Piezoelectric sensors - Part 3: Physical sensors

IEC 63041-3:2020 is applicable to piezoelectric physical sensors mainly used in the field of process control, wireless monitoring, dynamics, thermodynamics, vacuum engineering, and environmental sciences. This document provides users with technical guidelines as well as basic knowledge of common physical sensors.
Piezoelectric sensors covered herein are those applied to the detection and measurement of physical quantities such as force, pressure, torque, viscosity, temperature, film thickness, acceleration, vibration, and tilt angle.

Capteurs piézoélectriques - Partie 3 : Capteurs physiques

L'IEC 63041-3:2020 s'applique aux capteurs physiques piézoélectriques principalement utilisés dans le domaine des commandes de processus, de la surveillance sans fil, de la dynamique, de la thermodynamique, des technologies du vide et des sciences environnementales. Le présent document donne aux utilisateurs des lignes directrices techniques ainsi que les connaissances de base concernant les capteurs physiques courants.
Les capteurs piézoélectriques traités ici sont ceux appliqués à la détection et au mesurage des grandeurs physiques telles que la force, la pression, le couple, la viscosité, la température, l'épaisseur de film, l'accélération, les vibrations, et l'angle d'inclinaison.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Aug-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
12-Aug-2020
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IEC 63041-3
Edition 1.0 2020-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Piezoelectric sensors –
Part 3: Physical sensors
Capteurs piézoélectriques –
Partie 3: Capteurs physiques
IEC 63041-3:2020-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3
Edition 1.0 2020-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Piezoelectric sensors –
Part 3: Physical sensors
Capteurs piézoélectriques –
Partie 3: Capteurs physiques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-8742-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and units .............................................................................. 5

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 5

3.2 Symbols and units................................................................................................... 6

4 Specifications .................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Conceptual diagrams of sensor types...................................................................... 6

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Conceptual diagram for sensor elements of SAW resonator type ..................... 7

4.2.3 Conceptual diagram for sensor elements of SAW delay-line type ..................... 7

4.3 Technical documents .............................................................................................. 8

5 Delivery conditions .......................................................................................................... 8

6 Quality and reliability ....................................................................................................... 8

7 Test and measurement procedures .................................................................................. 8

Annex A (informative) Physical reaction in sensor cell and detection method ......................... 9

A.1 Detection and measurement ................................................................................... 9

A.2 Typical formulae for detection methods of physical quantity .................................... 9

A.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

A.2.2 Non-acoustic type ............................................................................................ 9

A.2.3 Acoustic type ................................................................................................. 10

A.2.4 Delay-line type............................................................................................... 11

A.3 Calibration ............................................................................................................ 11

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 1 – Conceptual diagram for SAW single resonator type ................................................ 7

Figure 2 – Conceptual diagram for SAW differential resonator type ......................................... 7

Figure 3 – Conceptual diagram for SAW transmission (two-port) delay-line type ..................... 7

Figure 4 – Conceptual diagram for SAW reflective (one-port) delay-line type .......................... 8

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS –
Part 3: Physical sensors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63041-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee TC 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
49/1333/CDV 49/1343/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020

A list of all part in the IEC 63041 series, published under the general title Piezoelectric

sensors, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS –
Part 3: Physical sensors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63041 is applicable to piezoelectric physical sensors mainly used in the field

of process control, wireless monitoring, dynamics, thermodynamics, vacuum engineering, and

environmental sciences. This document provides users with technical guidelines as well as

basic knowledge of common physical sensors.

Piezoelectric sensors covered herein are those applied to the detection and measurement of

physical quantities such as force, pressure, torque, viscosity, temperature, film thickness,

acceleration, vibration, and tilt angle.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60050-561, International electrotechnical vocabulary – Part 561: Piezoelectric, dielectric

and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control, selection and

detection
IEC 60617:2012, Graphical symbols for diagrams (database available at
http://std.iec.ch/iec60617)
IEC 63041-1:2017, Piezoelectric sensors – Part 1: Generic specifications
IEC 63041-2, Piezoelectric sensors – Part 2: Chemical and biochemical sensors
ISO 80000-1, Quantities and units – Part 1: General
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and units
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60027 (all parts),

IEC 60050-561, IEC 60617, IEC 63041-1, IEC 63041-2 and ISO 80000-1 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020
3.1.1
piezoelectric acceleration sensor element

piezoelectric sensor component whose resonance frequency or delay is used to measure the

change in velocity of an object with time
3.1.2
piezoelectric humidity sensor element

piezoelectric sensor component whose resonance frequency or delay is used for dew point

and moisture detection
3.1.3
piezoelectric tilt angle sensor element

piezoelectric sensor component whose resonance frequency or delay is used to measure tilt

angles, elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity's detection

3.1.4
piezoelectric vibration sensor element
piezoelectric sensor component whose resonance frequency or delay is used for
measurement of vibration
3.1.5
dual mode sensor

piezoelectric sensor which is able to detect physical quantities from a change in resonance

frequencies of two independent modes on a single piezoelectric plate

Note 1 to entry: In order to achieve improved precision and/or to eliminate undesired influence factors, sensor

solutions are employed that utilize two or more modes. By evaluation of combinations of these modes’ sensitivities

to various ambient conditions, on the one hand, improved detection sensitivity can be achieved, while, on the other

hand, undesirable sensitivities can be reduced or eliminated.
3.1.6
differential sensor

piezoelectric sensor which is able to detect physical quantities from a change in resonance

frequencies or delays of two independent and same micro-acoustic structures assembled on

the same or different piezoelectric plates
3.1.7
multi-measurand sensor

piezoelectric sensor which is able to detect two or more different physical quantities from an

analysis of different sensor responses
3.2 Symbols and units
The symbols and units given in IEC 63041-1 apply.
4 Specifications
4.1 General
Key points of the specification are identified in IEC 63041-1:2017, Clause 5.
4.2 Conceptual diagrams of sensor types
4.2.1 General

In addition to the sensor types listed in IEC 63041-1:2017, Clause 4, specific realizations are

common for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
4.2.2 Conceptual diagram for sensor elements of SAW resonator type

Figure 1 and Figure 2 show conceptual diagrams for resonator type SAW sensors. Figure 1

provides one resonance which is sensitive to undesirable influence factors such as frequency

pulling. In the case of Figure 2, comprising e.g. a parallel connection of two resonators at

different resonance frequencies, the sensor will be designed to have similar sensitivities of

both resonators to such undesired effects and is therefore suitable to achieve higher accuracy

with respect to the target measurand due to this compensation technique.
Figure 1 – Conceptual diagram for SAW single resonator type
Figure 2 – Conceptual diagram for SAW differential resonator type
4.2.3 Conceptual diagram for sensor elements of SAW delay-line type

Figure 3 shows a transmission type (two-port) and Figure 4 shows a reflective type (one-port).

Reflective delay lines use the SAW propagation path which is evaluated for delay and

attenuation changes twice for incident and reflected wave, and therefore can be designed as

smaller realizations. Reflective delay-line sensors can be designed to feature a unique sensor

identification, in combination with their sensor capabilities, by using several SAW reflector

structures resulting in a characteristic pattern of the reflected signal which can be

distinguished from other sensors using the same frequency range.
Figure 3 – Conceptual diagram for SAW transmission (two-port) delay-line type
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020
Figure 4 – Conceptual diagram for SAW reflective (one-port) delay-line type
4.3 Technical documents

The physical reaction in sensor cell and detection methods are defined in Annex A.

The following a) to f) shall clearly be defined in the specifications to be concluded between

the manufacturer and customers:
a) Avoidance of coupling of main and unwanted vibration modes;
b) Detection direction of sensor element;
c) Hysteresis of sensor elements;
d) Linearity between sensor outputs and physical quantities to be detected;
e) Overload characteristics by excessive physical quantities to be detected;
f) Response time of sensor elements.
5 Delivery conditions
See IEC 63041-1:2017, Clause 7.
6 Quality and reliability
See IEC 63041-1:2017, Clause 8.
7 Test and measurement procedures
See IEC 63041-1:2017, Annexes A and B.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
Annex A
(informative)
Physical reaction in sensor cell and detection method
A.1 Detection and measurement
Generally, detection and measurement items are a) to d).

a) Resonance frequency, delay, and electrical charged voltage covered herein are applied to

the detection and measurement of force, pressure, torque, vibration, acceleration, etc.

b) Resonance frequency, delay or insertion loss / gain covered herein are applied to the

detection and measurement of viscosity.
c) Resonance frequency or delay is applied to the detection and measurement of
temperature.

d) Resonance frequency is applied to the detection and measurement of film thickness.

NOTE An electrical charged voltage is measured by non-acoustic type piezoelectric ceramic and quartz crystal

sensors.

For these specifications, the manufacturer and customer shall have detailed discussions, the

discrepancies shall be eliminated, and the results shall clearly be described in the contract

clause, the requirements specifications of the customer, the delivery specifications thereof or

the like, and shall be settled as one of the contracts with the customer.
A.2 Typical formulae for detection methods of physical quantity
A.2.1 General

Formulae (A.1) to (A.6) presented as below are typical examples applied to physical sensor

elements and cells. For these formulae, the manufacturer and customer shall have detailed

discussions, the discrepancies shall be eliminated, and the results shall be described clearly

in the contract clause.
A.2.2 Non-acoustic type
A.2.2.1 Piezoelectric ceramics
When a sensor element is made of piezoelectric ceramics,
V gl33
(A.1)
where
V is the voltage;
g is the piezoelectric voltage coefficient;

l is the length of the piezoelectric ceramics element and is the direction in which force is

applied to the one;
F is the force applied to the piezoelectric ceramic element and cell;

S is the electrode area and is formed in a direction in which a force is applied to the

piezoelectric ceramic element and cell.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020
A.2.2.2 X-cut quartz crystal
When sensor element is X-cut quartz crystal,
V= g t
(A.2)
where
g is the piezoelectric voltage coefficient;
t is the thickness of quartz crystal.
A.2.3 Acoustic type
A.2.3.1 Resonator type

For resonator-type piezoelectric sensors, the change of one or more resonance frequencies

related to the effect of the measurand is interpreted to quantify the measurand. Typical

measuring range transform function is defined by polynomials as
(A.3)
y= g(∆f)= a f
r i r
i=0
where
y is the measurand (e.g. temperature, pressure, film thickness, etc.);
Δf is the change of resonance frequency under the influence of the measurand;
a are transform coefficients, determined by design and material system.

Biunique the transform function is generally desirable. Hence, the order of the polynomial

should be kept low, ideally N = 1.
A.2.3.2 Differential resonator type

For differential resonator type sensors, it is common to evaluate two resonances with different

sensitivities to the measurand in order to eliminate undesired frequency pulling effects (e.g.

from load pulling effects in wireless piezoelectric sensor systems), such as
y= g(∆f −∆f )= b(∆f −∆f ) (A.4)
r1 r 2 ∑ i r1 r 2
i=0
where

, Δf are resonance frequencies of two resonators or resonant modes with different

r1 r2

sensitivities with respect to the measurand, but preferably similar sensitivities with

respect to undesired influence actors;
are transform coefficients, determined by design and material system.
A.2.3.3 Multi-measurand resonator type

Evaluation of two or more resonators and their resonance frequencies, having arbitrary

sensitivities with respect to the measurands to be quantified, can be transformed by

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
 
a a ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ a
 
1,0 1,1 1,N
 
 
 
 
 
a a ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
2,0 2,1
 
 f 
  ∆
 
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
 
 
= ⋅ (A.5)
 
 
 
. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
 
 
  ⋅
 
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
 
 
  ⋅
 
y 
 K
a a ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ a
 
K ,0 K ,0 K ,N
 
 
 N
j n
or higher-order polynomials of ∆f ⋅∆f (i, m∈[1...N]) ,
i m
where
y y are a range of measurands;
1 ... K
a are the coefficients of a transform matrix;
k.l

Δf , Δf are the changes in resonance frequencies obtained for 𝑁𝑁 resonators of the

1 N
piezoelectric sensor;

K < N to allow for determination of multiple measurands and compensation for undesired

effects;

j, n are the exponents of higher order polynomial transform functions and should be

kept minimum, e.g. j, n ≤ 2.
A.2.4 Delay-line type

For delay-line type piezoelectric sensors, the change of the delay of the transmitted or

reflected impulses related to the effect of the measurand is interpreted to quantify the

measurand. Typical the transform function is defined by polynomials:
y= g(∆τ)= c∆τ
(A.6)
i=0
y is the measurand (e.g. temperature, pressure, etc.);

Δτ is the change of the delay of the transmitted or reflected signal under the influence of

the measurand;
c are transform coefficients, determined by design and material system.

For reflective delay lines of Figure 4, realization and evaluation of multiple reflected signals

are common to enhance sensitivity and/or to enable unique sensor identification, e.g.,

allowing for use of multiple sensors within the same frequency range in wireless sensor

systems.
A.3 Calibration

The calibration method should be specified in the detailed specification and/or contract.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020
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IEC 60122-1, Quartz crystal units of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic specification

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use of quartz crystal units for frequency control and selection – Section one: Quartz crystal

units for microprocessor clock supply

IEC 60444-1, Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters by zero phase technique in a pi-

network – Part 1: Basic method for the measurement of resonance frequency and resonance

resistance of quartz crystal units by zero phase technique in a pi-network

IEC 60444-5, Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters – Part 5: Methods for the

determination of equivalent electrical parameters using automatic network analyzer

techniques and error correction

IEC 60444-9, Measurement of quartz crystal unit parameters – Part 9: Measurement of

spurious resonances of piezoelectric crystal units

IEC 60642, Piezoelectric ceramic resonators and resonator units for frequency control and

selection – Chapter I: Standard values and conditions – Chapter II: Measuring and test

conditions

IEC 60679 (all parts), Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators of assessed quality

IEC 60758:2016, Synthetic quartz crystal – Specifications and guidelines for use

IEC 60862-1, Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic

specification

IEC 61019-1, Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators – Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 61240:2016, Piezoelectric devices – Preparation of outline drawings of surface-mounted

devices (SMD) for frequency control and selection – General rules
IEC 61760 (all parts), Surface mounting technology

IEC 61837 (all parts), Surface mounted piezoelectric devices for frequency control and

selection – Standard outlines and terminal lead connections

IEC TS 61994 (all parts), Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated

materials for frequency control, selection and detection – Glossary

IEC 62276:2016, Single crystal wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device applications –

Specifications and measuring methods

ISO 2859-1:1999, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes – Part 1: Sampling

schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
ISO 11843-1: 1997, Capability of detection – Part 1: Terms and definitions

ISO 11843-2: 2000, Capability of detection – Part 2: Methodology in the linear calibration

case
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 63041-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 13 –

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general concepts

and associated terms (VIM)

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration

laboratories

E. P. EerNisse, R. W. Ward and R. B. Wiggins, "Survey of Quartz Bulk Resonator Sensor

Technologies," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol.

35, No. 3, pp. 323-330, May 1988.
G. G. Guilbault and J. M. Jordan, "Analytical Uses
...

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