This document specifies two low voltage tests for detecting and locating defects that extend to the basis metal in vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings.
Method A (electrical) is applicable to the rapid detection and determination of the general location of defects. Method B (optical), based on colour effects, is applicable to the more precise detection of defects and their exact locations. Both methods are commonly applied to flat surfaces. For more intricate shapes, such as undulated and/or corrugated surfaces, ISO 8289-2 is applicable.
NOTE 1 Selection of the correct test method is critical to distinguish the areas of increased conductivity detected by method B from actual pores that extend to the basis metal, which can be detected by both methods.
NOTE 2 The low voltage test is a non-destructive method of detecting defects and, therefore, is completely different from the high voltage test specified in ISO 2746. The results of the high and low voltage tests are not comparable and will differ.

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This document defines terms relating to corrosion that are widely used in modern science and technology. In addition, some definitions are supplemented with short explanations.
NOTE 1 Throughout the document, IUPAC rules for electrode potential signs are applied. The term "metal" is also used to include alloys and other metallic materials.
NOTE 2 Terms and definitions related to the inorganic surface treatment of metals are given in ISO 2080.

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This document specifies methods for measuring the environmental parameters used to classify the corrosivity of indoor atmospheres on metals and alloys.

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This document gives guidelines and recommendations for the general principles of design appropriate to articles to be hot dip galvanized after fabrication (e.g. in accordance with ISO 1461) for the corrosion protection of, for example, articles that have been manufactured in accordance with EN 1090-2.
This document does not apply to hot dip galvanized coatings applied to continuous wire or sheet (e.g. to EN 10346).

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This document specifies a method for using phase-sensitive eddy-current instruments for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-magnetic metallic coatings on metallic and non-metallic basis materials such as:
a) zinc, cadmium, copper, tin or chromium on steel;
b) copper or silver on composite materials.
The phase-sensitive method can be applied without thickness errors to smaller surface areas and to stronger surface curvatures than the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 2360, and is less affected by the magnetic properties of the basis material. However, the phase-sensitive method is more affected by the electrical properties of the coating materials.
In this document, the term "coating" is used for materials such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, claddings and powder coatings.
This method is particularly applicable to measurements of the thickness of metallic coatings. These coatings can be non-magnetic metallic coatings on non-conductive, conductive or magnetic base materials, but also magnetic coatings on non-conductive or conductive base materials.
The measurement of metallic coatings on metallic basis material works only when the product of conductivity and permeability (σ, μ) of one of the materials is at least a factor of two times the product of conductivity and permeability for the other material. Non-ferromagnetic materials have a relative permeability of one.

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This document specifies the quality requirements for apparatus, components, appliances and accessories of glass-lined steel (including semi-crystallized enamel coatings) and glass-lined steel castings used for process plants. It specifies the quality requirements and the tests to be carried out by the manufacturer as well as the actions to be taken to repair defects.
It is also applicable to glass-lined pumps, pump components and fittings.
It does not apply to glass-lined flanged steel pipes or glass-lined flanged steel fittings.
NOTE 1 Provisions for glass-lined flanged steel pipes and glass-lined flanged steel fittings are given in ISO 28721-4.
The test methods specified cover checking the enamel, the dimensional accuracy and the performance of apparatus and components.
This document is applicable to new apparatus and components as well as used items that have been re-enamelled.
It does not contain requirements regarding the chemical or physical properties of vitreous and porcelain enamels.
NOTE 2 Examples of test reports are given in Annex A.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements and the functional characteristics of enamel coatings applied by any process, such as wet dipping, wet flow-coating, wet spraying, wet electrostatic spraying, wet electrodeposition or dry-powder electrostatic spraying, to profiled steel heat exchanger panels in regenerative heat exchangers, before and after packing in baskets.
For very severe service conditions, or to obtain extended operational life, more stringent limits can be agreed between customer and supplier.

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This document specifies the requirements for product quality and product testing of enamelled valves and pressure pipe fittings for untreated and potable water supply.
It does not apply to chemical service glass-enamel and apparatus enamel.

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This document specifies a low-voltage test method for detecting and locating defects (pores, cracks or pop-offs) that occur in enamel coatings of corrugated and/or undulated profiles and that extend down to the metal base.
The method is based on colour effects (optical method) and is applicable to the precise detection of defects and their exact position. It can be used for non-flat, more profiled shapes such as corrugated or undulated surfaces.
NOTE The low-voltage test is a non-destructive test for detecting defects extending down to the metal base and is, therefore, completely different in comparison to the high-voltage test in accordance with ISO 2746.

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This document gives guidelines for determining the average surface density over a measured area of anodic oxide or of a coating deposited autocatalytically, mechanically, by chemical conversion, by electrodeposition, by hot dip galvanizing and by chemical or physical vapour deposition using gravimetric and other chemical analysis procedures that have attained some degree of national or international standardization.
A variety of procedures are described and include:
— gravimetric procedures for chemical or electrochemical dissolution of the coating or the substrate to determine the coating surface density;
— gravimetric procedures for weighing the uncoated substrate and the coated (finished) specimen to determine the coating surface density;
— analytical procedures that utilize dissolution of the coating for determination of the coating surface density by instrumental chemical analysis methods.
With the exception of the gravimetric method as described in ISO 3892, this document does not give the measurement uncertainties of the methods cited.

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This document specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of metallic chromium, with or without undercoats, on ferrous and non-ferrous metals for engineering purposes. The coating designation provides a means of specifying the thickness of chromium appropriate for typical engineering applications.

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This document specifies a quantitative method for the measurement of adhesive strength of metallic and other inorganic coatings applied to metallic, polymer and glass substrates.
Typical coatings for which this document applies are metallic coatings such as aluminium, copper, nickel, nickel plus chromium, silver, tin, tin-nickel alloys, zinc, gold as well as other inorganic coatings such as oxides or nitrides, e.g. of aluminium, indium and indium-tin, silicon, niobium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium and others.
This document does not apply to certain hot dip, spray and mechanical coatings, for which other standards may apply, e.g. EN ISO 14916 or EN ISO 4624.
The measurement is valid if the cohesion and adhesion properties of the adhesive are higher than those of the coating subjected to test.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of magnesium alloys intended for use in structural applications (such as magnesium front end, gearbox and clutch housing units, steering column parts, shift actuators, valve covers and housings, brackets and intake manifold blades, electronic devices, power tools and medical equipment). The method allows determination of the resistance to SCC as a function of the chemical composition, the method of manufacture and heat treatment of magnesium alloys.
The document is applicable to cast and wrought magnesium alloys in the form of castings, semi-finished products, parts and weldments and covers the method of sampling, the types of specimens, the loading procedure, the type of environment and the interpretation of results.
The document allows assessment of the relative performance of materials and products in environments containing chlorides or sulphates, provided that the failure mechanism is not changed, but does not qualify a material or product for service application.

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This document specifies a simulating method of test for determination of the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food.
It also specifies limits for the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food.
It is applicable to enamelled articles, including tanks and vessels, which are intended to be used for the preparation, cooking, serving and storage of food.

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This document specifies procedures for designing, preparing and using precracked specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress corrosion. It gives recommendations for the design, preparation and use of precracked specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress corrosion. Recommendations concerning notched specimens are given in Annex A.
The term "metal" as used in this document includes alloys.
Because of the need to confine plasticity at the crack tip, precracked specimens are not suitable for the evaluation of thin products, such as sheet or wire, and are generally used for thicker products including plate bar and forgings. They can also be used for parts joined by welding.
Precracked specimens can be loaded with equipment for application of a constant load or can incorporate a device to produce a constant displacement at the loading points. Tests conducted under increasing displacement or increasing load are dealt with in ISO 7539-9.
A particular advantage of precracked specimens is that they allow data to be acquired, from which critical defect sizes, above which stress corrosion cracking can occur, can be estimated for components of known geometry subjected to known stresses. They also enable rates of stress corrosion crack propagation to be determined. The latter data can be taken into account when monitoring parts containing defects during service.

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This document specifies two accelerated corrosion-test procedures, Methods A and B, for the comparative evaluation of metallic materials with or without permanent corrosion protection or temporary corrosion protection in outdoor salt and/or acid rain environments. It also specifies the apparatus used. The two tests involve cyclic exposure of the specimens to acidified salt spray, "dry" and "wet" conditions.
The particular advantages of the two tests over conventional accelerated tests, such as the neutral salt spray (NSS) test as specified in ISO 9227 lie in their better ability to reproduce the corrosion that occurs in outdoor salt and/or acid rain environments. They are also useful for evaluating cosmetic corrosion.
Method A is applicable to
— metals and their alloys,
— metallic coatings (cathodic),
— anodic oxide coatings, and
— organic coatings on metallic materials.
Method B is applicable to
— steel coated with anodic coatings, and
— steel coated with anodic coatings covered with conversion coatings.

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ISO 2081:2018 specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary treatments on iron or steel. It includes information to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and the requirements for heat treatment before and after electroplating.
ISO 2081:2018 is not applicable to zinc coatings applied
- to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form,
- to close-coiled springs, or
- for purposes other than protective or decorative.
ISO 2081:2018 does not specify requirements for the surface condition of the basis metal prior to electroplating with zinc. However, defects in the surface of the basis metal can adversely affect the appearance and performance of the coating.
The coating thickness that can be applied to threaded components can be limited by dimensional requirements, including class or fit.

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ISO 2819:2017 specifies methods of checking the adhesion of electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings. It is limited to tests of a qualitative nature.
ISO 2819:2017 does not describe certain tests that have been developed at various times to give a quantitative measure of adhesion of metallic coating to a substrate, since such tests require special apparatus and considerable skill in their performance which renders them unsuitable as quality control tests for production parts. Some of these quantitative tests can, however, be useful in research and development work.

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ISO 11130:2017 specifies a method for assessing the corrosion resistance of metals by an alternate immersion test in salt solution, with or without applied stress.
The test is particularly suitable for quality control during the manufacture of metals including aluminium alloys and ferrous materials, and also for assessment purposes during alloy development.
Depending upon the chemical composition of the test solution, the test can be used to simulate the corrosive effects of marine splash zones, de-icing fluids and acid salt environments.
The term "metal" as used in this document includes metallic materials with or without corrosion protection.
ISO 11130:2017 is applicable to
- metals and their alloys,
- certain metallic coatings (anodic and cathodic with respect to the substrate),
- certain conversion coatings,
- certain anodic oxide coating, and
- organic coatings on metals.

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ISO 28706-3:2017 describes a test method for the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled articles to attack by alkaline liquids at temperatures between 25 °C and 95 °C. The apparatus used is a hexagonal vessel in which six enamelled specimens or a tetragonal glass bottle in which four enamelled specimens are simultaneously tested.
NOTE 1 The resistance to any alkaline liquid can be determined. However, the test method was originally used for the determination of the resistance to hot detergent solutions, within the neutral and alkaline range, used for washing textiles.
NOTE 2 Since detergents are continually subject to alterations in their composition, a standard test solution is specified which, in respect to its alkalinity, wetting properties and complexing behaviour, can be considered as a typical composition for the detergents present on the market. The pH value and alkalinity of the standard test solution depend on the proportions of sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium carbonate and sodium perborate present; sodium tripolyphosphate acts simultaneously as a complexing agent. The wetting properties of the standard test solution are obtained by the addition of alkylsulfonate. A higher sodium perborate content is not considered necessary since the effect of oxygen on enamel is unimportant and an increase in the perborate content does not cause any significant alteration in the alkalinity of the standard test solution. The testing of different enamels using this standard test solution and other test solutions (including 5 % sodium pyrophosphate solution) has justified the use of this standard test solution for determining the resistance of enamels to hot detergent solutions.

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ISO 27830:2017 specifies the technical requirements of metallic and other inorganic coatings in order to develop consistent technical standards and establishes a standard format for designating the coatings. It applies to International Standards for electrodeposited, autocatalytic and vapour-deposited coatings.
Detailed technical requirements for individual coatings are not given in this document, but can be found in the International Standards listed in the Bibliography.
ISO 27830:2017 does not apply to thermally sprayed and porcelain enamel coatings.

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This European Standard applies to the measurement of the thickness of the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings and to the measurement of the potential differences between the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings.
The measurement of coatings or layer systems other than electroplated multilayer nickel coatings is outside the scope of this European Standard.

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ISO 9717:2017 specifies a process for the confirmation of requirements for phosphate coatings which are usually destined for application on ferrous materials, zinc, cadmium and their alloys (see Annex B).

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ISO 2360:2017 specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive base metals, using amplitude-sensitive eddy-current instruments.
In ISO 2360:2017, the term "coating" is used for materials such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, claddings and powder coatings. This method is particularly applicable to measurements of the thickness of most oxide coatings produced by anodizing, but is not applicable to all conversion coatings, some of which are too thin to be measured by this method (see Clause 6).
This method can also be used to measure non-magnetic metallic coatings on non-conductive base materials. However, the phase-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 21968 is particularly usable to this application and can provide thickness results with a higher accuracy (see Annex A).
This method is not applicable to measure non-magnetic metallic coatings on conductive base metals. The phase-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 21968 is particularly useful for this application. However, in the special case of very thin coatings with a very small conductivity, the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method can also be used for this application (see Annex A).
Although the method can be used for measurements of the thickness of coatings on magnetic base metals, its use for this application is not recommended. In such cases, the magnetic method specified in ISO 2178 can be used. Only in case of very thick coatings above approximately 1 mm, the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method can also be used for this application (see Annex A).

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ISO 2082:2017 specifies the requirements of electroplated coatings of cadmium with supplementary treatments on iron and steel. It includes information that is to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and describes coating requirements, including those for heat treatment before and after electroplating.
It is not applicable to coatings applied
- to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form,
- to close-coiled springs, or
- for purposes other than protective, intrinsic lubricity, ductility, electrical conductivity and low contact resistance use.
ISO 2082:2017 does not specify requirements for the surface condition of the basis metal prior to electrodeposition with cadmium.
The coating thickness that can be applied to threaded components can be limited by dimensional requirements, including class or fit.
Additional information on corrosion resistance, rinsing and drying, processing parts in bulk and dyeing of chromate conversion coatings is given in Annex C.

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ISO 20274:2017 specifies the procedures for the preparation of enamel samples for measurement of the thermal length change and calculation of the thermal expansion coefficient.

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ISO 14708-3:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design that are appropriate for articles to be sherardized for corrosion protection.
The protection afforded by the sherardized coating to the article will depend upon the method of application of the coating, the design of the article and the specific environment to which the article is exposed. The sherardized article can be further protected by application of additional coatings (outside the scope of this document), such as organic coatings (wet paints or powder coatings). When applied to sherardized articles, this combination of coatings is often known as a "duplex system".
General guidance on this subject can be found in ISO 12944‑5 and EN 13438.
The maintenance of corrosion protection in service for steel with sherardized coatings is outside the scope of this document.
Specific product-related requirements (e.g. for sherardized coatings on fasteners or tubes, etc.) will take precedence over these general recommendations.

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ISO 14713-1:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design which are appropriate for articles to be zinc coated for corrosion protection and the level of corrosion resistance provided by zinc coatings applied to iron or steel articles, exposed to a variety of environments. Initial protection is covered in relation to
- available standard processes,
- design considerations, and
- environments for use.
ISO 14713-1:2017 applies to zinc coatings applied by the following processes:
a) hot dip galvanized coatings (applied after fabrication);
b) hot dip galvanized coatings (applied onto continuous sheet);
c) sherardized coatings;
d) thermal sprayed coatings;
e) mechanically plated coatings;
f) electrodeposited coatings.
These guidelines and recommendations do not deal with the maintenance of corrosion protection in service for steel with zinc coatings. Guidance on this subject can be found in ISO 12944‑5 and ISO 12944‑8.

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ISO 9227:2017 specifies the apparatus, the reagents and the procedure to be used in conducting the neutral salt spray (NSS), acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray (CASS) tests for assessment of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials, with or without permanent or temporary corrosion protection.
It also describes the method employed to evaluate the corrosivity of the test cabinet environment.
It does not specify the dimensions or types of test specimens, the exposure period to be used for a particular product, or the interpretation of results. Such details are provided in the appropriate product specifications.
The salt spray tests are particularly useful for detecting discontinuities, such as pores and other defects, in certain metallic, organic, anodic oxide and conversion coatings.
The neutral salt spray (NSS) test particularly applies to
- metals and their alloys,
- metallic coatings (anodic and cathodic),
- conversion coatings,
- anodic oxide coatings, and
- organic coatings on metallic materials.
The acetic acid salt spray (AASS) test is especially useful for testing decorative coatings of copper + nickel + chromium, or nickel + chromium. It has also been found suitable for testing anodic and organic coatings on aluminium.
The copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray (CASS) test is useful for testing decorative coatings of copper + nickel + chromium, or nickel + chromium. It has also been found suitable for testing anodic and organic coatings on aluminium.
The salt spray methods are all suitable for checking that the quality of a metallic material, with or without corrosion protection, is maintained. They are not intended to be used for comparative testing as a means of ranking different materials relative to each other with respect to corrosion resistance or as means of predicting long-term corrosion resistance of the tested material.

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ISO 19496-1:2017 defines a number of terms relating to vitreous and porcelain enamels and their technology. This list is not complete and only comprises those terms for which the definition is considered necessary for correct and adequate understanding in order to clarify these processes.
The interpretations given are those corresponding to the practical usage in this field and they do not necessarily coincide with those used in other fields.
For purposes of clarification, the term "vitreous enamel", used throughout this document, is synonymous with "porcelain enamel", the term favoured in the United States and some other countries.

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ISO 19496-2:2017 establishes a system for the cataloguing of defects in sheet steel enamelling. It serves for a consistent language use concerning the designation and characterization of enamelling defects. This document is limited to detectable defects and does not purport to fully take into consideration all occurring types of defects. It does not evaluate enamelling defects; the classification carried out serves for the conveyance of practical knowledge.

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ISO 28706-2:2017 specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance of flat surfaces of vitreous and porcelain enamels to boiling acids, boiling neutral liquids, alkaline liquids and/or their vapours.
This method allows the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamels to the liquid and vapour phases of the corrosive medium simultaneously.

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ISO 8401:2017 specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes.
It is applicable to the following methods:
- tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate);
- tests of coatings on substrates.
It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preference to the methods described in this document and are agreed upon beforehand by the supplier and the purchaser.

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ISO 19598:2016 applies to electrodeposited zinc and zinc-alloy coatings on iron and steel with Cr(VI)-free passivation. The zinc-alloy coatings contain nickel or iron as alloying elements (referred to as zinc/nickel and zinc/iron coatings, respectively).
The main purpose of the coatings or coating systems is protecting iron and steel components against corrosion.
ISO 19598:2016 specifies
- the designations to be used for the above coating systems,
- the minimum corrosion resistance to be achieved in specified test procedures, and
- the minimum coating thicknesses required.

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This International Standard establishes sampling plans and procedures for inspection by attributes of electrodeposited metallic coatings. It may be applied to related finishes by agreement between the supplier and the purchaser. It is based on ISO 2859 (see also Addendum 1 to ISO 2859).
The sampling plans in this International Standard are applicable, but not limited, to the inspection of end items, components, materials in process and finished products in storage. The plans are intended primarily to be used for a continuing series of lots, but they may also be used for the inspection of isolated lots. However, the assurance given for isolated lots is lower than that given for a continuing series of lots.
This International Standard is not applicable to the sampling and testing of mechanical fasteners having electrodeposited metallic coatings or related finishes, in all the circumstances for which procedures for these components are specified in ISO 3269.
The sampling plans given in this International Standard are based on AQLs1) of 1,5 and 4,0 %. Other AQLs may be used if specified in the product specification, in which case reference should be made to ISO 2859 and its Addendum 1.
It is also possible to formulate sampling plans based on inspection by variables.

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This International Standard specifies the information to be supplied by the purchaser to the finisher, requirements and test methods for electropolishing as a means of smoothing and passivating stainless steel alloys in the S2XXXX, S3XXXX and S4XXXX series, and the precipitation hardened alloys (see ISO/TR 15510 for information on composition).

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This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (i. e. ISO 2179:1972). Specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of the intermetallic compound SnNi, with a composition of approximately 65 % (m/m) tin and 35 % (m/m) nickel. It does not apply to threaded components, coatings on cheet, stsrip or wire in the unfabricated form, coatings on coil springs, electroplating of steels with tensile strength greater than 1 000 MPa.

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This International Standard specifies equipment and a method for using nitric acid vapour to determine porosity in gold coatings, particularly electrodeposits and clad metals used on electrical contacts.
This method is designed to show whether the porosity level is less than or greater than some value that, by experience, is considered by the user to be acceptable for the intended application.
It is suitable for inlays or claddings containing 75 % or more of gold, for electrodeposits containing 95 % or more of gold or for substrates of copper, nickel and their alloys that are commonly used in electrical contacts.
The nitric acid vapour test is too severe to be used for gold coatings less than 0,6 μm thick. It is also not suitable for coatings that are less noble than gold or platinum, such as palladium and its alloys, or gold-flashed palladium and its alloys.
Several other porosity testing methods are described in ISO 10308 and in the literature (see e.g. Bibliography, [1] and [2]).

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This International Standard specifies a method of revealing pores or other discontinuities, when testing metallic coatings, that are not visibly affected by ferricyanide and chloride ions during the test period and that are cathodic to iron and steel. This method is especially useful for thick, hard chromium coatings used for wear resistance.
NOTE 1 With some coating materials a very thin layer is dissolved by the sodium chloride solution during a 10 minute application period (see 5.2.3). The impact of such dissolution is that potential porosity, i.e. pores that have been covered over by very thin layers, are sometimes re-exposed. Experience has shown that such potential porosity is frequently re-exposed during actual service.

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ISO 2178:2016 specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-magnetizable coatings on magnetizable base metals.
The measurements are tactile and non-destructive on typical coatings. The probe or an instrument with integrated probe is placed directly on the coating to be measured. The coating thickness is displayed on the instrument.
In ISO 2178:2016 the term "coating" is used for material such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, powder coatings, claddings.
NOTE This method can also be applied to the measurement of magnetizable coatings on non-magnetizable base metals or other materials (see ISO 2361).

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ISO 28721-5:2016 establishes a system for the cataloguing of defects in enamellings for chemical service and vessels. In addition, it describes some types of areas in which defects have been treated and which can easily be confounded with enamelling defects. It serves for a consistent language use concerning the designation and characterization of enamelling defects.
ISO 28721-5:2016 is limited to detectable defects and does not purport to fully take into consideration all occurring types of defects. It does not evaluate enamelling defects; the classification carried out is based on experience and corresponds, as far as possible, to ISO 28721-1.
NOTE Regarding the acceptance of glass lined equipment for use in process engineering, ISO 28721-1 applies.

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ISO 17668:2016 specifies minimum thickness requirements for six classes of zinc diffusion layers applied to ferrous products by the sherardizing process for the purpose of protection against corrosion and wear.
ISO 17668:2016 does not specify any requirements for the surface condition (finish or roughness) of the basis material before sherardizing.
Post-treatments (conversion coatings), after-treatments or organic over-coatings (Duplex) of sherardized articles are not in the scope of this International Standard.
NOTE 1 For general information about post-treatments, see Annex C and Annex D.
ISO 17668:2016 does not apply to sherardized products (e.g. fasteners, tubes) for which specific standards exist and which might include additional requirements or requirements which are different from those of this International Standard.
NOTE 2 Individual product standards can incorporate this International Standard for the coating by quoting its number, or can incorporate it with modification specific to the product.

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ISO 28765:2016 establishes the requirements for the design and use of vitreous-enamel-coated bolted cylindrical steel tanks for the storage or treatment of water or municipal or industrial effluents and sludges.
It applies to the design of the tank and any associated roof and gives guidance on the requirements for the design of the foundation.
It applies where
a) the tank is cylindrical and is mounted on a load-bearing base substantially at or above ground level;
b) the product of the tank diameter in metres and the wall height in metres lies within the range 5 to 500;
c) the tank diameter does not exceed 100 m and the total wall height does not exceed 50 m;
d) the stored material has the characteristics of a liquid, exerting a negligible frictional force on the tank wall; the stored material may be undergoing treatment as part of a municipal or industrial effluent treatment process;
e) the internal pressure in the headspace above the liquid does not exceed 50 kPa and the internal partial vacuum above the liquid does not exceed 10 kPa;
f) the walls of the tank are vertical;
g) the floor of the tank is substantially flat at its intersection with the wall; the floor of the tank may have a rise or fall built in to allow complete emptying of the tank contents, the slope of which does not exceed 1:100;
h) there is negligible inertial and impact load due to tank filling;
i) the minimum thickness of the tank shell is 1,5 mm;
j) the material used for the manufacture of the steel sheets is carbon steel (tanks constructed of sheets made from aluminium or stainless steel are outside the scope of this International Standard);
k) the temperature of the tank wall during operation is within the range −50 °C to +100 °C under all operating conditions.
ISO 28765:2016 also gives details of procedures to be followed during installation on site and for inspection and maintenance of the installed tank.
It does not apply to chemical-reaction vessels.
It does not cover resistance to fire.

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ISO 28706-4:2016 describes a test method for the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled articles to attack by alkaline liquids at temperatures between 25 °C and 95 °C. The apparatus used is a cylindrical vessel in which only one enamelled specimen is tested.
NOTE 1 The test method was initially set up for determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamels to a hot sodium hydroxide solution. Within the scope of this part of ISO 28706, the resistance of other alkaline liquids can be tested.
NOTE 2 This part of ISO 28706, which uses a cylindrical vessel, is generally used for tests carried out on vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings for the chemical industry.

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ISO 28721-2:2015 specifies requirements for the resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock of chemical enamels and their designation for ordering purposes.
It is applicable to enamelled apparatus, piping and other components primarily used for process equipment in chemical plants.
It only applies to unalloyed and low-alloy carbon steels suitable for enamelling.
NOTE The main criteria for assessing enamel quality are the resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock and the structure of the cover coat enamel.

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ISO 28764:2015 specifies a method for the production of specimens suitable for testing vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings.
It specifies two different specimens:
- specimens taken from production articles;
- specially produced specimens.
NOTE Only the specially produced specimens can be used when the loss in mass per unit area of the enamel coating is to be determined quantitatively, as specimens cut from enamelled articles can reduce the accuracy of the test method.

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ISO 28721-4:2015 specifies the quality requirements for glass-lined flanged steel pipes and flanged steel fittings used for process plants.

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ISO 2746:2015 describes two test methods of high voltage testing:
- Test A is used to detect and locate defects in vitreous and porcelain enamels;
- Test B is used to detect and locate defects and weak spots in vitreous and porcelain enamels.
The tests are performed using DC or pulsed DC high voltage.
The tests are applicable to dry surfaces of enamel coatings. In the case of moist surfaces, care should be taken to ensure that the locating of any defects is correctly performed.
Since test voltages depend on the coating thickness, the test method, especially with test A, may not be suitable for test specimens for which the coating thickness varies to a large extent.

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ISO 16071:2015 specifies the test method, the reagents, and the procedure to be used in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test constituting a 6 h exposure to a slightly acidified solution of 1 % NaCl twice weekly, followed by a condition of controlled humidity cycling between 95 % RH and 50 % RH at a constant temperature of 35 °C.
It does not specify the dimensions of the tests specimens, the exposure period to be used for a particular product, or the interpretation of the results. Such details are provided in the appropriate product specifications.
The accelerated laboratory corrosion test applies to metals and their alloys, metallic coatings (anodic or cathodic), chemical conversion coatings, and organic coatings on metallic materials.

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ISO 4528:2015 is a guide to the selection of test methods for evaluating the performance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled finishes in different applications. It references the test methods available for measuring the properties of these finishes and correlates these properties to the requirements of specific enamelled articles.
It is limited for the most part to test methods that are described in International Standards or European Standards and does not provide acceptance criteria or performance limits for the properties.
ISO 4528:2015 applies to all enamelled articles irrespective of their basis metals.

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