Amendment 1 - Ultrasonics - Hydrophones - Part 1: Measurement and characterization of medical ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz

Amendement 1 - Ultrasonics - Hydrophones - Part 1: Mesurage et caractérisation des champs ultrasoniques médicaux jusqu'à 40 MHz

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Feb-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
25-Mar-2022
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IEC 62127-1:2007/AMD1:2013 - Amendment 1 - Ultrasonics - Hydrophones - Part 1: Measurement and characterization of medical ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz
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IEC 62127-1
Edition 1.0 2013-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
AMENDMENT 1
AMENDEMENT 1
Ultrasonics – Hydrophones –
Part 1: Measurement and characterization of medical ultrasonic fields up to
40 MHz
Ultrasons – Hydrophones –
Partie 1: Mesurage et caractérisation des champs ultrasoniques médicaux
jusqu'à 40 MHz
IEC 62127-1:2007/A1:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62127-1
Edition 1.0 2013-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
AMENDMENT 1
AMENDEMENT 1
Ultrasonics – Hydrophones –
Part 1: Measurement and characterization of medical ultrasonic fields up to
40 MHz
Ultrasons – Hydrophones –
Partie 1: Mesurage et caractérisation des champs ultrasoniques médicaux
jusqu'à 40 MHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX Q
ICS 11.040.50 ISBN 978-2-83220-599-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
FOREWORD
This amendment has been prepared by IEC technical committee 87: Ultrasonics.
The text of this amendment is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
87/518/FDIS 87/524/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this amendment can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

The committee has decided that the contents of this amendment and the base publication will

remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under

"http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
_____________
Replace throughout the document:
“non-linear” by “nonlinear”,
This replacement applies to the English text only.
Replace throughout the document:
“non-linearity” by “nonlinearity”
This replacement applies to the English text only.
INTRODUCTION
Delete, in the second paragraph, the term “piezoelectric”.
Delete, in the second paragraph, the last two sentences.
1 Scope
Delete, in Note 2, the second sentence.
2 Normative references

Replace the reference to the ISO Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement as

follows:
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 3 –

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement – Part 3: Guide to the expression of

uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols

Replace, throughout this clause, the phrase “watts per metre squared” by “watts per square

metre” (9 times).

Replace, throughout this clause, the phrase “metres squared” by “square metres” (3 times).

3.1
acoustic pulse waveform
Delete Note 2.
3.3
acoustic frequency
acoustic-working frequency

Replace, in the second sentence of Note 1," 3.3.1 and 3.3.2" by "3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3 and

3.3.4".
3.3.1
zero-crossing acoustic-working frequency
awf
Replace the existing text of the definition by the following:

number, n, of consecutive half-cycles (irrespective of polarity) divided by twice the time

between the commencement of the first half-cycle and the end of the n-th half-cycle

NOTE 1 None of the n consecutive half-cycles should show evidence of phase change.

NOTE 2 The measurement should be performed at terminals in the receiver that are as close as possible to the

receiving transducer (hydrophone) and, in all cases, before rectification.

NOTE 3 This frequency is determined according to the procedure specified in IEC/TR 60854.

NOTE 4 This frequency is intended for continuous-wave systems only.
3.3.2
arithmetic-mean acoustic-working frequency
awf
Add the following note to the definition:

NOTE 3 If f is not found within the range < 3f , f is to be understood as the lowest frequency above this range

2 1 2
at which the spectrum magnitude is 3 dB below the peak magnitude.
3.3.3
peak pulse acoustic frequency
Delete the full stop after the symbol f .
3.4
azimuth axis

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of the different planes and lines in an ultrasonic field

In the figure, replace “Y” by “Z” and “Z” by “Y”.

In the key of the figure, replace “Y beam axis” by “Y elevation axis” and “Z elevation axis” by

“Z beam axis”.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
3.7
beam area
Replace the symbol by: “A , A ”
b,6 b,20
Replace the existing text of Note 1 by the following:

NOTE 1 If the position of the plane is not specified, it is the plane passing through the point corresponding to the

maximum value of the pulse-pressure-squared integral in the whole acoustic field.

Replace, in Note 3, the word “levels” by “fractions”.
3.22
effective radius of a non-focused ultrasonic transducer
Replace the term by effective radius of a non-focusing ultrasonic transducer

Replace the term in the Note by effective radius of a non-focusing ultrasonic transducer

3.28
far field
Replace the existing text by the following:

region of the field where z > z aligned along the beam axis for planar non-focusing

transducers

NOTE 1 In the far field, the sound pressure appears to be spherically divergent from a point on or near the

radiating surface. Hence the pressure produced by the sound source is approximately inversely proportional to the

distance from the source.

NOTE 2 The term “far field” is used in this International Standard only in connection with non-focusing source

transducers. For focusing transducers a different terminology for the various parts of the transmitted field applies

(see IEC 61828).

NOTE 3 If the shape of the transducer aperture produces several transition distances, the one furthest from the

transducer is used.
3.34
instantaneous intensity
Replace the existing text of Note 1 by the following:

NOTE 1 Instantaneous intensity is the product of instantaneous acoustic pressure and particle velocity. It is

difficult to measure intensity in the ultrasound frequency range. For the measurement purposes referred to in this

International Standard and under conditions of sufficient distance from the external transducer aperture (at least

one transducer diameter, or an equivalent transducer dimension in the case of a non-circular transducer) the

instantaneous intensity can be approximated by the derived instantaneous intensity.

3.37
near field
Replace the existing definition and note by the following:

region of the field where z < z aligned along the beam axis for planar non-focusing

transducers

NOTE 1 For circular planar transducers, this is at a distance less than A /πλ, where A is the output beam

ob ob

area and λ is the wavelength of the ultrasound corresponding to the acoustic frequency.

NOTE 2 If the shape of the transducer aperture produces several transition distances, the one closest to the

transducer shall be used.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 5 –
3.38
non-linear propagation parameter
Replace the existing term, symbol and definition by the following:
local distortion parameter

index which permits the prediction of nonlinear distortion of ultrasound for a specific

ultrasonic transducer, and is given by σ from:
2πf β 1
awf
(2)
σ = z p
q m
ρ⋅c F
where:
z is the axial distance of the point of interest to the transducer face;

p is the mean-peak acoustic pressure at the point in the acoustic field corresponding to

the spatial-peak temporal-peak acoustic pressure;
β is the nonlinearity parameter ( β = 1 + B/2A = 3,5 for pure water at 20 °C );
f is the acoustic-working frequency;
awf
F is the local area factor .

[SOURCE: IEC/TS 61949:2007, definition 3.12, modified – the text of the definition has

changed substantially, the equation however is unchanged.]
3.43
peak acoustic pressure
Replace the existing symbol by: “p (or p ) or p (or p )”.
r - c +
3.44
peak-rarefactional acoustic pressure
Replace the existing symbol by: “p (or p )”
r -
3.45
peak-compressional acoustic pressure
Replace symbol by: “p (or p )”
c +
3.47
pulse-average intensity
Replace, in the definition, the word “ratio” by “quotient”.
Add the following new note and number the existing note as Note 2.:
NOTE 1 This definition applies to pulses and bursts.
3.51
pulse repetition period
Delete, in Note 1, the second sentence ("See also IEC 60469-1:1987, 5.3.2.1.").
3.52
pulse repetition rate
Delete Note 1.
Renumber Note 2 as Note.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
3.65
temporal-average intensity
Replace the existing Note 1 by the following:

NOTE 1 The time-average should be taken over an integral number of acoustic repetition periods.

Add the following new Note 2 and renumber the existing Note 2 as Note 3:

NOTE 2 (Relating to ultrasonic medical diagnostic systems) in principle, the temporal-average intensity is an

average over a relatively long time interval. For non-auto-scanning systems, the instantaneous intensity should

be averaged over one or more pulse repetition periods. For auto-scanning systems, the instantaneous

intensity should be averaged over one or more scan repetition periods for a specified operating mode.

3.76
ultrasonic transducer element group dimensions

Replace, in the definition, the term “ultrasonic transducer element group” by “ultrasonic

transducer element group” (bold font for the entire term).
Add the following new definitions:
3.78
derived instantaneous intensity

quotient of squared instantaneous acoustic pressure and characteristic acoustic impedance

of the medium at a particular instant in time at a particular point in an acoustic field

p(t)
I(t) = (1)
ρ c
where:
p(t) is the instantaneous acoustic pressure;
ρ is the density of the medium;
c is the speed of sound in the medium

NOTE 1 For measurement purposes referred to in this International Standard, the derived instantaneous

intensity is an approximation of the instantaneous intensity.

NOTE 2 Increased uncertainty should be taken into account for measurements very close to the transducer.

NOTE 3 Derived instantaneous intensity is expressed in watts per square metre (W/m2).

3.79
local area factor

square root of the ratio of the source aperture area to the beam area at the point of interest.

The relevant local beam area, A , is that for which the pulse-pressure-squared integral is

greater than 0,135 (that is, 1/e ) times the maximum value in the cross-section.
0,69A
SAeff
F = (24)
b,−6dB

NOTE If the beam profile is approximately Gaussian at the distance of interest and the area at the -6dB level,

A , is known, the local beam area can be calculated as A = A /0,69: (0,69 = 3ln(10)/10).

b,-6dB b b,-6dB

[SOURCE: IEC/TS 61949:2007, definition 3.11 modified – the third sentence of the original

definition has been changed into a note.]
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 7 –
3.80
number of pulses per ultrasonic scan line
pps
the number of acoustic pulses travelling along a particular ultrasonic scan line

NOTE 1 Here ultrasonic scan line refers to the path of acoustic pulses on a particular beam axis in scanning

and non-scanning modes.

NOTE 2 This number can be used in the calculation of any ultrasound temporal average value from hydrophone

measurements.

NOTE 3 The following shows an example of the number of pulses per ultrasonic scanline and the number of

ultrasonic scanlines (shows the end of a frame):
1 2 3 4; 1 2 3 4; 1 2 3 4… n =1; n = 4
pps sl
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4; 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4; … n =2; n = 4
pps sl
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4; 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4; … n = 4; n = 4
pps sl

1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4; 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4; … n = 4; n = 4 (within one frame the pulses

pps sl
down each line may not occur contiguously)
Within one frame, all scan lines may not have the same npps value.
An example is: 1 2 2 3 3 4; 1 2 2 3 3 4; … avg n =1,5; max n = 2; n = 4
pps pps sl
[SOURCE: IEC 61157:2007/Amendment 1—, definition 3.45]
3.81
number of ultrasonic scanlines

the number of ultrasonic scanlines that are excited during one scan repetition period

NOTE This number can be used in the calculation of any ultrasound temporal average value from hydrophone

measurements.
[SOURCE: IEC 61157:2007/Amendment 1—, definition 3.46]
3.82
source aperture area
SAeff

equivalent aperture area for an ultrasonic transducer of unknown characteristics, measured

as the area inside the –20 dB pulse-pressure-squared-integral contour in the closest

possible measurement plane (source aperture plane) to the external transducer aperture

NOTE 1 See Figure 3.
NOTE 2 Source aperture area is expressed in square metres (m ).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
Principal longitudinal plane
External
Source
transducer
aperture
aperture
plane
–6 dB beam
Depth-of-field
contour
Beam axis
Offset
distance
Minimum –6 dB
min
beamwidth W
min
IEC 179/13
Figure 3 – Several apertures and planes for
a transducer of unknown geometry [IEC 61828]
3.83
source aperture plane

closest possible measurement plane to the external transducer aperture that is perpendicular

to the beam axis
[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, definition 4.2.67]
3.84
source aperture width

in a specified longitudinal plane, the greatest –20 dB beamwidth along the line of

intersection between the designated longitudinal plane and the source aperture plane

NOTE 1 See Figure 2 in IEC 61828:2001.
NOTE 2 Source aperture width is expressed in metres (m).

[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, definition 4.2.68, modified – two notes have been added.]

3.85
spatial-average pulse-average intensity
sapa

pulse-average intensity from one ultrasonic transducer or ultrasonic transducer element

group averaged over the beam-area for that particular ultrasonic transducer or ultrasonic

transducer element group
NOTE 1 A burst is also to be understood to be a pulse.

NOTE 2 Spatial-average pulse-average intensity is expressed in watts per square metre (W/m ) .

3.86
time-window-average intensity
I (t)
w,Δt/s

the time-varying value of the instantaneous intensity averaged over a window of duration Δt,

given by:
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 9 –
t+Δt / 2
I (t)= I(t′)dt′ (25)
w,Δt / s
t−Δt / 2
where:
I(t) is the instantaneous intensity;
Δt/s is the numerical value of the moving time window width in seconds
t’ is the variable of integration

NOTE The time varying time-window-average intensity for a time window width of 20 s, for instance, is denoted

by I (t)
w,20
3.87
transducer aperture width

full width of the transducer aperture along a specified axis orthogonal to the beam axis of the

unsteered beam at the centre of the transducer
NOTE 1 See Figure 4.
NOTE 2 Transducer aperture width is expressed in metres (m).

[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, definition 4.2.74 modified – two notes have been added, and the

phrase "at the centre of the transducer" has been added to the definition.]
Transducer aperture plane
Transducer
focusing
surface
Geometric
beam boundary
Geometric
focus
Transducer
Beam axis
aperture
width
Transducer
aperture
Transducer aperture
plane distance
Geometric focal
length
geo
Near Far
Focal
Fresnel Fresnel
Fraunhofer
zone zone zone
IEC 180/13
Figure 4 – Parameters for describing an example of a
focusing transducer of a known geometry [IEC 61828 modified]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
3.88
transition distance

for a given longitudinal plane, the transition distance is defined based on the transducer

design (when known) or from measurement:

a) from design: the transition distance is the equivalent area of the ultrasonic transducer

aperture width divided by π times the effective wavelength, λ;

b) for measurements, the transition distance is the equivalent area of the source aperture

width divided by π times the effective wavelength.

NOTE 1 Using method a), an unapodized ultrasonic transducer with circular symmetry about the beam axis, the

2 2

equivalent area is πa , where a is the radius. Therefore the transition distance is z = a /λ. For the first example

of a square ultrasonic transducer, the equivalent area is (L ) , where L is the transducer aperture width in

TA TA

the longitudinal plane. Therefore, the transition distance for both orthogonal longitudinal planes containing the

sides or transducer aperture widths, is z = (L ) /(πλ). For the second example, for a rectangular ultrasonic

T TA

transducer with transducer aperture widths L and L , the equivalent area for the first linear transducer

TA1 TA2

aperture width for the purpose of calculating the transition distance for the associated longitudinal plane is

(L ) , where L is the transducer aperture width in this longitudinal plane. Therefore, the transition

TA1 TA1

distance for this plane is z = (L ) /(πλ). For the orthogonal longitudinal plane that contains the other

T1 TA1

transducer aperture width, L , the equivalent area for the other for the purpose of calculating the transition

TA2

distance for the associated longitudinal plane is (L ) , where L is the transducer aperture width in this

TA2 TA2

longitudinal plane. Therefore, the transition distance for this plane is z = (L ) /(πλ).

T2 TA2

NOTE 2 Using method b) for measurements in a longitudinal plane, the source aperture width, L , in the same

plane is used in z = (L ) /(πλ).
T SA
NOTE 3 Transition distance is expressed in metre (m). .

[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, definition 4.2.75, modified – there is significant difference in the

layout and content of the definition]
3.89
treatment head

assembly comprising an ultrasonic transducer and associated parts for local application of

ultrasound to the patient

[SOURCE: IEC 60601-2-5:2009, definition 201.3.214, modified – a note in the original has

been deleted.]
4 List of symbols
Replace:
A beam area
by:
A , A beam area corresponding to -6 dB beam area and -20 dB beam area
b,6 b,20
Replace:
a effective radius of a non-focused ultrasonic transducer
a effective radius of a non-focusing ultrasonic transducer
Replace:
X , Y output beam dimensions z distance between a hydrophone and an ultrasonic
ob ob
transducer
by:
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 11 –
X , Y output beam dimensions
ob ob
z distance between a hydrophone and an ultrasonic transducer
Replace:
σ non-linear propagation parameter
by:
σ local distortion parameter
Add the following new symbols:
A source aperture area
SAeff
F local area factor
I time-window-average intensity
W,Δt/s
L transducer aperture width
L source aperture width
n number of pulses per ultrasonic scan line
pps
n number of ultrasonic scan lines per image for spatial distribution
z transition distance
5 Measurement requirements
5.1.6.2 Spatial averaging effect
Delete the second paragraph (“If applicable… See Annex E.”).
5.1.7.1 Narrow-band approximation

Replace, in the first and third paragraphs, the two references to “non-linear propagation

parameter” by “local distortion parameter”.
5.1.9 Hydrophone signal amplifier
Replace the existing fourth paragraph by the following:

The sensitivity level shall not vary by more than 0,5 dB per 100 kHz frequency increment

inside the stated bandwidth. The requirement can be verified using an appropriate

representation of the frequency response that resolves all important details of the frequency

dependence.
5.2.2 Positioning systems
5.2.2.1 Transducer positioning

Delete, in the final sentence of the third paragraph, the phrase “, if significant”.

5.2.2.3 Spatial positioning
Replace, in item c), the word “reproducibility” by “repeatability”.
5.2.3.2 Lining material
Replace the existing text of the fourth paragraph by the following:
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013

A convenient test for the presence of spurious signals consists of changing the distance

between the ultrasonic transducer and the hydrophone while observing the signal with an

oscilloscope. Some spurious signals are observed to move at least twice the speed of the

directly received signal, others are received in an incorrect time window when comparing the

ultrasonic transducer – hydrophone distance. This test is possible only on pulsed systems.

7 Beam characterization
7.1 General
Table 1 – Acoustic parameters appropriate to various types of medical ultrasonic
equipment

Replace, in the sixth column of the key to the table, the reference to “Non-linear propagation

parameter” by “Local distortion parameter”:
7.2 Primary pressure parameters
7.2.1 General

Replace the existing first two sentences of the first paragraph by the following:

With the ultrasonic transducer and hydrophone mounted in accordance with 5.2.2, 5.2.3

and 6.2, any of the following acoustic parameters can be determined using the definitions

listed in Clause 3.

NOTE When measurements are being made in order to comply with an individual standard (for example

IEC 62359 or IEC 61157) the parameters required are those specified in that standard.

Replace the 17th dashed item (“non-linear propagation parameter”) by the following:

– local distortion parameter
7.2.4 Non-linear propagation parameter
Replace the existing title of this subclause by the following:
7.2.4 Local distortion parameter

Replace, in the first paragraph, the references to “non-linear propagation parameter σ ” by

“local distortion parameter σ ”.

Replace, in Note 2, the references to “non-linear propagation parameter” by “local

distortion parameter”.

Replace, in the second paragraph, the existing item number “2)” by “b)”, “σ ” by “σ ” and the

m q
reference to “5.1.6.2” by “5.1.7.1”
7.2.5 Intensity parameters using instantaneous acoustic pressure

Replace in the third paragraph, the phrase "In this approximation the instantaneous

intensity, I(t), is given by" by the following:

In this case the instantaneous intensity is approximated by the derived instantaneous

intensity, I(t), given by
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013 – 13 –
Add to the list of dash items in the fourth paragraph the following new item:
– time-window-average intensity (I (t)).
w,Δt/s

Replace, in the Note, the reference to “non-linear propagation parameter” by “local

distortion parameter”:
8 Requirements for specific ultrasonic fields
8.2.1 Simplified procedures and guidelines
8.2.1.1 Procedures
Delete the heading of this subclause, including the subclause number (8.2.1.1):

Delete, at the end of the second paragraph, the phrase”, as outlined by the definition of beam

area”.
8.2.2.1 Diagnostic fields in general

Replace in the second paragraph and in Note 1 the word “reproducibility” by “repeatability”.

Replace, in the third paragraph the reference to “non-linear propagation parameter σ ” by

“local distortion parameter σ ”.
8.2.3 Continuous wave diagnostic equipment
Replace in the second paragraph the word “reproducibility” by “repeatability”.

Replace, in the third paragraph the reference to “non-linear propagation parameter σ ” by

“local distortion parameter σ ”.
Replace the existing text of the fourth paragraph by the following:

In ultrasonic fields where the peak acoustic pressure occurs close to the face, e.g. at

distances less than the minimum output beam dimension, the approximation for ultrasonic

intensity (see 7.2.5) may be made, provided that an appropriate uncertainty is taken into

account.
8.3.1 Physiotherapy equipment

Replace, in the second paragraph the reference to “non-linear propagation parameter σ ”

by “local distortion parameter σ ”.
Delete, in the fifth paragraph, the abbreviation “(PZT)”.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – 62127-1 Amend.1 © IEC:2013
9 Compliance statement
9.1 General
Replace the existing text of the second and third paragraphs as follows:

For compliance with this standard, the following shall be stated for any parameter that is

reported:

a) the arithmetic mean determined from measurements on a group of n nominally identical

systems, each with the acoustic output settings yielding the maximum output, where n ≥ 3

and
b) the overall uncertainty of the value determined under a).

This overall uncertainty shall be calculated using an appropriate measure (with 95 %

confidence, for 95 % of the population) of the statistical variation and the measurement

uncertainty (at a level of confidence of 95 %).

The tolerance interval is to be understood in accordance with ISO 16269-6:2005. More

...

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