Superconductivity - Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic devices - Generic specification for sensors and detectors

IEC 61788-22-1:2017(E) describes general items concerning the specifications for superconducting sensors and detectors, which are the basis for specifications given in other parts of IEC 61788 for various types of sensors and detectors. The sensors and detectors described are basically made of superconducting materials and depend on superconducting phenomena or related phenomena. The objects to be measured (measurands) include magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves, photons of various energies, electrons, ions, a‑particles, and others.

Supraleitung - Teil 22-1: Supraleitende Elektronik - Generische Spezifikationen für Sensoren und Detektoren

Supraconductivité - Partie 22-1:Composants électroniques supraconducteurs - Spécification générique pour capteurs et détecteurs

IEC 61788-22-1:2017 décrit les éléments généraux relatifs aux spécifications des capteurs et détecteurs supraconducteurs, qui sont la base des spécifications données dans les autres parties de l’IEC 61788 pour différents types de capteurs et de détecteurs. Les capteurs et détecteurs décrits sont principalement constitués de matériaux supraconducteurs et dépendent des phénomènes supraconducteurs ou relatifs. Les objets à mesurer (mesurandes) comprennent les champs magnétiques, les ondes électromagnétiques, les photons de différentes énergies, les électrons, les ions, les particules, et autres.

Superprevodnost - 22-1. del: Superprevodne elektronske naprave - Splošna specifikacija za senzorje in javljalnike (IEC 61788-22-1:2017)

Ta del standarda IEC 61788-22-1 opisuje splošne elemente v zvezi s specifikacijami za superprevodne senzorje in javljalnike, ki so osnova za specifikacije, opredeljene v drugih delih standarda IEC 61788, za različne tipe senzorjev in javljalnikov. Opisani senzorji in javljalniki so v osnovi izdelani iz superprevodnih materialov in so odvisni od pojava superprevodnosti ali z njo povezanih pojavov. Predmeti za merjenje (merjene veličine) so magnetna polja, elektromagnetni valovi, fotoni z različnimi energijami, elektroni, ioni, delci α in drugi.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
29-Nov-2017
Withdrawal Date
30-Aug-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available - Publishing
Start Date
10-Nov-2017
Completion Date
10-Nov-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
01-januar-2018
Superprevodnost - 22-1. del: Superprevodne elektronske naprave - Splošna
specifikacija za senzorje in javljalnike (IEC 61788-22-1:2017)

Superconductivity - Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic devices - Generic specification

for sensors and detectors (IEC 61788-22-1:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61788-22-1:2017
ICS:
17.220.20 0HUMHQMHHOHNWULþQLKLQ Measurement of electrical
PDJQHWQLKYHOLþLQ and magnetic quantities
29.050 Superprevodnost in prevodni Superconductivity and
materiali conducting materials
SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 61788-22-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2017
ICS 17.220; 29.050
English Version
Superconductivity - Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic
devices - Generic specification for sensors and detectors
(IEC 61788-22-1:2017)

Supraconductivité - Partie 22-1:Composants électroniques Supraleitung - Teil 22-1: Supraleitende Elektronik -

supraconducteurs - Spécification générique pour capteurs Generische Spezifikationen für Sensoren und Detektoren

et détecteurs (IEC 61788-22-1:2017)
(IEC 61788-22-1:2017)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-08-31. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61788-22-1:2017 E
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
EN 61788-22-1:2017
European foreword

The text of document 90/388/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61788-22-1, prepared by

IEC/TC 90 "Superconductivity" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN 61788-22-1:2017.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2018-05-31
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2020-08-31
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61788-22-1:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

ISO/TS 80004-2:2015 NOTE Harmonized as CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017 (not modified).
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
EN 61788-22-1:2017
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60027 Series Letter symbols to be used in electrical EN 60027 Series
technology
IEC 60050-815 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - - -
Part 815: Superconductivity
IEC 60417-DB - Graphical symbols for use on equipment - -
IEC 60617-DB - Graphical symbols for diagrams - -
ISO 1000 - SI units and recommendations for the use - -
of their multiples and of certain other units
ISO 7000 - Graphical symbols for use on equipment - - -
Registered symbols
Superseded by ISO 80000-1.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Superconductivity –
Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic devices – Generic specification for
sensors and detectors
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220; 29.050 ISBN 978-2-8322-4586-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 2 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols ........................................................................................................................ 10

5 Terminology and classification ....................................................................................... 11

5.1 Terminology .......................................................................................................... 11

5.2 Classification ........................................................................................................ 14

6 Cryogenic operation condition ....................................................................................... 15

7 Marking ......................................................................................................................... 15

7.1 Device identification .............................................................................................. 15

7.2 Packing ................................................................................................................. 15

8 Test and measurement procedures ................................................................................ 15

Annex A (informative) Coherent detection ............................................................................ 16

A.1 Superconducting hot electron bolometric (SHEB) type .......................................... 16

A.2 Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) type .......................................................... 17

A.3 Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) type ................................ 18

Annex B (informative) Direct detection ................................................................................. 20

B.1 Metallic magnetic calorimetric (MMC) type ............................................................ 20

B.2 Microwave kinetic inductance (MKI) type ............................................................... 21

B.3 Superconducting strip (SS) type ............................................................................ 22

B.4 Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) type .......................................................... 22

B.5 Transition edge sensor (TES) type ........................................................................ 23

Annex C (normative) Graphical symbols for use on equipment and diagrams ....................... 25

C.1 Superconducting region, one superconducting connection .................................... 25

C.2 Superconducting region, one normal-conducting connection ................................. 25

C.3 Normal-superconducting boundary ........................................................................ 25

C.4 A variation ............................................................................................................ 26

C.5 Josephson junction ............................................................................................... 26

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – SHEB mixer ...................................................................................................... 17

Figure A.2 – STJ mixer ......................................................................................................... 18

Figure A.3 – DC SQUID ........................................................................................................ 19

Figure B.1 – MMC detector ................................................................................................... 20

Figure B.2 – MKI detector ..................................................................................................... 21

Figure B.3 – SS detector ....................................................................................................... 22

Figure B.4 – STJ detector ..................................................................................................... 23

Figure B.5 – TES detector ..................................................................................................... 24

Figure C.1 – Superconducting region, one superconducting connection ................................ 25

Figure C.2 – Superconducting region, one normal-conducting connection ............................. 25

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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –
Figure C.3 – Superconducting region, one superconducting connection, and one
normal-conducting connection (normal-superconducting boundary, IEC 60417-

6370:2016-09) ...................................................................................................................... 25

Figure C.4 – Series connection ............................................................................................. 26

Figure C.5 – Superconducting region, two superconducting connections with extremely

small non-superconducting region (Josephson junction, IEC 60417-6371:2016-09) ............... 26

Table 1 – Measurands .......................................................................................................... 12

Table 2 – Classification of measurands ................................................................................. 12

Table 3 – Nomenclature of superconducting sensors and detectors: type, full names,

and acronym examples ......................................................................................................... 13

Table 4 – Classification of detection principles ...................................................................... 14

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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 4 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY –
Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic devices –
Generic specification for sensors and detectors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61788-22-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 90:

Superconductivity.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
90/388/FDIS 90/391/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61788 series, published under the general title Superconductivity,

can be found on the IEC website.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 6 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

Superconductivity offers various possibilities for the realization of sensing and detection of a

variety of measurands. Several sensors and detectors have been developed, exploiting

features like superconducting energy gaps, sharp normal-superconducting transition,

nonlinear I–V characteristics, superconducting coherent states, and quantization of magnetic

flux. All these properties can be influenced by the interaction with electromagnetic fields,

photons, ions, etc. Superconducting sensors and detectors have extremely high performance

for energy resolution, time response, and low noise, most of which cannot be realized by any

other phenomena.
The word "sensor" is normally used for measuring stationary or slowly changing

electromagnetic fields, physical quantities such as current and temperature. On the other

hand, the word "detector" is normally used for single quanta such as photons from infrared to

γ-rays and individual particles. However, the boundary between "sensor" and "detector" is

ambiguous. In this document, therefore, both "sensor" and "detector" are used. Additionally, a

detector using a sensor is possible, for example, X-ray detector using transition edge sensor

(TES) that measures temperature rise due to the deposition of measurand energy. In this

document, for example, the terminology "transition edge sensor X-ray detector" is used for X-

ray detection using TES.

Superconducting sensors and detectors have been applied to a variety of fields including

medical diagnosis, telecommunications, mineral exploration, astronomical instruments,

quantum information processing, and analytical instruments. For users, IEC standardization is

necessary because there is confusing terminology, there are no graphical symbols for

diagrams, and no test methods.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY –
Part 22-1: Superconducting electronic devices –
Generic specification for sensors and detectors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61788-22-1 describes general items concerning the specifications for

superconducting sensors and detectors, which are the basis for specifications given in other

parts of IEC 61788 for various types of sensors and detectors. The sensors and detectors

described are basically made of superconducting materials and depend on superconducting

phenomena or related phenomena. The objects to be measured (measurands) include

magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves, photons of various energies, electrons, ions,

α-particles, and others.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60050-815, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 815: Superconductivity

IEC 60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment (available at: http://www.graphical-

symbols.info)

IEC 60617, Graphical symbols for diagrams (available at: http://std.iec.ch/iec60617)

ISO 1000, SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other

units

ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment – Registered symbols (available at:

http://www.graphical-symbols.info)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-815 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 8 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
3.1
additional positive feedback
APF

method enhancing voltage-flux transformation ratio by using resistance and coupling coil to

SQUID ring
3.2
critical current modulation parameter

parameter defined by 2LI /Φ , where L is the SQUID washer inductance, I is the critical

c 0 c

current of a Josephson junction, for DC SQUIDs, and a parameter defined by 2πLI /Φ for RF

c 0
SQUIDs
Note 1 to entry: The term "shielding parameter" can also be used.
3.3
Stewart-McCumber parameter

parameter defined by 2πI R C/Φ , where R is the normal state resistance of a Josephson

c n 0 n
junction, and C is the capacitance of a Josephson junction
3.4
bridge junction

junction formed from two superconductors connected by a superconducting bridge of small

section
Note 1 to entry: The term "microbridge" can also be used.
3.5
critical current

maximum direct current that can be regarded as flowing through a Josephson junction without

resistance
3.6
critical current density

critical current divided by the cross-section of the conductor or the junction area of the

Josephson junction
3.7
feedback coil

coil that is inductively coupled to a SQUID operated in the flux locked loop (FLL) mode

3.8
flux locked loop
FLL

method that improves linearity and dynamic range of a SQUID by using negative feedback to

keep the constant flux number in the SQUID ring
3.9
gradiometer

configuration of superconducting loops coupled to a SQUID magnetometer, or of multiple

SQUID magnetometers that are arranged so as to be insensitive to homogenous magnetic

fields or to be sensitive to magnetic field gradients
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
3.10
metallic magnetic calorimetric detector

type of superconducting device that the temperature increase of a metallic absorber is

measured by sensing the magnetization change of the absorber because of measurand

energy deposition
3.11
microwave kinetic inductance detector

type of superconducting device that uses the microwave surface impedance change of a

superconducting strip because of measurand energy deposition
3.12
normal state resistance
resistance of a superconductor or a Josephson junction at a normal state

Note 1 to entry: In a superconductor or a TES, it is the resistance at a temperature just above the

superconducting transition.

Note 2 to entry: In a Josephson junction, it is the tunnelling resistance at a bias voltage well above 2∆/e.

3.13
planar gradiometer

kind of configuration of the flux pickup loop that measures a magnetic field gradient in the

plane of the flux pickup loop coupled to a SQUID
3.14
quasiparticle

excitation combining properties of an electron and a hole that is created by breaking a Cooper

pair in a superconductor
3.15
superconducting hot electron bolometric mixer

type of superconducting device that uses heterodyne mixing with the resistive transition from

the superconducting state to the normal state in a superconducting microbridge because of

measurand energy deposition
3.16
superconducting quantum interference device sensor
SQUID sensor

type of superconducting device that uses quantum interference occurring in a closed electrical

circuit containing one or more Josephson junctions

Note 1 to entry: Every measurand, for example magnetic fields or electric currents, that is transformed into a

change of magnetic flux threading the superconducting structure can be sensed by a SQUID.

3.17
SQUID array
SQA
device consisting of series and/or parallel arrays of multiple SQUIDs
3.18
nano-SQUID
device whose largest loop dimension is less than 500 nm
3.19
SQUID ring
multiply superconducting structure that contains one or more Josephson junctions
Note 1 to entry: The term "SQUID loop" can also be used.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 10 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
3.20
SQUID amplifier

current–voltage converter using a single SQUID, SQUID array or other SQUID-based current

sensor circuits
3.21
subgap region

lower branch of the hysteretic I–V characteristic of a tunnel junction where the voltage is less

than 2∆
3.22
subgap current
quasiparticle tunnelling current in the subgap region of a tunnel junction

Note 1 to entry: In Josephson tunnel junctions, the whole subgap region is observable when the DC Josephson

effect is suppressed by applying a magnetic field parallel to the plane of the junction area.

3.23
superconducting strip detector

type of superconducting device that uses the local resistive change in a long superconducting

strip because of measurand energy deposition

Note 1 to entry: The name for a photon detector, superconducting nanowire photon detector, is not recommended

for most cases, since the dimensions of superconductors are often in discord with the current definition of

"nanowire" in ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, in which "nanowire" or "nanofibre" is defined as nano-objects with two external

dimensions in the nanoscale that are approximately 1 nm to 100 nm, and the third dimensions significantly larger.

The dimensions of the superconducting strip type meet the definition of "nanoribbon" or "nanotape" in most cases.

Note 2 to entry: The terms "nanoribbon" and "nanotape" have one external dimension in the nanoscale and the

other two external dimensions significantly larger (typically by more than 3 times). In addition, the two larger

dimensions significantly differ from each other. "Nanostrip" is preferable to "nanoribbon" and "nanotape" for

superconducting sensors and detectors.

Note 3 to entry: An example of the superconducting nanowires is the strip with the dimensions of 10 nm × 30 nm

× 10 µm. The difference between the thickness and width is approximately less than 3 times. That superconductor

can be called "superconducting nanowire photon detector".
3.24
superconducting tunnel junction detector

type of superconducting device that uses the change of electron tunnelling between two

superconductors or a superconductor and a normal conductor separated by tunnelling barrier

because of measurand energy deposition
3.25
temperature sensitivity

superconducting transition edge steepness that is defined by dlnR/dlnT where R is the

resistance and T is the temperature of TES
3.26
transition edge sensor detector

type of superconducting device that uses the resistive change within a sharp normal-to-

superconducting transition as a temperature sensor because of measurand energy deposition

4 Symbols
Units, graphical and letter symbols shall be taken from the following standards:
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 11 –
• IEC 60027 (all parts);
• IEC 60417;
• IEC 60617;
• ISO 1000;
• ISO 7000.

Graphical symbols for use on equipment and diagrams, such as superconducting region,

normal connection, superconducting connection, normal-superconducting boundary,

Josephson junction, are defined in Annex C, and IEC 60417 and IEC 60617. Graphical

symbols specific to other sensors or detectors are defined in other parts of IEC 61788.

5 Terminology and classification
5.1 Terminology

Table 1 lists the measurands which are defined as categories, objects, or physical quantities

that induce enegy deposition and are to be sensed or detected by superconducting sensors

and detectors. The measurands, arranged in alphabetical order, are: atoms and molecules,

elementary particles, physical quantities, and radiations. Each entry in Table 1 not only

represents the measurand itself, but also its temporal or spatial distribution.

Any other terminology peculiar to one of the devices covered by this document shall be taken

from the relevant IEC or ISO standards.
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SIST EN 61788-22-1:2018
– 12 – IEC 61788-22-1:2017 © IEC 2017
Table 1 – Measurands
Category Object Physical quantity
Atoms and molecules Atoms Count, energy, flux, time
Organic molecules Count, energy, flux, time
Nonorganic molecules Count, energy, flux, time
Other (specify)
Elementary particles Dark matters Count, energy, flux, time
Electrons Count, energy, flux, time
Neutrinos C
...

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