This document specifies two low voltage tests for detecting and locating defects that extend to the basis metal in vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings.
Method A (electrical) is applicable to the rapid detection and determination of the general location of defects. Method B (optical), based on colour effects, is applicable to the more precise detection of defects and their exact locations. Both methods are commonly applied to flat surfaces. For more intricate shapes, such as undulated and/or ...
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This document defines terms relating to corrosion that are widely used in modern science and technology. In addition, some definitions are supplemented with short explanations.
NOTE 1 Throughout the document, IUPAC rules for electrode potential signs are applied. The term "metal" is also used to include alloys and other metallic materials.
NOTE 2 Terms and definitions related to the inorganic surface treatment of metals are given in ISO 2080.

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This document specifies methods for measuring the environmental parameters used to classify the corrosivity of indoor atmospheres on metals and alloys.

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This document gives guidelines and recommendations for the general principles of design appropriate to articles to be hot dip galvanized after fabrication (e.g. in accordance with ISO 1461) for the corrosion protection of, for example, articles that have been manufactured in accordance with EN 1090-2.
This document does not apply to hot dip galvanized coatings applied to continuous wire or sheet (e.g. to EN 10346).

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This document specifies the quality requirements for apparatus, components, appliances and accessories of glass-lined steel (including semi-crystallized enamel coatings) and glass-lined steel castings used for process plants. It specifies the quality requirements and the tests to be carried out by the manufacturer as well as the actions to be taken to repair defects.
It is also applicable to glass-lined pumps, pump components and fittings.
It does not apply to glass-lined flanged steel pipes o...
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This document specifies a method for using phase-sensitive eddy-current instruments for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-magnetic metallic coatings on metallic and non-metallic basis materials such as:
a) zinc, cadmium, copper, tin or chromium on steel;
b) copper or silver on composite materials.
The phase-sensitive method can be applied without thickness errors to smaller surface areas and to stronger surface curvatures than the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method spe...
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This document specifies the minimum requirements and the functional characteristics of enamel coatings applied by any process, such as wet dipping, wet flow-coating, wet spraying, wet electrostatic spraying, wet electrodeposition or dry-powder electrostatic spraying, to profiled steel heat exchanger panels in regenerative heat exchangers, before and after packing in baskets.
For very severe service conditions, or to obtain extended operational life, more stringent limits can be agreed between c...
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This document specifies the requirements for product quality and product testing of enamelled valves and pressure pipe fittings for untreated and potable water supply.
It does not apply to chemical service glass-enamel and apparatus enamel.

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This document specifies a low-voltage test method for detecting and locating defects (pores, cracks or pop-offs) that occur in enamel coatings of corrugated and/or undulated profiles and that extend down to the metal base.
The method is based on colour effects (optical method) and is applicable to the precise detection of defects and their exact position. It can be used for non-flat, more profiled shapes such as corrugated or undulated surfaces.
NOTE The low-voltage test is a non-destructive t...
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This document gives guidelines for determining the average surface density over a measured area of anodic oxide or of a coating deposited autocatalytically, mechanically, by chemical conversion, by electrodeposition, by hot dip galvanizing and by chemical or physical vapour deposition using gravimetric and other chemical analysis procedures that have attained some degree of national or international standardization.
A variety of procedures are described and include:
— gravimetric procedures fo...
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This document specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of metallic chromium, with or without undercoats, on ferrous and non-ferrous metals for engineering purposes. The coating designation provides a means of specifying the thickness of chromium appropriate for typical engineering applications.

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This document specifies a quantitative method for the measurement of adhesive strength of metallic and other inorganic coatings applied to metallic, polymer and glass substrates.
Typical coatings for which this document applies are metallic coatings such as aluminium, copper, nickel, nickel plus chromium, silver, tin, tin-nickel alloys, zinc, gold as well as other inorganic coatings such as oxides or nitrides, e.g. of aluminium, indium and indium-tin, silicon, niobium, titanium, tungsten, zirco...
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This document specifies a simulating method of test for determination of the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food.
It also specifies limits for the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food.
It is applicable to enamelled articles, including tanks and vessels, which are intended to be used for the preparation, cooking, serving and storage of food.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of magnesium alloys intended for use in structural applications (such as magnesium front end, gearbox and clutch housing units, steering column parts, shift actuators, valve covers and housings, brackets and intake manifold blades, electronic devices, power tools and medical equipment). The method allows determination of the resistance to SCC as a function of the chemical composition, the meth...view more

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This document specifies procedures for designing, preparing and using precracked specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress corrosion. It gives recommendations for the design, preparation and use of precracked specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress corrosion. Recommendations concerning notched specimens are given in Annex A.
The term "metal" as used in this document includes alloys.
Because of the need to confine plasticity at the crack tip, precracked specimens are not...
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This document specifies two accelerated corrosion-test procedures, Methods A and B, for the comparative evaluation of metallic materials with or without permanent corrosion protection or temporary corrosion protection in outdoor salt and/or acid rain environments. It also specifies the apparatus used. The two tests involve cyclic exposure of the specimens to acidified salt spray, "dry" and "wet" conditions.
The particular advantages of the two tests over conventional accelerated tests, such as ...
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ISO 2081:2018 specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary treatments on iron or steel. It includes information to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and the requirements for heat treatment before and after electroplating.
ISO 2081:2018 is not applicable to zinc coatings applied
- to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form,
- to close-coiled springs, or
- for purposes other than protective or decorative.
ISO 2081:2018 does not specify ...
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ISO 11130:2017 specifies a method for assessing the corrosion resistance of metals by an alternate immersion test in salt solution, with or without applied stress.
The test is particularly suitable for quality control during the manufacture of metals including aluminium alloys and ferrous materials, and also for assessment purposes during alloy development.
Depending upon the chemical composition of the test solution, the test can be used to simulate the corrosive effects of marine splash zone...
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ISO 2819:2017 specifies methods of checking the adhesion of electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings. It is limited to tests of a qualitative nature.
ISO 2819:2017 does not describe certain tests that have been developed at various times to give a quantitative measure of adhesion of metallic coating to a substrate, since such tests require special apparatus and considerable skill in their performance which renders them unsuitable as quality control tests for production parts. Some of ...
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ISO 28706-3:2017 describes a test method for the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled articles to attack by alkaline liquids at temperatures between 25 °C and 95 °C. The apparatus used is a hexagonal vessel in which six enamelled specimens or a tetragonal glass bottle in which four enamelled specimens are simultaneously tested.
NOTE 1 The resistance to any alkaline liquid can be determined. However, the test method was originally used for the determination of the ...
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ISO 27830:2017 specifies the technical requirements of metallic and other inorganic coatings in order to develop consistent technical standards and establishes a standard format for designating the coatings. It applies to International Standards for electrodeposited, autocatalytic and vapour-deposited coatings.
Detailed technical requirements for individual coatings are not given in this document, but can be found in the International Standards listed in the Bibliography.
ISO 27830:2017 does n...
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This European Standard applies to the measurement of the thickness of the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings and to the measurement of the potential differences between the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings.
The measurement of coatings or layer systems other than electroplated multilayer nickel coatings is outside the scope of this European Standard.

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ISO 9717:2017 specifies a process for the confirmation of requirements for phosphate coatings which are usually destined for application on ferrous materials, zinc, cadmium and their alloys (see Annex B).

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ISO 2082:2017 specifies the requirements of electroplated coatings of cadmium with supplementary treatments on iron and steel. It includes information that is to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and describes coating requirements, including those for heat treatment before and after electroplating.
It is not applicable to coatings applied
- to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form,
- to close-coiled springs, or
- for purposes other than protective, intrinsic lubric...
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ISO 20274:2017 specifies the procedures for the preparation of enamel samples for measurement of the thermal length change and calculation of the thermal expansion coefficient.

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ISO 2360:2017 specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive base metals, using amplitude-sensitive eddy-current instruments.
In ISO 2360:2017, the term "coating" is used for materials such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, claddings and powder coatings. This method is particularly applicable to measurements of the thickness of most oxide coati...
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ISO 14713-1:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design which are appropriate for articles to be zinc coated for corrosion protection and the level of corrosion resistance provided by zinc coatings applied to iron or steel articles, exposed to a variety of environments. Initial protection is covered in relation to
- available standard processes,
- design considerations, and
- environments for use.
ISO 14713-1:2017 applies to zinc coatings applied b...
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ISO 14708-3:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design that are appropriate for articles to be sherardized for corrosion protection.
The protection afforded by the sherardized coating to the article will depend upon the method of application of the coating, the design of the article and the specific environment to which the article is exposed. The sherardized article can be further protected by application of additional coatings (outside the scope of...
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ISO 9227:2017 specifies the apparatus, the reagents and the procedure to be used in conducting the neutral salt spray (NSS), acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray (CASS) tests for assessment of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials, with or without permanent or temporary corrosion protection.
It also describes the method employed to evaluate the corrosivity of the test cabinet environment.
It does not specify the dimensions or types of test specim...
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ISO 19496-1:2017 defines a number of terms relating to vitreous and porcelain enamels and their technology. This list is not complete and only comprises those terms for which the definition is considered necessary for correct and adequate understanding in order to clarify these processes.
The interpretations given are those corresponding to the practical usage in this field and they do not necessarily coincide with those used in other fields.
For purposes of clarification, the term "vitreous e...
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ISO 19496-2:2017 establishes a system for the cataloguing of defects in sheet steel enamelling. It serves for a consistent language use concerning the designation and characterization of enamelling defects. This document is limited to detectable defects and does not purport to fully take into consideration all occurring types of defects. It does not evaluate enamelling defects; the classification carried out serves for the conveyance of practical knowledge.

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ISO 28706-2:2017 specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance of flat surfaces of vitreous and porcelain enamels to boiling acids, boiling neutral liquids, alkaline liquids and/or their vapours.
This method allows the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamels to the liquid and vapour phases of the corrosive medium simultaneously.

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ISO 8401:2017 specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes.
It is applicable to the following methods:
- tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate);
- tests of coatings on substrates.
It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preferen...
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ISO 19598:2016 applies to electrodeposited zinc and zinc-alloy coatings on iron and steel with Cr(VI)-free passivation. The zinc-alloy coatings contain nickel or iron as alloying elements (referred to as zinc/nickel and zinc/iron coatings, respectively).
The main purpose of the coatings or coating systems is protecting iron and steel components against corrosion.
ISO 19598:2016 specifies
- the designations to be used for the above coating systems,
- the minimum corrosion resistance to be ach...
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This International Standard specifies the information to be supplied by the purchaser to the finisher, requirements and test methods for electropolishing as a means of smoothing and passivating stainless steel alloys in the S2XXXX, S3XXXX and S4XXXX series, and the precipitation hardened alloys (see ISO/TR 15510 for information on composition).

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This International Standard specifies a method of revealing pores or other discontinuities, when testing metallic coatings, that are not visibly affected by ferricyanide and chloride ions during the test period and that are cathodic to iron and steel. This method is especially useful for thick, hard chromium coatings used for wear resistance.
NOTE 1 With some coating materials a very thin layer is dissolved by the sodium chloride solution during a 10 minute application period (see 5.2.3). The im...
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This International Standard establishes sampling plans and procedures for inspection by attributes of electrodeposited metallic coatings. It may be applied to related finishes by agreement between the supplier and the purchaser. It is based on ISO 2859 (see also Addendum 1 to ISO 2859).
The sampling plans in this International Standard are applicable, but not limited, to the inspection of end items, components, materials in process and finished products in storage. The plans are intended primari...
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This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (i. e. ISO 2179:1972). Specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of the intermetallic compound SnNi, with a composition of approximately 65 % (m/m) tin and 35 % (m/m) nickel. It does not apply to threaded components, coatings on cheet, stsrip or wire in the unfabricated form, coatings on coil springs, electroplating of steels with tensile strength greater than 1 000 MPa.

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This International Standard specifies equipment and a method for using nitric acid vapour to determine porosity in gold coatings, particularly electrodeposits and clad metals used on electrical contacts.
This method is designed to show whether the porosity level is less than or greater than some value that, by experience, is considered by the user to be acceptable for the intended application.
It is suitable for inlays or claddings containing 75 % or more of gold, for electrodeposits containing ...
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ISO 2178:2016 specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-magnetizable coatings on magnetizable base metals.
The measurements are tactile and non-destructive on typical coatings. The probe or an instrument with integrated probe is placed directly on the coating to be measured. The coating thickness is displayed on the instrument.
In ISO 2178:2016 the term "coating" is used for material such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel co...
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ISO 28721-5:2016 establishes a system for the cataloguing of defects in enamellings for chemical service and vessels. In addition, it describes some types of areas in which defects have been treated and which can easily be confounded with enamelling defects. It serves for a consistent language use concerning the designation and characterization of enamelling defects.
ISO 28721-5:2016 is limited to detectable defects and does not purport to fully take into consideration all occurring types of de...
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ISO 17668:2016 specifies minimum thickness requirements for six classes of zinc diffusion layers applied to ferrous products by the sherardizing process for the purpose of protection against corrosion and wear.
ISO 17668:2016 does not specify any requirements for the surface condition (finish or roughness) of the basis material before sherardizing.
Post-treatments (conversion coatings), after-treatments or organic over-coatings (Duplex) of sherardized articles are not in the scope of this Inte...
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ISO 28765:2016 establishes the requirements for the design and use of vitreous-enamel-coated bolted cylindrical steel tanks for the storage or treatment of water or municipal or industrial effluents and sludges.
It applies to the design of the tank and any associated roof and gives guidance on the requirements for the design of the foundation.
It applies where
a) the tank is cylindrical and is mounted on a load-bearing base substantially at or above ground level;
b) the product of the tank d...
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ISO 28706-4:2016 describes a test method for the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled articles to attack by alkaline liquids at temperatures between 25 °C and 95 °C. The apparatus used is a cylindrical vessel in which only one enamelled specimen is tested.
NOTE 1 The test method was initially set up for determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamels to a hot sodium hydroxide solution. Within the scope of this part of ISO 28706, the resistance of...
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ISO 28721-2:2015 specifies requirements for the resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock of chemical enamels and their designation for ordering purposes.
It is applicable to enamelled apparatus, piping and other components primarily used for process equipment in chemical plants.
It only applies to unalloyed and low-alloy carbon steels suitable for enamelling.
NOTE The main criteria for assessing enamel quality are the resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock and the structure of...
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ISO 28721-4:2015 specifies the quality requirements for glass-lined flanged steel pipes and flanged steel fittings used for process plants.

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ISO 28764:2015 specifies a method for the production of specimens suitable for testing vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings.
It specifies two different specimens:
- specimens taken from production articles;
- specially produced specimens.
NOTE Only the specially produced specimens can be used when the loss in mass per unit area of the enamel coating is to be determined quantitatively, as specimens cut from enamelled articles can reduce the accuracy of the test method.

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ISO 2746:2015 describes two test methods of high voltage testing:
- Test A is used to detect and locate defects in vitreous and porcelain enamels;
- Test B is used to detect and locate defects and weak spots in vitreous and porcelain enamels.
The tests are performed using DC or pulsed DC high voltage.
The tests are applicable to dry surfaces of enamel coatings. In the case of moist surfaces, care should be taken to ensure that the locating of any defects is correctly performed.
Since test v...
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ISO 16071:2015 specifies the test method, the reagents, and the procedure to be used in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test constituting a 6 h exposure to a slightly acidified solution of 1 % NaCl twice weekly, followed by a condition of controlled humidity cycling between 95 % RH and 50 % RH at a constant temperature of 35 °C.
It does not specify the dimensions of the tests specimens, the exposure period to be used for a particular product, or the interpretation of the results. Such deta...
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ISO 4528:2015 is a guide to the selection of test methods for evaluating the performance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled finishes in different applications. It references the test methods available for measuring the properties of these finishes and correlates these properties to the requirements of specific enamelled articles.
It is limited for the most part to test methods that are described in International Standards or European Standards and does not provide acceptance criteria or perfor...
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