Current and voltage sensors or detectors, to be used for fault passage indication purposes - Part 2: System aspects

IEC 62689-2:2016 describes electric phenomena and electric system behaviour during faults, according to the most widely diffused distribution system architecture and to fault typologies, to define the functional requirements for fault passage indicators (FPI) and distribution substation units (DSU) (including their current and/or voltage sensors), which are, respectively, a device or a device/combination of devices and/or of functions able to detect faults and provide indications about their localization. By localization of the fault is meant the fault position with respect to the FPI/DSU installation point on the network (upstream or downstream from the FPI/DSU's location) or the direction of the fault current flowing through the FPI itself. The fault localization may be obtained - directly from the FPI/DSU, or - from a central system using information from more FPIs or DSUs, considering the features and the operating conditions of the electric system where the FPIs/DSUs are installed. This part of IEC 62689 is therefore aimed at helping users in the appropriate choice of FPIs/DSUs (or of a system based on FPI/DSU information) properly operating in their networks, considering adopted solutions and operation rules (defined by tradition and/or depending on possible constraints concerning continuity and quality of voltage supply defined by a national regulator), and also taking into account complexity of the apparatus and consequent cost. This part of IEC 62689 is mainly focused on system behaviour during faults, which is the "core" of FPI/DSU fault detection capability classes described in IEC 62689-1, where all requirements are specified in detail.

Strom- und Spannungs-Sensoren oder Anzeigegeräte zur Erkennung von Kurz- und Erdschlüssen - Teil 2: Systemaspekte

Capteurs ou détecteurs de courant et de tension, à utiliser pour indiquer le passage d'un courant de défaut - Partie 2: Aspects systèmes

L'IEC 62689-2:2016 décrit les phénomènes électriques et le comportement de réseaux électriques en présence de défauts, selon l'architecture de système de distribution la plus diffusée et les typologies de défauts. Il définit les exigences fonctionnelles pour les indicateurs de passage de courant de défaut (FPI) et les unités de poste de distribution (DSU) (y compris pour leurs capteurs de courant et/ou de tension) qui sont respectivement matérialisés par un dispositif ou un dispositif/une combinaison de dispositifs et/ou de fonctions pouvant détecter des défauts et les localiser. La localisation d'un défaut est définie par la position du défaut par rapport au point d'installation des FPI/DSU sur le réseau (en amont ou en aval de l'emplacement des FPI/DSU) ou la direction du courant de défaut qui traverse le FPI. La localisation du défaut peut être obtenue: - directement depuis le FPI/la DSU, ou - depuis un système central, à l'aide des informations d'autres FPI ou DSU, en tenant compte des fonctionnalités et des conditions d'exploitation du réseau électrique sur lequel les FPI/DSU sont installés. Par conséquent, l'objectif de la présente partie de l'IEC 62689 est d'aider les utilisateurs à bien choisir leur FPI/DSU (ou un système utilisant des informations de FPI/DSU) pour une exploitation optimale sur leurs réseaux, en prenant en considération les solutions adoptées et les règles d'exploitation (définies par la coutume et/ou en fonction des éventuelles contraintes relatives à la continuité et la qualité de la tension d'alimentation définies par l'organisme national de règlementation), sans oublier la complexité et le coût de l'appareil. Dans la présente partie de l'IEC 62689, le premier "niveau" de classification FPI/DSU est défini, d'après le comportement du réseau en présence de défauts. La classification FPI/DSU est développée de manière exhaustive dans l'IEC 62689-1, dans laquelle toutes les exigences sont définies.

Tokovna in napetostna zaznavala in detektorji, ki se uporabljajo za javljanje mesta okvare - 2. del: Sistemski vidiki (IEC 62689-2:2016)

Ta del standarda IEC 62689 opisuje električne pojave in obnašanje električnega sistema med okvarami skladno z najbolj razširjeno arhitekturo distribucijskega sistema in tipologijami okvar za namene opredelitve funkcionalnih zahtev za javljalnike mesta okvare (FPI) in distribucijske postaje (DSU) (vključno z njihovimi zaznavali za tok in/ali napetost), ki so naprava ali naprava/skupek naprav in/ali funkcij, ki lahko zaznajo okvare in podajo indikacije glede njihove lokalizacije.
Lokalizacija okvare pomeni mesto okvare glede na mesto namestitve javljalnika mesta okvare/distribucijske postaje v omrežju (na visoko- ali nizkonapetostni strani glede na javljalnik mesta okvare/distribucijsko postajo) ali smer okvarnega toka, ki teče skozi javljalnik mesta okvare. Lokalizacija okvare se lahko pridobi
• neposredno iz javljalnika mesta okvare/distribucijske postaje ali
• pri centralnem sistemu z uporabo informacij več javljalnikov mesta okvare ali distribucijskih postaj,
ob upoštevanju lastnosti in obratovalnih pogojev električnega sistema, v katerem so nameščeni javljalniki mesta okvare/distribucijske postaje.
Ta del standarda IEC 62689 je tako namenjen pomoči uporabnikom pri izbiri ustreznih javljalnikov mesta okvare/distribucijskih postaj (ali sistema, ki temelji na informacijah javljalnika mesta okvare/distribucijske postaje), ki pravilno delujejo v njihovih omrežjih glede na sprejete rešitve in pravila delovanja (opredeljena skladno z običaji in/ali glede na možne omejitve glede neprekinjenosti in kakovosti napajanja, ki jih opredeli nacionalni organ), pri čemer se upoštevajo tudi kompleksnost naprave in posledični stroški.
Ta del standarda IEC 62689 se osredotoča predvsem na obnašanje sistema med okvarami, kar predstavlja »jedro« razredov zmogljivosti zaznavanja okvar javljalnikov mesta okvare/distribucijskih postaj, opisanih v standardu IEC 62689-1, ki vsebuje podrobne opise vseh zahtev.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Sep-2017
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
22-Sep-2017
Completion Date
22-Sep-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
01-november-2017

Tokovna in napetostna zaznavala in detektorji, ki se uporabljajo za javljanje mesta

okvare - 2. del: Sistemski vidiki (IEC 62689-2:2016)

Current and voltage sensors or detectors, to be used for fault passage indication

purposes - Part 2: System aspects (IEC 62689-2:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62689-2:2017
ICS:
17.220.20 0HUMHQMHHOHNWULþQLKLQ Measurement of electrical
PDJQHWQLKYHOLþLQ and magnetic quantities
SIST EN 62689-2:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62689-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2017
ICS 17.220.20
English Version
Current and voltage sensors or detectors, to be used for fault
passage indication purposes - Part 2: System aspects
(IEC 62689-2:2016)

Capteurs ou détecteurs de courant et de tension, à utiliser Strom- und Spannungs-Sensoren oder Anzeigegeräte zur

pour indiquer le passage d'un courant de défaut - Erkennung von Kurz- und Erdschlüssen -

Partie 2: Aspects systèmes Teil 2: Systemaspekte
(IEC 62689-2:2016) (IEC 62689-2:2016)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-06-17. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62689-2:2017 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
EN 62689-2:2017
European foreword

The text of document 38/504/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62689-2, prepared by IEC/TC 38

"Instrument transformers" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN 62689-2:2017.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2018-03-22
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2020-09-22
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62689-2:2016 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60044-7 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60044-7.
IEC 60044-8 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60044-8.
IEC 60721-3-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60721-3-4.
IEC 60870-5-101 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60870-5-101.
IEC 60870-5-104 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60870-5-104.
IEC 61850-7-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61850-7-2.
IEC 61850-7-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61850-7-3.
IEC 61869-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61869-1.
IEC 61869-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61869-4.
IEC 61869-6 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61869-6.
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
EN 62689-2:2017
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 62689-1 - Current and voltage sensors or detectors, EN 62689-1 -
to be used for fault passage indication
purposes -
Part 1: General principles and
requirements
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
IEC 62689-2
Edition 1.0 2016-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Current and voltage sensors or detectors, to be used for fault passage
indication purposes –
Part 2: System aspects
Capteurs ou détecteurs de courant et de tension, à utiliser pour indiquer
le passage d'un courant de défaut –
Partie 2: Aspects systèmes
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-3385-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
– 2 – IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols ................................................................. 9

3.1 Terms and definitions related to neutral point treatment ........................................ 10

3.2 Abbreviations and symbols ................................................................................... 10

4 Choice of FPI/DSU requirements related to fault detection according to network

operation mode and fault type ....................................................................................... 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 FPIs/DSUs for isolated neutral system .................................................................. 10

4.2.1 Earth fault detection ...................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 Polyphase fault detection ............................................................................... 11

4.3 FPIs/DSUs for resonant earthed (neutral) system – arc-suppression-coil-

earth (neutral) system ........................................................................................... 11

4.3.1 Earth fault detection ...................................................................................... 11

4.3.2 Polyphase fault detection ............................................................................... 12

4.4 FPIs/DSUs for solidly earthed neutral systems (systems with low-impedance

earthed neutrals) .................................................................................................. 12

4.5 FPIs/DSUs for impedance earthed neutral system (resistive impedance

earthed neutral system ) ....................................................................................... 12

4.5.1 Earth fault detection ...................................................................................... 12

4.5.2 Polyphase fault detection ............................................................................... 13

4.6 FPIs/DSUs for systems with high presence of DER ............................................... 13

4.7 Summary of FPI/DSU requirements with respect to fault detection according

to network operation mode and fault type .............................................................. 13

5 Fault detecting principles according to network and fault type........................................ 15

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

5.2 Earth fault detection and neutral treatment............................................................ 18

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

5.2.2 Earth fault detection in isolated neutral systems ............................................ 18

5.2.3 Earth fault detection in resonant earthed systems .......................................... 24

5.2.4 Overcurrent detection in absence or negligible presence of DER ................... 35

5.2.5 Overcurrent detection in presence of a large amount of DER

(significantly increasing short circuit current values) ...................................... 37

Annex A (informative) Example of a possible solution for fault detection through

FPIs/DSUs on closed loop feeder ......................................................................................... 39

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

A.2 Double bipole model ............................................................................................. 39

A.3 Analysis of zero-sequence values in case of fault on a line out of the closed

loop ...................................................................................................................... 40

A.4 Analysis in case of fault on the closed-loop ........................................................... 42

A.5 Example of on-field application ............................................................................. 44

Annex B (informative) Example of fault detection coordination technique among

FPIs/DSUs and MV feeder protection relays ......................................................................... 45

B.1 Autonomous fault detection confirmation from FPIs/DSUs ..................................... 45

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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –
B.2 Fault detection confirmation from FPIs/DSUs through voltage

presence/absence detection ................................................................................. 48

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 49

Figure 1 – General architecture of an FPI ............................................................................... 8

Figure 2 – General three-phase diagram of an earth fault in isolated neutral system ............. 16

Figure 3 – General three-phase diagram of an earth fault solidly earthed system

(example 2) .......................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 4 – Isolated neutral system – detection of earth fault current direction from

FPI/DSU upstream from the fault location (fault downstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s

location) ................................................................................................................................ 18

Figure 5 – Isolated neutral system – detection of earth fault current direction from

FPI/DSU downstream from the fault location (fault upstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s

location) ................................................................................................................................ 19

Figure 6 – Isolated neutral system – vector diagrams related to Figure 4 and Figure 5 ........ 20

Figure 7 – Relationship between FPI/DSU regulated current threshold and earth fault

current in case of non-directional earth fault current detection. Fault downstream from

FPI/DSU A4-2 ....................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 8 – Relationship between FPI/DSU regulated current threshold and earth fault

current in case of non-directional earth fault current detection. Fault downstream from

FPI/DSU A4-1 and upstream from FPI/DSU A4-2 .................................................................. 22

Figure 9 – Relationship between FPI/DSU regulated current threshold and earth fault

current in case of non-directional earth fault current detection. Fault on MV busbar

(upstream from any FPI/DSU) ............................................................................................... 23

Figure 10 – Pure resonant earthed system – detection of earth fault current direction

from FPI/DSU upstream from the fault location (fault downstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s

location) ................................................................................................................................ 25

Figure 11 – Pure resonant earthed system – detection of earth fault current direction

from FPI/DSU downstream from the fault location (fault upstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s

location) ................................................................................................................................ 25

Figure 12 – Pure resonant earthed system – vector diagrams related to Figure 10 and

Figure 11 .............................................................................................................................. 27

Figure 13 – Resonant earthed system with inductance and permanent parallel resistor

– detection of phase to earth fault current direction from FPI/DSU upstream from the

fault location (fault downstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s location) ............................................. 28

Figure 14 – Resonant earthed system with inductance with parallel resistor system –

detection of phase to earth fault current direction from FPI/DSU downstream from the

fault location (fault upstream from the FPI’s/DSU’s location) ................................................. 28

Figure 15 – Resonant earthed system with inductance with parallel resistor system –

vector diagrams related to Figure 13 and Figure 14 .............................................................. 30

Figure 16 – Earthing resistor system – detection of phase to earth fault current

direction from FPI/DSU upstream from the fault location (fault downstream from the

FPI’s/DSU’s location) ............................................................................................................ 32

Figure 17 – Earthing resistor system – detection of phase to earth fault current

direction from FPI/DSU downstream from the fault location (fault upstream from the

FPI’s/DSU’s location) ............................................................................................................ 32

Figure 18 – Earthing resistor system – vector diagrams related to Figure 16 and

Figure 17 .............................................................................................................................. 34

Figure 19 – Overcurrents in a radial network without DER – correct current detection

by non-directional FPI/DSU (good sensitivity concerning overcurrent detection) ................... 35

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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
– 4 – IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016

Figure 20 – Overcurrents in a radial network with negligible DER presence – correct

current detection by non-directional FPI/DSU (good sensitivity concerning overcurrent

detection) ............................................................................................................................. 36

Figure 21 – Overcurrents in a radial network with a large amount of DER – unreliable

fault detection by non-directional FPIs/DSUs (incorrect detection or extremely low

sensitivity) ............................................................................................................................ 38

Figure A.1 – Double bipole.................................................................................................... 39

Figure A.2 – Cascade of double bipoles ................................................................................ 41

Figure A.3 – Closed loop double bipoles ............................................................................... 43

Figure A.4 – Equivalent model in case of fault ...................................................................... 43

Figure B.1 – Correctly coordinated fault selection among FPIs/DSUs and protection

relay ..................................................................................................................................... 46

Figure B.2 – Incorrectly coordinated selection among FPIs/DSUs and protection relay.

Case 1 .................................................................................................................................. 47

Figure B.3 – Incorrectly coordinated fault selection among FPIs/DSUs and protection

relay. Case 2 ........................................................................................................................ 48

Table 1 – Summary of FPI/DSU requirements referred to fault detection according to

network operation mode and fault type .................................................................................. 14

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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SENSORS OR DETECTORS,
TO BE USED FOR FAULT PASSAGE INDICATION PURPOSES –
Part 2: System aspects
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62689-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 38:

Instrument transformers.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
38/504/FDIS 38/511/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
– 6 – IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62689 series, under the general title Current and voltage

sensors or detectors, to be used for fault passage indication purposes, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62689-2:2017
IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION
0.1 General

The IEC 62689 series is a product family standard for current and voltage sensors or

detectors, to be used for fault passage indication purposes by proper devices or functions,

indicated as fault passage indicator (FPI) or distribution substation unit (DSU), depending on

their performances.

Different names are used to indicate FPIs depending on the region of the world and on their

functionalities concerning capability to detect different kinds of faults, for instance:

• fault detector;
• smart sensor;
• faulted circuit indicator (FCI);
• short circuit indicator (SCI);
• earth fault indicator (EFI);
• test point mounted FCI.
• combination of the above.

Simpler versions, only using local information/signals and/or local communication, are called

FPI, while very evolved versions are called DSU. The latter are explicitly designed for smart

grids and based on IEC 60870-5 and IEC 61850 communication protocols.Compared to

instrument transformers, digital communication technology is subject to on-going changes

which are expected to continue in the future.

Profound experience with deep integration between electronics and instrument transformers

has yet to be gathered on a broader basis, as this type of equipment is not yet widespread in

the industry.

DSUs, besides FPI basic functions, may also optionally integrate additional auxiliary functions

such as:

• voltage presence/absence detection for medium voltage (MV) network automation, with

and without distributed energy resources presence (not for fault confirmation, which can

be a basic FPI function depending on the adopted fault detection method, neither for

safety-related aspects, which are covered by IEC 61243-5);

• measuring of voltage, current, and active and reactive power, etc., for various

applications, such as MV network automation, monitoring of power flows, etc.;

• smart grid management (such as voltage control and unwanted island operation) by

means of a proper interface with local distributed generators (DER);
• local output of collected information by means of suitable interfaces;
• remote transmission of collected information;
• others.
A general FPI scheme is outlined in Figure 1.
A DSU may have a much more complex scheme.
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
– 8 – IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016
IEC
Key
A Current (and, if necessary, voltage) sensors. 1 or 3 phases may be monitored.
B Transmission of signals between sensors and electronics.
C: Local indications (lamps, LEDs, flags, etc.).

D Analogue, digital and/or communication inputs/outputs for remote communication/commands (hard wired and/or

wireless).
E Connections to field apparatus.
F Signal conditioning, processing and indicating unit (CPIU).
G Power supply.

Current sensor(s) may detect fault current passages without any need of galvanic connection to the phase(s) (for

instance in case of cable type current sensors or of magnetic field sensor).

Not all the above listed parts or functions are necessarily included in the FPI, depending on its complexity and on

its technology. However, at least 1 one of C or D functions shall be present.
Figure 1 – General architecture of an FPI
0.2 Position of this standard in relation to the IEC 61850 series

The IEC 61850 series is intended to be used for communication and systems to support

power utility automation.

The IEC 62689 series will also introduce a dedicated namespace to support integration of

FPIs/DSUs into power utility automation.

In addition, it defines proper data models and different profiles of communication interfaces to

support the different use cases of these FPIs/DSUs.

Some of these use cases rely on the concept of extended substation, which is intended as the

communication among intelligent electronic devices (IED) through IEC 61850 located both

along MV feeders and in the main substation, for the most sophisticated FPI versions (and

therefore DSUs) (for smart grid applications, for instance). Such a profile may not be limited

to FPI/DSU devices, but may embrace features needed to support extensions of these

substations along the MV feeders connected to the main substation themselves.
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SIST EN 62689-2:2017
IEC 62689-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SENSORS OR DETECTORS,
TO BE USED FOR FAULT PASSAGE INDICATION PURPOSES –
Part 2: System aspects
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62689 describes electric phenomena and electric system behaviour during

faults, according to the most widely diffused distribution system architecture and to fault

typologies, to define the functional requirements for fault passage indicators (FPI) and

distribution substation units (DSU) (including their current and/or voltage sensors), which are,

respectively, a device or a device/combination of devices and/or of functions able to detect

faults and provide indications about their localization.

By localization of the fault is meant the fault position with respect to the FPI/DSU installation

point on the network (upstream or downstream from the FPI/DSU’s location) or the direction of

the fault current flowing through the FPI itself. The fault localization may be obtained

• directly from the FPI/DSU, or
• from a central system using information from more FPIs or DSUs,

considering the features and the operating conditions of the electric system where the

FPIs/DSUs are installed.

This part of IEC 62689 is therefore aimed at helping users in the appropriate choice of

FPIs/DSUs (or of a system based on FPI/DSU information) properly operating in their

networks, considering adopted solutions and operation rules (defined by tradition and/or

depending on possible constraints concerning continuity
...

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