High-voltage test techniques - Partial discharge measurements

Applies to the measurement of localized electrical discharges in insulating media, restricted to only a part of the dielectric under test and only partially bridging the insulation between conductors.

Hochspannungs-Prüftechnik - Teilentladungsmessungen

Techniques des essais à haute tension - Mesures des décharges partielles

Applies to the measurement of localized electrical discharges in insulating media, restricted to only a part of the dielectric under test and only partially bridging the insulation between conductors. Le contenu du corrigendum d'octobre 2001 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

High-voltage test techniques - Partial discharge measurement (IEC 60270:2000)

Uporablja se za merjenje delnih razelektritev v električnih napravah, sestavnih delih ali sistemih med preskušanjem z izmenično napetostjo do največ 400 Hz ali z enosmerno napetostjo.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Mar-2001
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
26-Mar-2001
Completion Date
26-Mar-2001

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60270:2002
01-september-2002
High-voltage test techniques - Partial discharge measurement (IEC 60270:2000)
High-voltage test techniques - Partial discharge measurements
Hochspannungs-Prüftechnik - Teilentladungsmessungen
Techniques des essais à haute tension - Mesure des décharges partielles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60270:2001
ICS:
17.220.20 0HUMHQMHHOHNWULþQLKLQ Measurement of electrical
PDJQHWQLKYHOLþLQ and magnetic quantities
19.080 (OHNWULþQRLQHOHNWURQVNR Electrical and electronic
SUHVNXãDQMH testing
SIST EN 60270:2002 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60270
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM March 2001
ICS 17.220.20;19.080
English version
High-voltage test techniques -
Partial discharge measurements
(IEC 60270:2000)
Technique des essais à haute tension - Hochspannungs-Prüftechnik -
Mesure des décharges partielles Teilentladungsmessungen
(CEI 60270:2000) (IEC 60270:2000)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2000-12-01. CENELEC members are bound

to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,

Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2001 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60270:2001 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
EN 60270:2001 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 42/162/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60270, prepared by IEC TC 42, High-

voltage testing techniques, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by

CENELEC as EN 60270 on 2000-12-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2001-10-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2003-12-01
Annexes designated "normative" are part of the body of the standard.
Annexes designated "informative" are given for information only.

In this standard, annexes A and ZA are normative and annexes B to G are informative.

Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
The words in bold in the text of the standard are defined in clause 3.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60270:2000 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
- 3 - EN 60270:2001
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of

any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
1) 2)
IEC 60060-1 High-voltage test techniques HD 588.1 S1 1991
Part 1: General definitions and test
requirements
1) 2)
IEC 60060-2 Part 2: Measuring systems EN 60060-2 1994
CISPR 16-1 1993 Specification for radio disturbance and--
immunity measuring apparatus and
methods
Part 1: Radio disturbance and immunity
measuring apparatus
undated reference.
valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
INTERNATIONAL IEC
STANDARD 60270
Third edition
2000-12
High-voltage test techniques –
Partial discharge measurements
© IEC 2000 Copyright - all rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale X
International Electrotechnical Commission
Международная Электротехническая Комиссия
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 3 –
CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD .......................................................................................................................... 9

Clause

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................... 15

3 Definitions...................................................................................................................... 15

4 Test circuits and measuring systems .............................................................................. 25

4.1 General requirements............................................................................................ 25

4.2 Test circuits for alternating voltages ...................................................................... 25

4.3 Measuring systems for apparent charge ................................................................ 27

4.3.1 General..................................................................................................... 27

4.3.2 Coupling device......................................................................................... 27

4.3.3 Pulse train response of instruments for the measurement

of apparent charge .................................................................................... 27

4.3.4 Wide-band PD instruments........................................................................ 29

4.3.5 Wide-band PD instruments with active integrator ....................................... 31

4.3.6 Narrow-band PD instruments..................................................................... 31

4.4 Requirements for measurements with digital PD-instruments................................. 31

4.4.1 Requirements for measurement of apparent charge q................................ 33

4.4.2 Requirements for measurement of test voltage magnitude and phase ........ 33

4.5 Measuring systems for derived quantities .............................................................. 33

4.5.1 Coupling device......................................................................................... 33

4.5.2 Instruments for the measurement of pulse repetition rate n ........................ 33

4.5.3 Instruments for the measurement of average discharge current I ............... 35

4.5.4 Instruments for the measurement of discharge power P............................. 35

4.5.5 Instruments for the measurement of quadratic rate D................................. 35

4.5.6 Instruments for the measurement of the radio disturbance voltage ............. 35

4.6 Ultra-wide-band instruments for PD detection ........................................................ 37

5 Calibration of a measuring system in the complete test circuit......................................... 37

5.1 General................................................................................................................. 37

5.2 Calibration procedure............................................................................................ 37

6 Calibrators ..................................................................................................................... 39

6.1 General................................................................................................................. 39

6.2 Calibrators for the calibration of a measuring system in the complete test circuit.... 39

6.3 Calibrators for performance tests on measuring systems ....................................... 41

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SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 5 –
Clause Page

7 Maintaining the characteristics of calibrators and measuring systems ............................. 41

7.1 Schedule of tests .................................................................................................. 41

7.2 Maintaining the characteristics of calibrators ......................................................... 43

7.2.1 Type tests on calibrators ........................................................................... 43

7.2.2 Routine tests on calibrators ....................................................................... 43

7.2.3 Performance tests on calibrators ............................................................... 43

7.2.4 Performance checks on calibrators............................................................ 43

7.2.5 Record of performance.............................................................................. 45

7.3 Maintaining the characteristics of measuring systems............................................ 45

7.3.1 Type tests on PD measuring systems ........................................................ 45

7.3.2 Routine tests on measuring systems.......................................................... 47

7.3.3 Performance tests on measuring systems.................................................. 47

7.3.4 Performance checks for measuring systems .............................................. 47

7.3.5 Checks for additional capabilities of digital measuring systems .................. 49

7.3.6 Record of performance.............................................................................. 51

8 Tests ............................................................................................................................. 51

8.1 General requirements............................................................................................ 51

8.2 Conditioning of the test object ............................................................................... 51

8.3 Choice of test procedure ....................................................................................... 53

8.3.1 Determination of the partial discharge inception and extinction voltages..... 53

8.3.2 Determination of the partial discharge magnitude at a specified

test voltage ............................................................................................... 53

9 Measuring uncertainty and sensitivity.............................................................................. 55

10 Disturbances..................................................................................................................55

11 Partial discharge measurements during tests with direct voltage ..................................... 57

11.1 General................................................................................................................. 57

11.2 Quantities related to partial discharges.................................................................. 57

11.3 Voltages related to partial discharges .................................................................... 57

11.3.1 Partial discharge inception and extinction voltages .................................... 57

11.3.2 Partial discharge test voltage..................................................................... 59

11.4 Test circuits and measuring systems ..................................................................... 59

11.5 Tests .................................................................................................................... 59

11.5.1 Choice of test procedures.......................................................................... 59

11.5.2 Disturbances ............................................................................................. 59

Annex A (normative) Performance test on a calibrator......................................................... 71

Annex B (informative) Test circuits ...................................................................................... 77

Annex C (informative) Measurements on cables, gas insulated switchgear, power

capacitors and on test objects with windings ......................................................................... 81

Annex D (informative) The use of radio disturbance (interference) meters for

the detection of partial discharges......................................................................................... 83

Annex E (informative) Guidelines to digital acquisition of partial discharge quantities............ 87

Annex F (informative) Non-electrical methods of PD detection ............................................. 93

Annex G (informative) Disturbances..................................................................................... 95

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 7 –
Page

Figure 1 – Basic partial discharge test circuits....................................................................... 63

Figure 2 – Test circuit for measurement at a tapping of a bushing ......................................... 65

Figure 3 – Test circuit for measuring self-excited test objects................................................ 65

Figure 4 – Connections for the calibration of the complete test arrangement ......................... 69

Figure 5 – Correct relationship between amplitude and frequency to minimize integration

errors for a wide-band system............................................................................................... 69

Figure A.1 – Calibration of pulse calibrators .......................................................................... 75

Figure D.1 – Variation of CISPR radio disturbance meter reading f(N) with repetition

frequency N, for constant pulses........................................................................................... 85

Figure E.1 – Output voltage signals U of two different PD measuring systems
out

for apparent charge (double pulse) ....................................................................................... 91

Table 1 – Pulse train response of PD instruments ................................................................. 29

Table 2 – Tests required for calibrators................................................................................. 45

Table 3 – Tests required for measuring systems ................................................................... 49

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 9 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HIGH-VOLTAGE TEST TECHNIQUES –
PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical specifications, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National

Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60270 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 42: High-

voltage test techniques.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 1981 of which it

constitutes a technical revision.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
42/162/FDIS 42/165/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Annex A forms an integral part of this standard.
Annexes B, C, D, E, F and G are for information only.
bold roman type
Terms used throughout this standard which have been defined in clause 3: .
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 11 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

2008. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
The contents of the corrigendum of October 2001 have been included in this copy.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 13 –
HIGH-VOLTAGE TEST TECHNIQUES –
PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS
1 Scope

This International Standard is applicable to the measurement of partial discharges which

occur in electrical apparatus, components or systems when tested with alternating voltages up

to 400 Hz or with direct voltage.
This standard
– defines the terms used;
– defines the quantities to be measured;
– describes test and measuring circuits which may be used;

– defines analogue and digital measuring methods required for common applications;

– specifies methods for calibration and requirements of instruments used for calibration;

– gives guidance on test procedures;

– gives some assistance concerning the discrimination of partial discharges from external

interference.

The provisions of this standard should be used in the drafting of specifications relating to

partial discharge measurements for specific power apparatus. It deals with electrical

measurements of impulsive (short-duration) partial discharges, but reference is also made to

non-electrical methods primarily used for partial discharge location (see annex F).

Diagnosis of the behaviour of specific power apparatus can be aided by digital processing of

partial discharge data (see annex E) and also by non-electrical methods that are primarily

used for partial discharge location (see annex F).

This standard is primarily concerned with electrical measurements of partial discharges made

during tests with alternating voltage, but specific problems which arise when tests are made

with direct voltage are considered in clause 11.

The terminology, definitions, basic test circuits and procedures often also apply to tests with

other frequencies, but special test procedures and measuring system characteristics, which are

not considered in this standard, may be required.
Annex A provides normative requirements for performance tests on calibrators.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 15 –
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent

amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to

agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility

of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated

references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of IEC

and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

IEC 60060-1, High-voltage test techniques – Part 1: General definitions and test requirements.

IEC 60060-2, High-voltage test techniques – Part 2: Measuring systems

CISPR 16-1:1993, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus
3 Definitions
For the purpose of this International Standard, the following definitions apply.
3.1
partial discharge (PD)

localized electrical discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between conductors and

which can or can not occur adjacent to a conductor

NOTE 1 Partial discharges are in general a consequence of local electrical stress concentrations in the

insulation or on the surface of the insulation. Generally, such discharges appear as pulses having a duration of

much less than 1 µs. More continuous forms can, however, occur, such as the so-called pulse-less discharges in

gaseous dielectrics. This kind of discharge will normally not be detected by the measurement methods described in

this standard.

NOTE 2 "Corona" is a form of partial discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors which are

remote from solid or liquid insulation. "Corona" should not be used as a general term for all forms of PD.

NOTE 3 Partial discharges are often accompanied by emission of sound, light, heat, and chemical reactions.

For further information, see annex F.
3.2
partial discharge pulse (PD pulse)

current or voltage pulse that results from a partial discharge occurring within the object under

test. The pulse is measured using suitable detector circuits, which have been introduced into

the test circuit for the purpose of the test

NOTE A partial discharge which occurs in the test object produces a current pulse. A detector in accordance with

the provisions of this standard produces a current or a voltage signal at its output, proportional to the charge of the

current pulse at its input.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 17 –
3.3
quantities related to partial discharge pulses
3.3.1
apparent charge q

of a PD pulse is that charge which, if injected within a very short time between the terminals of

the test object in a specified test circuit, would give the same reading on the measuring

instrument as the PD current pulse itself. The apparent charge is usually expressed in

picocoulombs (pC)

NOTE The apparent charge is not equal to the amount of charge locally involved at the site of the discharge,

which cannot be measured directly.
3.3.2
pulse repetition rate n

ratio between the total number of PD pulses recorded in a selected time interval and the

duration of this time interval

NOTE In practice, only pulses above a specified magnitude or within a specified range of magnitudes are

considered.
3.3.3
pulse repetition frequency N
number of partial discharge pulses per second, in the case of equidistant pulses

NOTE Pulse repetition frequency N is associated with the situation in calibration.

3.3.4
phase angle φ and time t of occurrence of a PD pulse
i i
φ = 360 (t /T)
i i

where t is the time measured between the preceding positive going transition of the test

voltage through zero and the partial discharge pulse and T is the period of the test voltage

The phase angle is expressed in degrees (°).
3.3.5
average discharge current I

derived quantity and the sum of the absolute values of individual apparent charge magnitudes

q during a chosen reference time interval T divided by this time interval:
i ref
I =()q + q + ... + q
2 i
ref

The average discharge current is generally expressed in coulombs per second (C/s) or in

amperes (A).
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 19 –
3.3.6
discharge power P

derived quantity that is the average pulse power fed into the terminals of the test object due to

apparent charge magnitudes q during a chosen reference time interval T :
i ref
P =()q u + q u + ... + q u
1 1 2 2 i i
ref

where u , u ... u are instantaneous values of the test voltage at the instants of occurrence t of

1 2 i i

the individual apparent charge magnitudes q . The sign of the individual values must be

observed
The discharge power is generally expressed in watts (W).
3.3.7
quadratic rate D

derived quantity that is the sum of the squares of the individual apparent charge magnitudes

q during a chosen reference time interval T divided by this time interval:
i ref
2 2 2
D =()q + q + ... + q
1 2
ref
2 2
The quadratic rate is generally expressed in (coulombs) per second (C /s).
3.3.8
radio disturbance meter

quasi-peak measuring receiver for frequency band B in accordance with the provisions of

CISPR 16-1:1993

NOTE This type of instrument was earlier called a radio interference (or influence) meter.

3.3.9
radio disturbance voltage U
RDV

derived quantity that is the reading of a radio disturbance meter when used for indicating the

apparent charge q of partial discharges. For further information, see 4.5.6 and annex D

The radio disturbance voltage U is generally expressed in µV.
RDV
3.4
largest repeatedly occurring PD magnitude

largest magnitude recorded by a measuring system which has the pulse train response as

specified in 4.3.3

The concept of the largest repeatedly occurring PD magnitude is not applicable to tests with

direct voltage.
3.5
specified partial discharge magnitude

largest magnitude of any quantity related to PD pulses permitted in a test object at a specified

voltage following a specified conditioning and test procedure. For alternating voltage tests, the

specified magnitude of the apparent charge q is the largest repeatedly occurring PD

magnitude

NOTE The magnitude of any PD pulse quantity can vary stochastically in successive cycles and also show a

general increase or decrease with time of voltage application. The specified PD magnitude, the test procedure and

also the test circuit and instrumentation should therefore be appropriately defined by the relevant technical

committees.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60270:2002
60270 © IEC:2000 – 21 –
3.6
background noise
signals detected during PD tests, which do not originate in the test object

NOTE Background noise can be composed of either white noise in the measurement system, broadcast radio or

other continuous or impulsive signals. For further information, see annex G.
3.7
applied test voltages related to partial discharge pulse quantities

as defined in IEC 60060-1. The following voltage levels are of particular interest

3.7.1
partial discharge inception voltage U

applied voltage at which repetitive partial discharges are first observed in the test object,

when the voltage applied to the object is gradually increased from a lower value at which no

partial discharges are observed

In practice, the inception voltage U is the lowest applied voltage at which the magnitude of a

PD pulse quantity becomes equal to or exceeds a specified low value.

NOTE For tests with direct voltage, the determination of U needs special considerations. See clause 11.

3.7.2
partial discharge extinction voltage U

applied voltage at which repetitive partial discharges cease to occur in the test object, when

the voltage applied to the object is gradually decreased from a higher value at which PD pulse

quantities are observed

In practice, the extinction voltage U is the lowest applied voltage at which the magnitude of a

chosen PD pulse quantity becomes equal to, or less than, a specified low value.
NOTE For tests with direct voltage, the determi
...

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