Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 4: Driverless industrial trucks and their systems (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)

2013-02-26 EMA: WI deleted due to cancellation of equivalent ISO Project.
2011-04-27: Reference to 00150052 is to be made in the foreword. TC will deliver the text to be used following BT approval.
2010-10-12: According to TC secretary, EN 1459:1998 is not revised by the future EN ISOs 3691 and  EN 1726-1:1998 is only revised by EN ISO 3691-1, not the other parts.
Results from the splitting of ISO 3691 (WI 022) at ISO level (NT/030206).

Flurförderzeuge - Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Verifizierung - Teil 4: Fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge und ihre Systeme (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)

1.1   Dieser Teil von ISO 3691 Norm findet auf alle fahrerlosen Flurförderzeuge und ihre Systeme Anwendung, ausgenommen:
a)   Flurförderzeuge, die ausschließlich durch mechanische Einrichtungen (Schienen, Führungen usw.) geführt werden;
b)   Flurförderzeuge, die in Bereichen eingesetzt werden, in denen sich Personen aufhalten können, die sich der Gefahren nicht bewusst sind.
1.2   Im Sinne dieses Teils von ISO 3691 ist ein fahrerloses Flurförderzeug ein kraftbetriebenes Fahrzeug einschließlich jeglicher Anhänger, das dazu bestimmt ist, selbständig zu fahren, wobei die Betriebssicherheit nicht von einer Bedienungsperson abhängt. Ferngesteuerte Flurförderzeuge werden nicht als fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge betrachtet.
1.3   Im Sinne dieses Teils von ISO 3691 umfasst das System eines fahrerlosen Flurförderzeuges das Steuerungssystem, welches Teil des Flurförderzeuges und/oder von ihm getrennt sein kann, die Führungseinrichtung und das Batterieladesystem.
1.4   Dieser Teil von ISO 3691 beschreibt die technischen Anforderungen, um die in Abschnitt 4 aufgeführten Gefährdungen zu minimieren, die auftreten können, wenn Inbetriebnahme, Betrieb und Wartung von fahrerlosen Flurförderzeugen nach den Spezifikationen des Herstellers oder seines autorisierten Bevollmächtigten durchgeführt werden. Zusätzlich sollten Flurförderzeuge so weit wie möglich ISO 12100 entsprechen für Gefährdungen, die nicht durch diese oder die anwendbaren zugehörigen Normen abgedeckt werden.
1.5   Dieser Teil von ISO 3691 deckt spezielle, in Abschnitt 4 aufgeführte Gefährdungen in Bezug auf die automatischen Funktionen von Flurförderzeugen und ihren Systemen ab. Diese Norm muss in Zusammenhang mit einer oder mehreren anwendbaren zugehörigen Normen benutzt werden.
1.6   Das Vorsehen einer tragbaren Steuereinheit klassifiziert das Flurförderzeug nicht als Mitgänger-Flurförderzeug.

Chariots de manutention - Exigences de sécurité et vérification - Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et leurs systèmes (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)

Vozila za talni transport - Varnostne zahteve in preverjanje - 4. del: Vozila brez voznika in njihovi sistemi (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)

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Vozila za talni transport – Varnostne zahteve in pregledi – 4. del: Vozila brez
voznika in njihovi sistemi (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)
Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 4: Driverless industrial
trucks and their systems (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)
ICS 53.060 Referenčna številka
oSIST prEN ISO 3691-4:2006(en)
©  Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

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prEN ISO 3691-4
March 2006
ICS Will supersede EN 1459:1998, EN 1726-1:1998
English Version
Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 4:
Driverless industrial trucks and their systems (ISO/DIS 3691-
Chariots de manutention - Exigences de sécurité et Flurförderzeuge - Sicherheitsanforderungen und
vérification - Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et leurs Verifizierung - Teil 4: Fahrerlose Flurförderzeuge und ihre
systèmes (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006) Systeme (ISO/DIS 3691-4:2006)
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for second parallel enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee
CEN/TC 150.
If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to
provide supporting documentation.
Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36  B-1050 Brussels
© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN ISO 3691-4:2006: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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prEN ISO 3691-4:2006 (E)


This document (prEN ISO 3691-4:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC
110 "Industrial trucks" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 150 "Industrial
Trucks - Safety", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This document is currently submitted to the second parallel Enquiry.

This document will supersede EN 1459:1998 and EN 1726-1:1998.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements
of EU Directive(s).

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3691-4:2006 has been approved by CEN as prEN ISO 3691-4:2006 without
any modifications.


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ISO/TC 110/SC 2 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2006-03-16 2006-08-16
Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and verification —
Part 4:
Driverless industrial trucks and their systems
Chariots de manutention — Exigences de sécurité et vérification —
Partie 4: Chariots sans conducteur et leurs systèmes
(Revision of ISO 3691:1980)
ICS 53.060

The CEN Secretary-General has advised the ISO Secretary-General that this ISO/DIS covers a subject
of interest to European standardization. In accordance with the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as
defined in the Vienna Agreement, consultation on this ISO/DIS has the same effect for CEN
members as would a CEN enquiry on a draft European Standard. Should this draft be accepted, a
final draft, established on the basis of comments received, will be submitted to a parallel two-month FDIS
vote in ISO and formal vote in CEN.
To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at publication
Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du
secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au
Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.
© International Organization for Standardization, 2006

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ISO/DIS 3691-4.2
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ii ISO 2006 – All rights reserved

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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
Contents Page
Foreword .3
1 Scope .1
2 Normative references .2
3 Terms and definitions.2
4 List of significant hazards.4
5 Safety requirements.5
6 Verification and commissioning .11
7 Information for use .12
Annex A (normative — see 1.7 in Scope) Requirements for preparation of the environment .15
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this International Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by Directive 98/79/EC.18

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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 3691-4 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 110, Industrial trucks, Subcommittee SC 2, .
This edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 3691:1980), which has been technically revised.
ISO 3691 consists of the following parts, under the general title Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and
Part 1: Self propelled industrial trucks, other than driverless and variable reach trucks, and burden carriers
Part 2: Self propelled variable reach trucks
Part 3: Additional requirements for trucks with elevating operator position and trucks specifically designed to
travel with elevated loads
Part 4: Driverless industrial trucks and their systems
Part 5: Pedestrian propelled trucks
Part 6: Burden and personnel carriers
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
0.1 General
This International Standard covers safety requirements and verification of industrial trucks as defined in
Standard ISO 5053 - Terminology.
For the purpose of this Standard, industrial trucks are wheeled self propelled or manually driven vehicles,
except those running on rails. They are either operator controlled or driverless and are designed to carry, tow,
push, lift, stack or tier in racks.
0.2 Structure
An important step forward within the work for this standard was the agreement to issue a new structure of
International Standards for industrial trucks having on one side basic standards for all kinds of trucks (see
Foreword) and on the other side independent standards to cover the respective specific functions of industrial
trucks e.g. visibility, noise, vibration, electrical requirements etc
0.3 Assessment of hazards
The product should be designed in such a way that it is fit for its purpose or function and can be adjusted and
maintained without putting persons at risk when it is used under conditions foreseen by the manufacturer.
In order to properly design a product and to cover all specific safety requirements, the manufacturer shall
identify the hazards that apply to his product and shall carry out a risk assessment. The manufacturer then
should design and construct it taking account of this assessment.
The aim of this procedure is to eliminate the risk of accidents throughout the foreseeable lifetime of the
machinery including the phases of assembling and dismantling where risks of accidents could also arise from
foreseeable abnormal situations.
In selecting the most appropriate methods the manufacturer should apply the following principles in the order
a) Eliminate or reduce risks as far as possible by design (inherently safe machinery design and
b) take the necessary protection measures in relation to risks that can not be eliminated by design;
c) inform users of any shortcoming of the protection measures adopted;
d) indicate whether any particular training is required and;
e) specify any need to provide personal protection equipment;
f) Refer to the appropriate user’s document for proper operating insructions
The machinery shall be designed to prevent abnormal use, wherever possible, if such would engender risk. In
other cases the instructions shall draw the user's attention to ways – which experience has shown might occur
– in which the machinery should not be used.
A list of significant hazards is given in clause 4 of each part of the standard. The list provides guidance on
appropriate measures to protect against the risks involved.
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
This International Standard does not repeat all the technical rules which are state of the art and which are
applicable to the material used to construct the industrial truck. Reference should be made to ISO/CD 12100-2.

0.4 Legislative situation/Vienna Agreement
From the very beginning, the task of the working group was to revise the standard and to establish world wide
basic standards to comply with the major legislative regulations in the world, e.g. EU, USA ,Japan and
For several potential problem areas compromises were needed and will be needed in the future.
In order to ensure that the revised ISO Standard shall be actively used in the ISO countries world wide,
procedures are necessary to replace the existing national standards and technical regulations by the revised
ISO Standard. In the European Community ISO and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
agreed on technical co-operation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement) with the aim to replace the
European Standards (EN) by the later worldwide ISO standards by using the parallel voting procedure
automatically. Other countries are asked to issue similar agreements to ensure that their national standards
and technical regulations are replaced by this ISO Standard.
Only by these actions will there be the guarantee that products in accordance with the ISO standards could be
shipped world wide freely without any technical barriers.
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Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and verification —
Part 4:
Driverless industrial trucks and their systems
1 Scope
1.1 This part of ISO 3691 applies to all driverless trucks and their systems except:
a) trucks solely guided by mechanical means (rails, guides, etc);
b) trucks operating in areas open to persons unaware of the hazards.
1.2 For the purposes of this part of ISO 3691, a driverless industrial truck is a powered vehicle, including
any trailers, designed to travel automatically in which the safety of operation does not depend on an operator.
Remote controlled trucks are not considered driverless trucks.
1.3 For the purposes of this part of ISO 3691, a system comprises the control system, which may be part of
the truck and/or separate from it, the guidance means and the battery charging system.
1.4 This part of ISO 3691 deals with the technical requirements to minimise the hazards listed in clause 4
which can arise during the commissioning, operation in the area of use for which it was designed and
maintenance of trucks in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer in the instruction
handbook or his authorised representative. In addition, trucks should comply as appropriate with ISO/DIS
12100 for hazards not covered by this standard or the applicable companion standards.
1.5 This part of ISO 3691 covers specific hazards related to the automated functions of trucks and their
systems listed in clause 4. This standard must be used in conjunction with the relevant sections of the
companion ISO 3691 standards (e.g. ISO 3691-1 for trucks with fork arms, ISO 3691-6 for burden carriers,
1.6 The provision of a portable control unit does not classify the truck as a pedestrian controlled truck.
1.7 The operating area of trucks can have a significant effect on their safe operation. Annex A establishes
requirements for the preparation of the operating area to eliminate the associated hazards. For the person
responsible for the integration of the trucks into the workplace, annex A is normative.
1.8 This part of ISO 3691 does not establish requirements for:
a) operation in severe conditions (e.g. extreme climates, freezer applications, strong magnetic fields);
b) operation in environments subject to special rules (e.g. potentially explosive atmospheres);
c) electromagnetic compatibility;
d) transportation of passengers;
e) handling of loads the nature of which could lead to dangerous situations (e.g. molten metals,
acids/bases, radiating materials);
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
f) parts of trucks requiring manual intervention during operation;
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. This part of 3691
incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references
are cited at the appropriated places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references,
subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this part of 3591 only when
incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO/DIS 3691-1:2003, Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and verification — Part 1: Self propelled
industrial trucks other than variable reach trucks, trucks with elevating operator position, trucks specifically
designed to travel with elevated load and driverless trucks
ISO/CD 3691-6:2000, Industrial trucks — Safety requirements and verification — Part 6: Burden and
personnel carriers
ISO/DIS 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design —
Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology
ISO/DIS 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design —
Part 2: Technical principles and specifications
ISO/DIS 14120:2002, Safety of machinery — Guards — General requirements for the design and construction
of fixed and movable guards
ISO 13849-1:1999, Safety of machinery — Safety related parts of the control systems —
Part 1: General principal for the design
ISO 13850:1996, Safety of machinery — Emergency stop — Principles for design
ISO 6292:1996, Powered industrial trucks — Brakes performance and component strength
ISO 3184:1998, Reach and straddle fork lift trucks — Stability tests
ISO 5766:1990, Pallet stackers and high-lift platform trucks — Stability tests
ISO 1074:1991, Counterbalanced fork lift trucks — Stability tests
ISO 5053:1987, Powered industrial trucks – Terminology
ISO 14121 Add in date (if applicable), and title (in italics)
ISO/DIS 20898 Add in date (if applicable), and title (in italics)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5053 and ISO 12100-1 apply
together with the ones given below and in Annex A:
driverless truck powered vehicle, including any trailers, designed to travel automatically in which the safety of
operation does not depend on an operator.
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003

item to be handled with mass, dimensions, integrity and positioning in accordance with the manufacturer’s
device which generates a signal to stop the truck on physical contact with a person or object
actuating force of the bumper
force applied to the bumper when the signal to stop the truck is generated
control system
means which controls and manages the automatic operation of the truck(s) and associated equipment
guide path
intended travel path under automatic control
load handling
lifting, lowering, load transfer and load manipulation (e.g. rotation, reach, tilting, clamping and towing)
automatic mode
no operator intervention is required for operation
manual mode
all operations are under the control of an operator
area swept by the truck with its load and its trailer(s) if towed
competent person
designated person, suitably trained and qualified by knowledge and practical experience, and in possession of
the necessary instructions to enable the assigned task to be carried out
authorized person
persons designated by the user to operate or maintain the truck or system
common zone
zone not exclusively reserved for automated operation
hazard zone
part of a common zone where there is an increased hazard e.g. due to inadequate clearance for personnel or
where a load transfer operation takes place
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
restricted zone
physically separated zone reserved for automated traffic in which only authorised persons are permitted to
static force of the bumper
a force applied by the bumper against the obstacle when an automatic stop is completed
laser scanner
a non-contact sensing device having one or more 2-dimensional detection zone(s) that generate(s) a signal
prior to physical contact with a person or object
4 List of significant hazards
The following hazards may be applicable and could involve risks to persons if not addressed. The
corresponding requirements offer guidance to limit the risk or reduce these hazards. The numbering of
hazards is identical to ISO 14121.
Hazard Corresponding requirement
4.1 Crushing
— in path of truck 5.3 Braking system
 5.5 Speed control
 5.10.5 etection of persons
  in the travelling path
— between trailers 5.11 Towing operation with trailers
4.2 Direct electrical contact
— with exposed connections 5.6 Battery charging
4.5 Failure of control system
— unexpected start-up 5.3 Braking system
 5.10.1 Rider operation
  by ride on operator
 5.10.2 Tiller for pedestrian
4.6 Restoration of energy supply 5.10.3 Warning systems
4.7 Falling objects 5.7 Load handling
4.8 Movement without operator 5.3 Braking system
 5.8 Steering
4.9 Insufficient ability to stop 5.3 Braking system
 5.10.4 Emergency stop device
 5.10.5 Detection of persons in the travelling
4.10 Inadequate location of controls 5.4 Controls for occasional manual
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
Hazard Corresponding requirement

 5.8 Steering
4.11 Unauthorised start-up/use 5.2 Protection against unauthorised use
4.12 Lack of warning means 5.10.3 Warning systems

5 Safety requirements
5.1 General
Trucks shall comply with the safety requirements and/or measures of this standard and shall be designed
according to the principals of ISO 12100-2.
5.1.1 Normal climatic conditions
The following requirements apply in these climatic conditions:
a) Average ambient temperature for continuous duty; +25 C
b) Maximum ambient temperature, short term (up to 1 h) +40 C
c) Lowest ambient temperature for trucks intended for use in normal indoor conditions  +5 C
d) Lowest ambient temperature for trucks intended for use in normal outdoor conditions -20 C
e) Altitude up to 2 000 m
5.1.2 Electrical requirements
Requirements for electrical systems and equipment are in development in ISO/DIS 20 898.
5.1.3 Stored energy components
Components which store energy and would cause a risk during removal or disassembly, e.g. hydraulic
accumulator or spring applied brakes, shall be provided with a means to release the energy before removal or
5.2 Protection against unauthorised use
For manual controls intended only for maintenance, means shall be provided for preventing unauthorised use.
5.3 Braking system
The truck shall be equipped with a braking system which:
a) operates on interruption of power supply;
b) stops the truck within the operating range of the personnel detection means (see 5.10.5) taking into
account load, speed, friction, gradient and wear;
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
c) maintains the truck and its maximum allowable load stationary on the maximum operational gradient
specified by the manufacturer;
d) operates on loss of control of speed or steering (see 5.10.3).
In addition, the brakes shall comply with ISO 6292 when the truck is in the manual mode.
5.4 Controls for occasional manual operation
5.4.1 Controls shall be provided to be used in emergencies, for maintenance or for other temporary tasks
specified by the manufacturer.
5.4.2 Controls shall be of the "hold to run" type and shall be designed to allow only intentional manual
Note - Some movements (for example for the load handling) can be remote-controlled with non physical
connection (infrared, radio, etc.)
They shall be either on the remote control or on the tiller. The tiller shall be in accordance with clause Requirements for manual controls in the companion ISO 3691 standards may not apply.
5.5 Speed control
The safety related parts of the speed control system shall be in accordance with ISO 13849-1 Category 1.
Where stability may be affected, Category 2 applies. Where reduced speed is necessary for the safe stopping
of the truck in the main travel directions by the personnel detection means, the speed control system shall
comply with Category 3 (see Table 1).
5.6 Battery charging
Persons shall be protected against hazards due to accidental contact with the charging connections on battery
powered trucks and their charging systems.
Automatic charging systems, excluding bus bars protected against contact by personnel, shall be designed in
such a way that the charging connections are only activated when the truck is connected to them. When the
truck is removed from the charging points, the charging connections shall be deactivated. The safety related
parts of these systems shall be in accordance with ISO 13849-1 category 1.
5.7 Load handling
Load carrying devices shall be so designed that the load cannot move from the positions determined by the
manufacturer in any operational mode, including emergency stop and load transfer. Safety related parts of the
controls for the load handling system shall be in accordance with ISO 13849-1 Category 1. Where stability
may be affected, Category 2 applies (see Table 1).
5.8 Steering
The safety related parts in the controls for the steering system shall be in accordance with
ISO 13849-1 Category 1. Where stability may be affected, Category 2 applies (see Table 1).
5.9 Stability
5.9.1 General
The stability of the truck shall be assured in all operating positions and during all load handling and travelling
movements, including emergency stopping, when it is being used for the purpose for which it is intended.
Tests to verify stability shall be made. For lifting heights up to and including 1.8 m, verification may be made
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ISO/DIS 3691-4:2003
by calculation.If failure in the control systems for speed, load handling or steering can cause a loss of stability
at lift heights above 1,8 m in common zones or hazard zones, safety related parts of those control systems
shall be in accordance with ISO13849-1 category 2 (see Table 1).
5.9.2 Stability for counterbalanced-type trucks, with lift heights in excess of 300 mm, shall not be less than
that required by ISO 1074.
5.9.3 Stability for reach and straddle-type trucks, with lift heights in excess of 300 mm, shall not be less than
that required

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