Metallic coatings - Review of methods of measurement of ductility (ISO 8401:2017)

ISO 8401:2017 specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes.
It is applicable to the following methods:
- tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate);
- tests of coatings on substrates.
It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preference to the methods described in this document and are agreed upon beforehand by the supplier and the purchaser.

Metallische Schutzschichten - Überblick über Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität (ISO 8401:2017)

1.1   In dieser Internationalen Norm sind allgemeine Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität von metallischen Überzügen mit einer Dicke kleiner als 200 μm festgelegt, die durch elektrolytische Abscheidung, auto¬kata¬lytische Abscheidung oder andere Verfahren aufgebracht wurden (siehe Anmerkung).
Die Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität metallischer Überzüge können in zwei Hauptgruppen unterteilt werden:
   Prüfungen an freien Folien (vom Grundwerkstoff abgehoben);
   Prüfungen der Überzüge auf Grundwerkstoffen.
ANMERKUNG   Falls in Internationalen Normen für einzelne Überzüge spezielle Prüfverfahren enthalten sind, sollten sie bevorzugt und zuvor zwischen Lieferer und Besteller vereinbart werden.
1.2   Bei der Prüfung an freien Folien, die vom Grundwerkstoff abgehoben sind (siehe Bild 1), können die Folien aus einer oder mehreren metallischen Schichten bestehen. Dadurch sind die Messung der Duktilität von Verbundwerkstoffen sowie die Bestimmung des Einflusses der einzelnen Schichten auf die Gesamt¬duktilität möglich. Verfahren für Prüfungen an freien Folien werden im Abschnitt 3 beschrieben. Verfahren zur Herstellung der Folien für die Prüfung werden im Anhang A erörtert.
1.3   Bei der Prüfung von Überzügen auf den Grundwerkstoffen (siehe Bild 2) ist es besonders wichtig, den genauen Punkt für die Risseinleitung auf der Deckschicht zu bestimmen. Es sind die unterschiedlichen Verfahren zur Erkennung dieses Punktes bei normalem oder entsprechend korrigiertem Sehvermögen oder mit einer Lupe zu beachten. Siehe Anleitung für die einzelnen Verfahren. Diese Verfahren können auch dazu verwendet werden, eine Versprödung des Grundwerkstoffs aufzuzeigen, die sich beim Beschichtungs¬vorgang ergeben haben kann. Verfahren zur Prüfung der Schutzschichten auf den Grundwerkstoffen werden im Abschnitt 4 beschrieben.
1.4   Obwohl die Duktilität eine Werkstoffeigenschaft und von den Maßen der Probe unabhängig ist, kann die Dicke des Überzugs den Wert der linearen Dehnung (Δl/l0) beeinflussen.
1.4.1   Sehr dünne Überzüge haben andere Eigenschaften, da der Aufbau der ersten Schichten von den Eigenschaften des Grundwerkstoffs (Epitaxie) beeinflusst wird. In den ersten Stadien der Abscheidung können hohe Eigenspannungen auftreten, die auf die Duktilität einwirken.
1.4.2   Es ist wesentlich, dass die Probe eine gleichmäßige Dicke aufweist, da dünnere Stellen eine vorzeitige Rissbildung einleiten. Ferner ist die Stromdichte bei elektrolytisch beschichteten Proben an dünneren Teilen niedriger und an dickeren Teilen höher; darum können Unterschiede in der Stromdichte zu unterschied¬licher Duktilität führen. Die angewendete Stromdichte sollte über die gesamte Probe möglichst gleichmäßig beibehalten und ihr Wert protokolliert werden.

Revêtements métalliques - Vue d'ensemble sur les méthodes de mesurage de la ductilité (ISO 8401:2017)

ISO 8401:2017 spécifie des méthodes générales pour la mesure de la ductilité des revêtements métalliques d'épaisseur inférieure à 200 μm réalisés par dépôt électrolytique, dépôt autocatalytique ou d'autres procédés.
Il s'applique aux méthodes suivantes:
- essais sur des feuilles détachées de leur substrat;
- essais de revêtements sur leurs substrats.
Il ne s'applique pas aux Normes internationales comprenant des méthodes spécifiques d'essai pour des revêtements particuliers. Dans ces cas, les méthodes spécifiées sont utilisées de préférence aux méthodes décrites dans le présent document et sont convenues à l'avance entre le fournisseur et l'acheteur.

Kovinske prevleke - Pregled metod za merjenje duktilnosti (ISO 8401:2017)

Ta dokument določa splošne metode za merjenje duktilnosti kovinskih prevlek debeline manj kot 200 μm, pridobljenih z galvanizacijo, samokatalitičnim nalaganjem ali drugimi procesi.
Uporablja se za naslednje metode:
– preskusi na nepodprtih folijah (ločenih od podlage);
– preskusi prevlek na podlagah.
Ne uporablja se za mednarodne standarde, ki vključujejo posebne metode preskušanja za posamezne prevleke. V teh primerih ima uporaba navedenih metod prednost pred uporabo metod, opisanih v tem dokumentu, dobavitelj in kupec pa se o njih dogovorita vnaprej.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Feb-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Feb-2017
Completion Date
15-Feb-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
01-maj-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 8401:1999
Kovinske prevleke - Pregled metod za merjenje duktilnosti (ISO 8401:2017)

Metallic coatings - Review of methods of measurement of ductility (ISO 8401:2017)

Metallische Schutzschichten - Überblick über Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität (ISO

8401:2017)

Revêtements métalliques - Vue d'ensemble sur les méthodes de mesurage de la ductilité

(ISO 8401:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 8401:2017
ICS:
25.220.40 Kovinske prevleke Metallic coatings
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
EN ISO 8401
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.040.20 Supersedes EN ISO 8401:1994
English Version
Metallic coatings - Review of methods of measurement of
ductility (ISO 8401:2017)

Revêtements métalliques - Vue d'ensemble sur les Metallische Schutzschichten - Überblick über

méthodes de mesurage de la ductilité (ISO 8401:2017) Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität (ISO 8401:2017)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 February 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 8401:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
EN ISO 8401:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European Foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
EN ISO 8401:2017 (E)
European Foreword

This document (EN ISO 8401:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107 "Metallic

and other inorganic coatings" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 262 “Metallic and

other inorganic coatings” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2017 and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 8401:1994.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 8401:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 8401:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8401
Second edition
2017-02
Metallic coatings — Review of
methods of measurement of ductility
Revêtements métalliques — Vue d’ensemble sur les méthodes de
mesurage de la ductilité
Reference number
ISO 8401:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Tests on unsupported foils ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Tensile testing .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Bending (micrometer bend test) ............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Folding (vice-bend test) ...............................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................10

5.4.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.5 Results ....................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Hydraulic bulging ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.3 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................13

5.5.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Mechanical bulging ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.5 Special cases .....................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Tests on coatings on substrates .........................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Tensile testing .......................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.2 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................18

6.2.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................18

[10] 19

6.3 Three-point bending ................................................................................................................................................................

6.3.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................20

[11] 21

6.4 Four-point bending ...................................................................................................................................................................

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)

6.4.2 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................21

6.5 Cylindrical mandrel bending ......... ...........................................................................................................................................22

6.5.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................23

6.5.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................23

6.6 Spiral mandrel bending ................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.6.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.6.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................24

6.7 Conical mandrel bending ............................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.5 Special cases .....................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8 Mechanical bulging ...........................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.2 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................26

6.8.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................26

7 Selection of test method ............................................................................................................................................................................27

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Methods of producing foils .............................................................................................................................29

Annex B (informative) Calculation of ductility when increasing the surface area of a

foil (bulging) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Calculation of ductility and tensile strength in the hydraulic bulge test ........34

Annex D (informative) Calculation of ductility in the mechanical bulge test ..........................................................37

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www . i so .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8401:1986), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The following changes have been made:
— Formula (C.10) has been corrected;

— changes have been made in line with the 2016 edition of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8401:2017(E)
Metallic coatings — Review of methods of measurement of
ductility
1 Scope

This document specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness

below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes.

It is applicable to the following methods:
— tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate);
— tests of coatings on substrates.

It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual

coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preference to the methods described in this

document and are agreed upon beforehand by the supplier and the purchaser.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
ductility

ability of a metallic or other coating to undergo plastic or elastic deformation, or both, without fracture

or cracking
3.2
linear elongation
ratio of the elongation, Δl, to a definite initial length, l , of the test piece
Note 1 to entry: This is taken as a measure of ductility.
Note 2 to entry: Often, this ratio is expressed as a percentage.

Note 3 to entry: Normally, the test pieces are elongated [see Figure 1 a)]. With some bending tests, the outer layer

of the test piece, i.e. the plating, is elongated. In bulge tests, however, the surface of the foil is enlarged, requiring

calculation of linear elongation from the reduction in the thickness. Using the component of deformation

(stretching) in only one axis would give false information about the ductility of the material [see Figure 1 b)]. In

those cases, the thinning of the foil, as calculated from the increase in the surface area, is a better measure of the

ductility of the material (see Annex B).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)
xyzx=− ddxy − yz + dz
()()()
xyzx=+yz xyddzx−−zy yzdx
ddz y dx
=+
z y x
ddz y
>
z y
=
l z
a) Tensile test b) Cupping test
Figure 1 — Tensile and cupping tests
4 Principle

4.1 In the testing of unsupported foils separated from the substrate (see Figure 2), the foils may consist

of one or more metallic layers. Therefore, it is possible to measure the ductility of composites and to

determine the influence of individual layers on overall ductility. Methods of testing of unsupported foils

are described in Clause 5. Methods of producing foils for testing are discussed in Annex A.

4.2 In the testing of coatings on substrates (see Figure 3), it is especially important to determine the

exact point of crack initiation of the top layer. Attention is drawn to different methods of discerning this

point, by normal or corrected-to-normal vision or with a lens. See the guidance in the individual methods.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)

These methods can also be used to detect embrittlement of the substrate that may have resulted from the

coating process. Methods of testing of coatings on substrates are described in Clause 6.

Key
1 metal foil
2 substrate
Figure 2 — Foil, which can be separated from the substrate
Key
1 coating
2 substrate
Figure 3 — Coating on the substrate

4.3 Although ductility is a property of the material and independent of the dimensions of the test piece,

thickness of the coating may have an influence on the value of linear elongation (Δl/l ).

4.3.1 Very thin layers have different properties as the build-up of the initial layers will be influenced

by the properties of the substrate (epitaxy). High internal stresses may be incorporated into the initial

layers and these may affect ductility.

4.3.2 It is essential that the test piece has uniform thickness, as thinner spots will give rise to premature

cracking. Also, the current density is lower at thinner parts and higher at thicker parts of electroplated

test pieces; in this way, current density differences may result in different ductilities. The current density

applied should be maintained as uniform as possible over the test piece, and its value reported.

5 Tests on unsupported foils
5.1 General

These techniques involve measurement of a foil which has been separated from the substrate (see

Figure 2). In this case, the foil to be tested can also consist of several layers so as to allow measurement

of the influence of undercoats on the ductility of the foil sandwich. Examples are gold flash on

gold/copper alloys and chromium-plated nickel deposits. Methods of producing unsupported foils are

given in Annex A.

Five methods are described: tensile testing (5.2), bending (micrometer bend test) (5.3), folding (vice-

bend test) (5.4), hydraulic bulging (5.5) and mechanical bulging (5.6).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 8401:2017
ISO 8401:2017(E)
5.2 Tensile testing
5.2.1 Principle
Determination of the linear elongation of a f
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016
01-december-2016
Kovinske prevleke - Pregled metod za merjenje duktilnosti
Metallic coatings - Review of methods of measurement of ductility

Metallische Schutzschichten - Überblick über Verfahren zur Messung der Duktilität

Revêtements métalliques - Vue d'ensemble sur les méthodes de mesurage de la ductilité

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 8401
ICS:
25.220.40 Kovinske prevleke Metallic coatings
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 8401
ISO/TC 107
Metallic coatings — Review of
Secretariat: KATS
methods of measurement of ductility
Voting begins on:
201610­ 1­ 1
Revêtements métalliques — Vue d’ensemble sur les méthodes de
mesurage de la ductilité
Voting terminates on:
201 7-01-04
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 8401:2016(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016
ISO/FDIS 8401:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN ISO 8401:2016
ISO/FDIS 8401:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Tests on unsupported foils ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Tensile testing .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Bending (micrometer bend test) ............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Folding (vicebend t­ est) ...............................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................10

5.4.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.5 Results ....................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Hydraulic bulging ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.3 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................13

5.5.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Mechanical bulging ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.5 Special cases .....................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Tests on coatings on substrates .........................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Tensile testing .......................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.2 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................18

6.2.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................18

[10] 19

6.3 Threepoint bending­ ................................................................................................................................................................

6.3.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................20

[11] 21

6.4 Fourpoint bending­ ...................................................................................................................................................................

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

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6.4.2 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................21

6.5 Cylindrical mandrel bending ......... ...........................................................................................................................................22

6.5.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.3 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................23

6.5.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.5 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.6 Notes on procedure ....................................................................................................................................................23

6.6 Spiral mandrel bending ................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.6.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.6.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................24

6.7 Conical mandrel bending ............................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.1 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.5 Special cases .....................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8 Mechanical bulging ...........................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.2 Preparation of test pieces......................................................................................................................................26

6.8.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8.4 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................26

7 Selection of test method ............................................................................................................................................................................27

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Methods of producing foils .............................................................................................................................29

Annex B (informative) Calculation of ductility when increasing the surface area of a

foil (bulging) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Calculation of ductility and tensile strength in the hydraulic bulge test ........34

Annex D (informative) Calculation of ductility in the mechanical bulge test ..........................................................37

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­ governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 8401:1986), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The following changes have been made:
— Formula (C.10) has been corrected;

— changes have been made in line with the 2016 edition of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 8401:2016(E)
Metallic coatings — Review of methods of measurement of
ductility
1 Scope

This document specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness

below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes.

It is applicable to the following methods:
— tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate);
— tests of coatings on substrates.

It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual

coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preference to the methods described in this

document and are agreed upon beforehand by the supplier and the purchaser.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms a nd definiti ons
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
ductility

ability of a metallic or other coating to undergo plastic or elastic deformation, or both, without fracture

or cracking
3.2
linear elongation
ratio of the elongation, Δl, to a definite initial length, l , of the test piece
Note 1 to entry: This is taken as a measure of ductility.
Note 2 to entry: Often, this ratio is expressed as a percentage.

Note 3 to entry: Normally, the test pieces are elongated [see Figure 1 a)]. With some bending tests, the outer layer

of the test piece, i.e. the plating, is elongated. In bulge tests, however, the surface of the foil is enlarged, requiring

calculation of linear elongation from the reduction in the thickness. Using the component of deformation

(stretching) in only one axis would give false information about the ductility of the material [see Figure 1 b)]. In

those cases, the thinning of the foil, as calculated from the increase in the surface area, is a better measure of the

ductility of the material (see Annex B).
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xyzx=− ddxy − yz + dz
()()()
xyzx=+yz xyddzx−−zy yzdx
ddz y dx
=+
z y x
ddz y
>
z y
=
l z
a) Tensile test b) Cupping test
Figure 1 — Tensile and cupping tests
4 Principle

4.1 In the testing of unsupported foils separated from the substrate (see Figure 2), the foils may consist

of one or more metallic layers. Therefore, it is possible to measure the ductility of composites and to

determine the influence of individual layers on overall ductility. Methods of testing of unsupported foils

are described in Clause 5. Methods of producing foils for testing are discussed in Annex A.

4.2 In the testing of coatings on substrates (see Figure 3), it is especially important to determine the

exact point of crack initiation of the top layer. Attention is drawn to different methods of discerning this

point, by normal or corrected-to-normal vision or with a lens. See the guidance in the individual methods.

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These methods can also be used to detect embrittlement of the substrate that may have resulted from the

coating process. Methods of testing of coatings on substrates are described in Clause 6.

Key
1 metal foil
2 substrate
Figure 2 — Foil, which can be separated from the substrate
Key
1 metal foil
2 substrate
Figure 3 — Coating on the substrate

4.3 Although ductility is a property of the material and independent of the dimensions of the test piece,

thickness of the coating may have an influence on the value of linear elongation (Δl/l ).

4.3.1 Very thin layers have different properties as the build-up of the initial layers will be influenced

by the properties of the substrate (epitaxy). High internal stresses may be incorporated into the initial

layers and these may affect ductility.

4.3.2 It is essential that the test piece has uniform thickness, as thinner spots will give rise to premature

cracking. Also, the current density is lower at thinner parts and higher at thicker parts of electroplated

test pieces; in this way, current density differences may result in different ductilities. The current density

applied should be maintained as uniform as possible over the test piece, and its value reported.

5 Tests on unsupported foils
5.1 General

These techniques involve measurement of a foil which has been separated from the substrate (see

Figure 2). In this case, the foil to be tested can also consist of several layers so as to allow measurement

of the influence of undercoats on the ductility of the foil sandwich. Examples are gold flash on

gold/copper alloys and chromium-plated nickel deposits. Methods of producing unsupported foils are

given in Annex A.

Five methods are described: tensile testing (5.2), bending (micrometer bend test) (5.3), folding (vice­

bend test) (5.4), hydraulic bulging (5.5) and mechanical bulging (5.6).
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5.2 Tensile testing
5.2.1 Principle

Determination of the linear elongation of a foil, which is clamped into the jaws of a tensile testing

machine. In this type of stressing, the foil is lengthened, but both the width and the thickness of the foil

diminish.
5.2.2 Apparatus

This method may utilize conventional mechanical testing equipment, available commercially and

[1]

in many metallurgical laboratories . For some applications, tensile testing equipment adapted to

microscopic inspection during the test may be used.
5.2.3 Preparation of test pieces

Test pieces may be machined, chipped, punched or cut from the metallic foil or prepared by

photoprinting with the help of light­ sensitive lacquers or light­ sensitive foils which are pressed onto

a suitable substrate. After developing the pattern of the test piece, it is plated into the final form. A

similar method uses chemical or electrochemical milling of the desired shape from a foil on which has

been applied a suitable resist by silk screen printing or by applying a photosensitive resist. These last

methods are widely used in the printed circuit industry. The test pieces are usually rectangular in

shape (see Table 1 for recommended dimensions), but can be widened at both ends to avoid breaking in

the clamping jaws (see Figure 4).
[1]
Table 1 — Possible dimensions of tensile test pieces
Gauge length (mm) 200 50 25
Width (mm) 40 12,5 6,25

Some methods of preparing the test pieces may cause microcracking at the edges that results in

premature failure and erratic results. Test piece preparation involving photoprinting or electroforming

is preferred to avoid edge defects.

Test pieces plated into the final form may have thicker edges unless shielding and other techniques are

used to ensure uniform current distribution (see Figure 5).

Make equidistant marks on the surface of the test piece as illustrated in Figure 4 a). Determine the

distance between the marks before testing.
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a) Before testing b) After testing
ll+Δl =+ l
01 2
ll+− l
12 0
l l
0 0
Key
1 microcracks
Figure 4 — Tensile testing specimen before and after testing
Figure 5 — Plated test pieces with thicker edges
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5.2.4 Procedure

Clamp the test piece between the jaws of the tensile test equipment and apply strain using a selected

cross­ head speed. Determine the distance between the marks on the test pieces after testing [see

Figure 4 b)].
5.2.5 Expression of results
5.2.5.1 Calculation
The ductility, D, expressed as a percentage, is given by Formula (1):
ll+− l
12 0
D = ×100 (1)
where
is the distance between the marks before testing;
is the distance between the marks after testing.
ll+
5.2.5.2 Coefficient of variation

Mechanically prepared test pieces can have coefficients of variation, sD/ (where s is the standard

deviation and D the mean ductility), as high as 20 %.

By plating into the final form using shields to ensure uniform current distribution, test pieces can be

produced which have lower coefficients of variation.
5.2.6 Notes on procedure

5.2.6.1 Necking of the test piece [see Figure 4 b)] may require measurement of very small

...

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