwanted adhesion between two surfaces, at least one of which has been coated, when they are left in

contact under load after a given drying period
3.27
blooming (verb)
migration of a substance to form a deposit on the coating surface

Note 1 to entry: Blooming could occur when the amount of condensate causes soluble compounds to migrate

from the body of the coating to the coating surface.

Note 2 to entry: The substance could be a constituent of the coating or of the substrate to which the coating is

applied.
3.28
blushing (noun)

optical property of a transparent or translucent film that gives a milky appearance or tint, with

iridescent reflections reminiscent of opal, due to the deposition of moisture from the air and/or

precipitation of one or more of the solid constituents of the lacquer
3.29
brightness
combination of the lightness and colour intensity of a material

Note 1 to entry: Brightness is most commonly expressed numerically by the tristimulus value Y.

3.30
brittleness

condition whereby a film or coat has such poor flexibility that it disintegrates easily into small fragments

3.31
bronzing

change in the colour of the surface of a film giving the appearance of aged bronze

3.32
brush marks
ridges remaining in a dry coat after brush application
3.33
bubble

closed or open spherical cavity trapped in a coating, often caused by evaporating solvents

3.34
bulk density

ratio of mass to volume of a powder when poured gently under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: The value of the bulk density depends to a large extent on the method of measurement used and

the manner in which it is carried out.
Note 2 to entry: See also tamped density.
3.35
burning off
process in which the coating is changed by heat and then removed
3.36
chalking

surface change in the form of a loosely adherent powder which appears with degradation of a coating

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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.37
checking

form of fine cracks which do not penetrate to the substrate distributed over the surface of a dry film or

coat in a more or less regular pattern,
Note 1 to entry: An example of checking is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Checking
3.38
chipping

removal, in flakes, of a coating or rust or mill scale by use of hand or power tools

3.39
chlorinated rubber

polymeric material resulting from the action of chlorine on natural and/or synthetic rubber

3.40
cissing

appearance in a coating of areas of non-uniform thickness which vary in extent and distribution

3.41
coalescing agent

additive added to a coating material based on a polymer dispersion to facilitate film formation

3.42
coat
continuous layer of a coating material resulting from a single application

Note 1 to entry: In some industries the word “coat” is used interchangeably with “film”.

3.43.1
coating (noun)

layer formed from a single or multiple coats of one specific coating material to a substrate

3.43.2
coating (verb)
process of applying a coat

Note 1 to entry: The use of the term “coating” for “coating material” is deprecated.

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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.44
coating material

product, in liquid, paste or powder form, that, when applied to a substrate, forms a layer possessing

protective, decorative and/or other specific properties
3.45
coating powder

coating material in powder form which, after fusing and possibly curing, gives a continuous coat

3.46
coating process
application of a coating material to a substrate
3.47
coating system
layer combined of all coats of the same or multiple coating materials

Note 1 to entry: Examples of a multiple coating systems are shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Key
1 coat A
2 coating B
3 coating C
4 substrate
5 coating system
Figure 2 — Example of a coating system consisting coat A + coat B + coat C
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
Key
1 coat A
2 coat A
3 coat A
4 substrate
5 coating A

Figure 3 — Example of a coating system of coats of the same coating material, being coating A

consisting 3 coats of coating material A
3.48
cohesion
internal forces that hold molecules together in a film or coat
Note 1 to entry: Cohesion should not be confused with adhesion.
3.49
coil coating

coating process whereby the coating material is applied continuously to a coil of metal which may be

rewound after the film has been dried
3.50
cold cracking
cold checking

formation of cracks or checks in a film resulting from exposure to low temperatures

3.51
colour

sensation resulting from the visual perception of light of a given spectral composition by the human eye

Note 1 to entry: The use of the German word “Farbe” alone, i.e. not in combinations of words, for coating materials

is deprecated.

Note 2 to entry: A colour is characterized by hue, saturation or chroma, and lightness.

3.52
colour retention
degree of permanence of a colour
Note 1 to entry: Colour retention can be influenced by weathering.
3.53
colouring material
any substance that confers colour to other materials

Note 1 to entry: Colouring materials comprise pigments that are insoluble in the application medium as well as

dyestuffs that are soluble in the application medium.
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.54.1
compatibility

ability of two or more materials to be mixed together without causing undesirable

effects
3.54.2
compatibility

ability of a coating material to be applied to a substrate

without causing undesirable effects
3.55
consistency
body

subjectively assessed flow behaviour of a coating material when applying a shear force

3.56
contrast ratio

ratio of the reflectance of a coating material applied under specified conditions over a black surface to

the reflectance of the same thickness of this coating material applied over a white surface

3.57
corrosion

physicochemical interaction between a metal and its environment which results in changes in the

properties of the metal and which may often lead to impairment of the function of the metal, the

environment or the technical system of which these form a part
Note 1 to entry: This interaction is often of an electrochemically nature.
[SOURCE: ISO 8044:2020, 3.1]
3.58
cracking
rupturing of a dry film, coat or coating system

Note 1 to entry: The English term “cracking” is also used for a specific form of cracking illustrated in Figure 4.

Note 2 to entry: Crocodiling and crow's foot cracking are examples of forms of cracking.

Figure 4 — Cracking
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.59
crater
small depressions in a film or coat that persist after drying
Note 1 to entry: Examples of craters are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.
Figure 5 — Crater — Top view
Figure 6 — Crater 2 — Cross-section

Note 2 to entry: Craters can extend into preceding layers of coating or to the substrate.

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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)

Note 3 to entry: Cratering is caused by localized inhomogeneities of the surface tension of the coating.

Contamination of the substrate or coating with incompatible substances such as small oil drops or particulate

material are the most frequent causes.

Craters are caused by local inhomogeneities in the surface tension of the coating, most frequently due

to incompatible contamination substances on the substrate, in the applied coating material or in the

form of foreign particles or small oil drops.
Note 4 to entry: A small crater without a raised edge is called a dimple.
3.60
crawling
extreme form of cissing
Note 1 to entry: There is no German term for “crawling”.
3.61
crazing

form of cracking characterized by wide, deep cracks distributed over the surface of a dry coating in a

more or less regular pattern
Note 1 to entry: An example of crazing is shown in Figure 7.
Note 2 to entry: There is no French and German term for “crazing”.
Figure 7 — Crazing
3.62
creeping
spreading of the wet coating material beyond the area to which it was applied.
3.63
critical pigment volume concentration
CPVC

value of the pigment volume concentration at which the voids between the solid particles which are

nominally touching are just filled with binder and above which certain properties of the film are

markedly changed
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.64
crocodiling

form of cracking characterized by a pattern of cracks resembling a crocodile skin

Note 1 to entry: An example of crocodiling is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8 — Crocodiling
3.65
crow's foot cracking
form of cracking characterized by a pattern of cracks resembling a crow's foot
Note 1 to entry: An example of crow's foot cracking is shown in Figure 9.
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
Figure 9 — Crow's foot cracking
3.66
curing
hardening

process by which a material changes from its original state into a stable solid coating

Note 1 to entry: Curing can be achieved by heat, UV or electron beam radiation or a catalyst.

3.67
curing agent
additive that promotes the chemical curing of a coating
3.68
curtain coating

application of a coating material by passing the article to be coated horizontally through a descending

sheet of a continuously recirculated coating material
3.69
defoaming agent

additive that reduces foam which can form during manufacture and/or application of the coating

material
Note 1 to entry: See also anti-foaming agent.
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.70
degreasing

removal of oil, grease and similar substances from a surface by either an organic solvent or a water-

based cleaning agent
3.71
de-nibbing

removal of small particles protruding from the dry surface of a coating or of a substrate

3.72
de-scaling
removal of mill scale or laminated rust from steel or other ferrous substrates
3.73
diluent

volatile liquid, single or blended, which, whilst not a solvent, may be used in conjunction with the solvent

without causing any deleterious effects
Note 1 to entry: See also solvent and thinner.
3.74
dipping

application of a coating material by immersing the object to be coated in a bath containing the coating

material and then, after withdrawal, allowing it to drain
3.75
dirt pick-up

tendency of a dry film or coat to attract to the surface appreciable amounts of soiling material

3.76
dirt retention

tendency of a dry film or coat to retain on the surface soiling material which cannot be removed by

simple cleaning
3.77
dispersion

heterogeneous mixture of at least two materials, which are insoluble or only sparingly soluble in each

other and not chemically bonded
Note 1 to entry: Dispersion is the generic term for suspension and emulsion.
3.78
dispersing agent
dispersant

additive that facilitates the dispersion of solids in the medium during manufacture and that increases

the stability of the mixture thereafter
3.79
distinctness of image
DOI

image quality of a reflection without distortion as observed with normal corrected vision

3.80
drawdown blade
film applicator
device used for applying a coat of uniform thickness on a substrate
Note 1 to entry: examples are doctor blade, wire bar, spiral coater
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.81
drier

compound, usually a metal soap, that is added to products drying by oxidation in order to accelerate

this process
3.82
drying

all the processes through which an applied coating material passes in going from the liquid to the solid

state

Note 1 to entry: “Oxidative drying” is used frequently, instead of the more correct term “oxidative hardening”.

Note 2 to entry: See also curing.
3.83
drying oil
oil based on unsaturated fatty acids, yielding a film by oxidation
3.84
dry spray
irregular, non-continuous layer, formed during spray application

Note 1 to entry: The non-continuity could be caused by properties such as viscosity and spray position.

3.85
durability

ability of a coating to resist the damaging effects of the environment to which it is exposed

3.86
dyestuff
colourant, soluble in the application medium

[SOURCE: ISO 18451-1:2019, 3.30 modified: Notes 1 to 3 to entry have been deleted]

3.87
effect pigment

pigment, usually plate-like in form, that, confers not only colour but additional properties such as

iridescence (interference at thin layers), angle dependency of colour (colour travel, colour flop, light-

dark flop), or texture
3.88
efflorescence

phenomenon that occurs when water-soluble salts in a dry coating or from the substrate migrate to the

surface and form a crystalline deposit
3.89.1
elasticity

ability of a dry film to return to its original form after the removal of stress applied in any

lateral direction
Note 1 to entry: See also flexibility.
3.89.2
elasticity

property of a material to show a reversible recovery after deformation

3.90
electrodeposition

process whereby a film of a water-based coating material is deposited, under the influence of electric

current, on an object that forms either the anode or cathode, depending on the nature of the coating

material
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oSIST prEN ISO 4618:2022
ISO/DIS 4618:2022(E)
3.91
electron beam curing

process for the rapid curing of specially formulated coating materials by means of a concentrated

stream of electrons
3.92
emulsion

finely dispersed mixture of at least two liquids which are insoluble, or only sparingly soluble, in each

other
3.93
epoxy ester

synthetic resin resulting from the reaction between an epoxy resin and fatty acids and/or oils

3.94
epoxy resin

synthetic resin containing epoxy groups, generally prepared from epichlorohydrin and a bisphenol

3.95
etch primer

primer, often supplied as two reactive components mixed immediately prior to application, designed to

react with a metal surface to improve the adhesion of subsequent coats
3.96
etching

cleaning, roughening or removal of a natural oxide layer from a surface using a chemical agent prior to

painting in order to increase adhesion
3.97
extender

material in granular or powder form, practically insoluble to somewhat soluble in the application

medium and used to modify or influence certain physical properties

Note 1 to entry: Whether a given substance is to be considered as pigment (3.97) or extender depends on its

application.

Note 2 to entry: In some industries, such as rubber industries, “extender” is also called “filler” (see ISO 1382).

In coatings industries, the term “extender” is preferred, because in ISO 4618, “filler” is defined as “coating

materialvwith a high proportion of extender, intended primarily to even out irregularities in substrates to be

painted and to improve surface appearance”.

[SOURCE: ISO 18451-1:2019, 3.34 modified: The original Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]

3.98
exudation
sweating
migration of liquid components of a coating material to the surface of a film
3.99
fading
loss of colour of a film of a coating material
3.100
feather edging

reducing the thickness of the edge of an area of coating prior to recoating in order to avoid a ridge

appearing in the merged layers
3.101
feeding
change in the consistency of a coating material during storage, to such an exte
...

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