IEC 60336:2020 applies to FOCAL SPOTS in medical diagnostic X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES for medical use, operating at X-RAY TUBE VOLTAGES up to and including 150 kV.
This document describes the test methods employing digital detectors for determining:
a) FOCAL SPOT dimensions in terms of NOMINAL FOCAL SPOT VALUES, ranging from 0,1 to 3,0;
b) LINE SPREAD FUNCTIONS;
c) one-dimensional MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTIONS;
d) FOCAL SPOT PINHOLE RADIOGRAMS,
and the means for indicating compliance.
In informative annexes, STAR PATTERN imaging and BLOOMING VALUE are described.
IEC 60336:2020 cancels and replaces the fourth edition published in 2005. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
The significant changes of this fifth edition with respect to the previous edition are detailed in Clause E.6. These changes are:
a) introduction of digital detectors and discretization errors;
b) fewer normative requirements;
c) support for both SLIT CAMERA and PINHOLE CAMERA;
d) reintroduction of distorted (skewed) FOCAL SPOT;
e) keeping of STAR PATTERNS and BLOOMING VALUE as informative.
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IEC 60522-1:2020 applies to X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES and to FILTERING MATERIAL, in medical diagnostic applications up to a HIGH VOLTAGE of 150 kV. For HIGH VOLTAGES greater than 50 kV, this document applies to X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES with tungsten or tungsten-alloy TARGETS only.
IEC 60522-1:2021 defines the concept of PERMANENT FILTRATION of X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES, and it defines the term FILTERING MATERIAL.
Methods are given to determine the PERMANENT FILTRATION of an X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLY and for determining the QUALITY EQUIVALENT FILTRATION of FILTERING MATERIALS.
It contains requirements for statements of compliance of X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES in ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS and for markings on X-RAY TUBE ASSEMBLIES, and for indications and statements of compliance of FILTERING MATERIAL.
IEC 60522-1:2020 cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 60522 published in 1999. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the IEC 60522:1999:
The scope of the IEC 60522-1 has been changed with respect to second edition of the IEC 60522 as follows:
a) As radiotherapy standards do not reference IEC 60522, radiotherapy is no longer in the scope. Consequently, the HIGH VOLTAGE is limited to 150 kV, and copper is no longer used as reference material.
b) While IEC 60522:1999 covers only PERMANENT FILTRATION, IEC 60522-1 also covers quite generally “material filtering the X-RAY BEAM incident on the PATIENT”. This concerns materials like ADDED FILTERS, table-tops, a breast COMPRESSION DEVICE, and materials in the BEAM LIMITING DEVICE. For these materials the defined term FILTERING MATERIAL has been introduced.
c) In order to provide technical and scientific background and rationale on the content of IEC 60522-1, IEC TR 60522-2 was introduced.
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IEC TR 60522-2:2020 provides guidance on quality equivalent filtration and permanent filtration with regards to the requirements of IEC 60522-1 and its modifications versus IEC 60522:1999.
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IEC 61223-3-6:2020 applies to the performance of MAMMOGRAPHIC X-RAY EQUIPMENT when used in MAMMOGRAPHIC TOMOSYNTHESIS modes of operation, with respect to image quality and dose.
Excluded from the scope of this document are:
- MAMMOGRAPHIC X-RAY EQUIPMENT modes of operation other than MAMMOGRAPHIC TOMOSYNTHESIS;
- 2D images synthesised from the tomosynthesis images;
- reconstructive TOMOGRAPHY other than MAMMOGRAPHIC TOMOSYNTHESIS;
- CT SCANNERS covered by IEC 61223-3-5.
IEC 61223-3-6:2020 defines
a) the essential parameters which describe the acceptability criteria of MAMMOGRAPHIC TOMOSYNTHESIS modes of operation of MAMMOGRAPHIC X-RAY EQUIPMENT with regard to image quality and dose,
b) the methods of testing whether measured quantities related to those parameters comply with specified tolerances, and
c) CONSTANCY TEST frequency when required.
This document is intended to be applied along with the acceptability criteria included in IEC 61223-3-2 or equivalent protocol for 2D mammography which are also relevant for MAMMOGRAPHIC TOMOSYNTHESIS modes of operation.
These methods mainly rely on non-invasive measurements that use appropriate test equipment and are performed during or after the installation. Signed statements covering steps in the installation procedure can be used as part of the ACCEPTANCE TEST. Tests required by a higher level of compliance take precedence over similar tests with a lower level of compliance.
When the results of the ACCEPTANCE TEST are in compliance with the expected values, the BASELINE VALUES for the subsequent CONSTANCY TESTS are established.
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IEC 63077:2019 describes and defines the PROCESS of REFURBISHMENT of USED MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT and applies to the restoring of USED MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT to a condition of safety and performance comparable to that of new MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT i.e. MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT that was not in use. This restoration includes actions such as REPAIR, REWORK, software/hardware updates, and the replacement of worn parts with original parts. This document enumerates the actions, that are performed, and the manner consistent, with relevant specifications and service procedures required to ensure that the REFURBISHMENT of MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT is done without changing the finished MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT’s performance, safety specifications, or INTENDED USE according to its original or applicable valid registration.
The MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT and systems covered by this document include:
– X-RAY EQUIPMENT;
– X-RAY EQUIPMENT for RADIOSCOPICALLY GUIDED INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES;
– X-RAY EQUIPMENT FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY;
– MAGNETIC RESONANCE EQUIPMENT;
– ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT;
– GAMMA CAMERAS;
– PLANAR WHOLEBODY IMAGING EQUIPMENT;
– equipment for SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT);
– SPECT/CT hybrid systems, combining a GAMMA CAMERA with X-RAY EQUIPMENT FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT);
– POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS (PET);
– PET/CT hybrid systems combining a POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPH with X-RAY EQUIPMENT FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT);
– PET/MRI hybrid systems combining a POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPH with MAGNETIC RESONANCE EQUIPMENT: and
– other combinations of the MEDICAL IMAGING EQUIPMENT or systems listed above.
This document does not apply to endoscopic equipment, funduscopic equipment, radiation therapy equipment, nor associated systems.
IEC 63077:2019 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC PAS 63077:2016:
a) the scope was delineated more clearly;
b) an informative cross reference list of IEC 63077 vs ISO 13485 (Annex A) was added;
c) smaller corrections were performed.
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IEC 61223-3-5:2019 applies to CT SCANNERS that conform to IEC 60601-2-44:2009, IEC 60601-2-44:2009/AMD1:2012 and IEC 60601-2-44:2009/AMD1:2012AMD2:2016.
IEC 60601-2-44 and this document
• defines the essential parameters which describe the performance of CT SCANNERS with regard to image quality, RADIATION OUTPUT and PATIENT positioning; the list of parameters to be tested can be found in section 4.3,
• defines the methods of testing the essential parameters, and
• evaluates compliance with the tolerances of the parameters SPECIFIED by the ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS.
The methods defined in IEC 60601-2-44 and this document rely on non-invasive measurements, using appropriate test equipment, performed during or after installation. Signed statements covering steps in the installation procedure can be used as part of the ACCEPTANCE TEST report.
This document applies to ACCEPTANCE TESTS and CONSTANCY TESTS on a CT SCANNER. The aim of the ACCEPTANCE TESTS is to verify compliance of the installation or MAJOR SERVICE ACTION with specifications affecting the image quality, RADIATION OUTPUT and PATIENT positioning. The CONSTANCY TESTS are performed to ensure that the functional performance of EQUIPMENT meets ESTABLISHED CRITERIA and to enable the early recognition of changes in the properties of components of the EQUIPMENT, and to verify compliance with specifications affecting the image quality, RADIATION OUTPUT and PATIENT positioning.
This document also contains requirements associated with ACCEPTANCE and CONSTANCY TESTING for the ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS of the CT SCANNER.
This document does not apply to
• aspects of mechanical and electrical safety, and
• aspects of mechanical, electrical and software performance, unless they are essential for performing the ACCEPTANCE TESTS and CONSTANCY TESTS, and are directly affecting image quality, RADIATION OUTPUT and PATIENT positioning.
IEC 61223-3-5:2019 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2004, and the second edition of IEC 61223-2-6 published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical change with respect to the previous edition and to IEC 61223-2-6:
1) modification of the RADIATION protection and control;
2) modification of the acceptance testing;
3) introduction of constancy testing.
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IEC 62985:2019 applies to
– CT SCANNERS that are able to display and report CTDIVOL in accordance with
IEC 60601-2-44, and
– RADIATION dose index monitoring software (RDIMS)
for the purpose of calculating, displaying and recording the SIZE SPECIFIC DOSE ESTIMATE (SSDE) and its associated components.
Specifically, this document provides standardized methods and requirements for calculating, displaying, or recording of SSDE, SSDE(z), WATER EQUIVALENT DIAMETER (DW), and DW(z), where z represents a specific longitudinal position of the scanned object.
This document provides a method of determining a reference WATER EQUIVALENT DIAMETER, DW,REF(z), using CT scans of two cylindrical water PHANTOMS and one or more anthropomorphic PHANTOM(S), which conform to the specifications defined in this document. The method of calculating the WATER EQUIVALENT DIAMETER that is implemented by the MANUFACTURER, DW,IMP(z), is tested and validated against DW,REF(z) using the TEST OBJECTS and methods defined within this document. This document also describes the methods for calculating SSDE and DW, which represent the average values of SSDE(z) and DW(z) over the RECONSTRUCTION LENGTH.
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IEC 62464-1:2018 specifies measurement procedures for the determination of many essential image quality parameters for MR EQUIPMENT. Measurement procedures as addressed in this document are suitable for
– quality assessment in the ACCEPTANCE TEST, and
– quality assurance in the CONSTANCY TEST.
Required levels of performance for ACCEPTANCE TESTS are not provided for all tests.
This document does not address
– image quality assessment of MR EQUIPMENT with a static magnetic field intensity greater than 8 Tesla, if not otherwise stated,
– image quality affected by MR-compatibility issues,
– special diagnostic procedures such as flow imaging, perfusion, diffusion, radiotherapy and image-guided therapy applications, and
– TYPE TESTS.
The scope of this document is also limited to measuring image quality characteristics in images acquired on TEST DEVICES, not in PATIENT images.
The measurement procedures specified in this document are directed to
– MANUFACTURERS, who can demonstrate compliance by performing ACCEPTANCE and CONSTANCY TESTS as described by this document,
– test houses, who can confirm performance of MR EQUIPMENT using methods described in this document,
– regulatory authorities, who can reference this document, and
– RESPONSIBLE ORGANISATIONS who want to perform ACCEPTANCE and CONSTANCY TESTS using methods described in this document.
The essential image quality parameters and measurement methodologies defined in this document are
– SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO,
– SLICE THICKNESS in 2-D scanning,
– 2-D GEOMETRIC DISTORTION,
– SPATIAL RESOLUTION, and
– GHOSTING ARTEFACTS.
Each of these procedures can be performed standalone or in combination with any of the other procedures.
This document describes the preferred measurement procedures. It also describes alternative normative methods in Annex A. The preferred test methods may be substituted with these alternative normative methods. If necessary, other methods not described in this document can be used, provided those other test methods are documented and validated against the methods described in the document: it means an analysis is done by comparison to the original method that demonstrates a similar, or better, level of sensitivity to the same parameter of interest and a similar, or better, level of robustness against unrelated parameters. All methods will produce quantitative results.
The rationale to the preferred and alternate methods, and their pitfalls, are described in Annex B.
This document also presents requirements for CONSTANCY TESTS suitable for MR EQUIPMENT quality assurance programs concerning essential image quality parameters. There are no preferred CONSTANCY TEST methods, to provide flexibility in using existing automated procedures where available, but suggested examples of test methods can be found in Annex A. This document places an emphasis on consistently repeatable, automated measuring tools that facilitate trend analysis and the frequent quick testing of a small set of important parameters that are sensitive to the overall operating characteristics of the MR EQUIPMENT.
IEC 62464-1:2018 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) the tests have been revised to comply with the technical progress;
b) the range of B0 was increased from 4 T to 8 T.
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ISO/TS 10974:2018 is applicable to implantable parts of active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) intended to be used in patients who undergo a magnetic resonance scan in 1,5 T, cylindrical (circular or elliptical cross-section) bore, whole body MR scanners operating at approximately 64 MHz with whole body coil excitation.
NOTE 1 Requirements for non-implantable parts are outside the scope of this document.
The tests that are specified in this document are type tests that characterize interactions with the magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with an MR scanner. The tests can be used to demonstrate device operation according to its MR Conditional labelling. The tests are not intended to be used for the routine testing of manufactured products.
NOTE 2 Modification of these tests for particular device types is left to particular product committees.
NOTE 3 Other interested parties, such as device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and particular product committees, are responsible for setting specific compliance criteria and determining risk.
NOTE 4 Safety requirements for MR scanners can be found in IEC 60601‑2‑33.
NOTE 5 The scope is limited to AIMDs that do not use sensing functions or to AIMDs that are programmed not to use sensing functions to affect therapy delivery during an MR scan.
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IEC 60601-2-28:2017 is also available as IEC 60601-2-28:2017 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60601-2-28:2017 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray tube assemblies and to components thereof, intended for medical diagnosis and imaging. Where the general standard IEC 60601-1 and the collateral standard IEC 60601-1-3 refer to me equipment, this is interpreted as X-ray tube assemblies in this particular standard. If a clause or subclause is specifically intended to be applicable to ME equipment only, or to ME systems only, the title and content of that clause or subclause will say so. If that is not the case, the clause or subclause applies both to ME equipment and to ME systems, as relevant. The third edition of this particular standard has been prepared to fit IEC 60601-1:2005 and IEC 60601-1:2005/AMD1:2012 (the amended third edition of IEC 60601-1), which is referred to as the general standard. Apart from the changes related to the amendment of IEC 60601-1, changes related to technical improvements are also included.
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Specifies the requirements for testing items of equipment intended for use on railway vehicles which are subsequently subjected to vibrations and chock owing to the nature of railway operational environment.
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Details the particular specification for light polyvinyl chloride sheathed cables of rated voltage of 300/500 V.[
]This consolidated version consists of the second edition (1992) and its amendment 1 (1997). Therefore, no need to order amendment in addition to this publication.
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IEC 62220-1-1:2015 specifies the method for the determination of the DETECTIVE QUANTUM EFFICIENCY (DQE) of DIGITAL X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES as a function of AIR KERMA and of SPATIAL FREQUENCY for the working conditions in the range of the medical application as specified by the MANUFACTURER. The intended users of this part of IEC 62220 are manufacturers and well equipped test laboratories. This first edition of IEC 62220-1-1 cancels and replaces IEC 62220-1:2003. It constitutes a technical revision of IEC 62220-1:2003 and assures a better alignment with the other parts of the IEC 62220 series. The main changes are as follows:
- necessary modifications have been applied as a consequence of taking into account IEC 61267:2005. This influences HVL values and SNRin2;
- the method for the determination of LAG EFFECTS now considers lag and ghosting compensation;
- as part of the MTF determination, the method of obtaining the final averaged MTF has been restricted (only averaging of the ESF is allowed);
- a description of (optionally) obtaining the diagonal (45°) MTF and NPS has been added.
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IEC 61910-1:2014 applies to radiation dose structured reports produced by X ray equipment that falls within the scope of IEC 60601-2-43:2010 or IEC 60601-2-54:2009. This document does not impose specific requirements on the accuracy of the reported or displayed data. Existing standards or regulations can have applicable requirements for accuracy and precision. This standard provides specific units and quantities and prescribes data storage formats. This document does not present any requirements on the form of display of dose information to operators or other individuals. The objective of this International Standard is to specify the minimum dataset to be used for reporting dosimetric and related information associated with the production of projection radiological images. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC/PAS 61910-1, published in 2007. It constitutes a technical revision which includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC/PAS 61910-1:2007:
- the previously defined three conformance levels have been restructured to two;
- the mapping between DICOM and IEC terms is explicitly described in an annex and is decoupled from the conformance level content requirements;
- and a general update to the revised contents of the DICOM RDSR definition has occurred.
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IEC 61331:2014 applies to materials in sheet form used for the manufacturing of protective devices against X-radiation of radiation qualities generated with X-ray tube voltages up to 400 kV and gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides with photon energies up to 1,3 MeV. This Part 1 is not intended to be applied to protective devices when these are to be checked for the presence of their attenuation properties before and after periods of use. This Part 1 specifies the methods of determining and indicating the attenuation properties of the materials. The attenuation properties are given in terms of:
- attenuation ratio;
- build-up factor; and
- attenuation equivalent together with, as appropriate, an indication of homogeneity and mass per unit area. Ways of stating values of attenuation properties in compliance with this part of the International Standard are included. Excluded from the scope of this International Standard are the methods for periodical checks of protective devices, particularly of protective clothing, the methods of determining attenuation by layers in the radiation beam, and the methods of determining attenuation for purposes of protection against ionizing radiation provided by walls and other parts of an installation. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61331-1, published in 1994. It constitutes a technical revision. This second edition has been adapted to apply to the present technology. In particular, this second edition is consistently applicable to lead- and non-lead-containing materials. The essential changes and extensions are:
- the extension of the scope to cover photon-emitting radionuclides;
- improved methods to determine the attenuation ratio;
- the addition of the so-called inverse broad beam condition;
- the addition of a method to calculate the attenuation ratio of photon-emitting radionuclides;
- the definition of new standard X- and gamma radiation qualities used for testing;
- the addition of the so-called lead equivalent class; and
- tables of attenuation ratios, build-up factors and first half-value layers for the standard radiation qualities filtered with different thicknesses of lead.
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IEC 61331-2:2014 applies to translucent protective plates used for radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis and in X-ray therapy. It also applies to translucent protective plates used for protection against gamma radiation in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy with automatically-controlled afterloading equipment. It does not cover other translucent radiation protection materials, e.g. leaded glasses or goggles for protection of the operator's eyes (eye spectacles); leaded face shields, which cover the entire face of the operator; patient eye protection; and thyroid/neck protective devices. This Part 2 deals with the requirements on:
- geometrical accuracy;
- optical quality of the material;
- spectral transmittance;
- radiation attenuation properties;
- marking; and
- statement of compliance with this standard. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61331-2, published in 1994. It constitutes a technical revision. This second edition has been adapted to apply to the present technology. The essential changes and extensions are:
- extension of scope to cover all kinds of translucent protective plates and all kinds of radiation qualities and gamma radiation;
- removal of definition and requirements for translucent protective plates for visual imaging;
- changes of requirements concerning geometrical accuracy and optical quality;
- changes of requirements concerning determination of lead equivalent and minimal thickness; and
- changes of requirements concerning information and marking.
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IEC 61331-3:2014 applies to protective devices such as protective clothing and eyewear for the protection of persons against X radiation up to 150 kV, during radiological examinations and interventional procedures. This standard deals with general requirements on the accompanying documents, on design and on materials used and with sizing, particular design features, minimum attenuation properties of materials, marking and standardized forms of statements of compliance with this standard. It covers protective clothing mainly for the protection of the operator, such as:
- protective aprons;
- thyroid collars;
- protective gloves;
- protective mittens; and
- protective eyewear. It also covers protective devices for the protection of the patient, such as:
- protective gonad aprons;
- scrotum shields;
- ovary shields;
- shadow shields; and
- protective aprons for dental use. The latter group of protective devices is intended to be used during radiological examinations to minimize the effects of irradiation on the reproductive organs particularly with regard to genetic damage. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61331-3, published in 1998. It constitutes a technical revision. This second edition has been adapted to apply to the present technology. It includes a requirement to use a better method for the determination of attenuation properties over a broader and more clinically relevant range of radiation qualities appropriate to the use of the devices. It also covers three additional protective devices, thyroid collars, protective eyewear and protective aprons for dental use.
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IEC 62570:2014 applies to the practice of marking of items that might be used in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. The purpose of this practice is to mark items that might be brought into the MR environment and to recommend information that should be included in the marking. The standard specifies the permanent marking of items, which are used in an MR environment, by means of terms and icons. MR image artifacts are not considered to be a performance issue and so are not addressed in this international standard practice. IEC 62570 is integrating the unmodified text of ASTM F2503-13. It has been developed by subcommittee 62B: Diagnostic imaging equipment, of IEC technical committee 62: Medical equipment in medical practice, in collaboration with ASTM.
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IEC 60627:2013 is applicable to anti-scatter grids used in medical diagnostic X-ray imaging equipment. Anti-Scatter Grids are used to reduce the incidence of scattered radiation, produced particularly in the body of the patient, upon the image reception area and thus to improve the contrast of the X-ray pattern. This International Standard specifies the definitions, determination and indication of characteristics of anti-scatter grids. In this standard only linear grids are considered. Since at present only focused grids are used in mammography, this standard is restricted to focused grids where mammographic anti-scatter grids are concerned. This standard is not intended to be applied for acceptance tests. This standard does not cover the homogeneity of performance over the area of a grid. This standard is intended to be applied for the determination of the characteristics of anti-scatter grids under test conditions. These conditions are not usually available at the site of the responsible organization. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2001, and constitutes a technical revision. In this revision calcium tungstate phosphor fluorescent screens, which are no longer available, have been replaced by gadolinium oxysulphide (GOS) fluorescent screens. Further, a new quality parameter is introduced: the Image Improvement Factor or Q-factor, which better describes the properties of the anti-scatter grid, especially for digital detector applications. Further differences between this third edition and the previous second edition are:
- new instrumentation is prescribed for measurements of the transmission of primary radiation, the transmission of scattered radiation and the transmission of total radiation, because fluorescent screens made of calcium tungstate phosphors are outdated and are no longer available;
- the definition of the phantom used for measurements of the transmission of primary radiation, the transmission of scattered radiation and the transmission of total radiation is modified and references to IEC 61267 are omitted;
- and the radiation conditions used for the measurements have been adapted and are now the RQR and RQR-M conditions specified in IEC 61267:2005.
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IEC 60601-2-63:2012 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of dental extra-oral X-ray equipment, hereafter also called ME equipment. The scope includes ME systems containing such ME equipment. This particular standard has been prepared to provide, based on IEC 60601-1:2005 and its collaterals, a complete set of basic safety and essential performance requirements for dental extra-oral x-ray equipment. While the previously existing standards for such equipment were dedicated to components and subsystems, this particular standard addresses the system level of dental extra-oral x-ray equipment. Components and their functions are addressed as far as necessary. The scope of this standard is restricted to X-ray equipment where:
- the x-ray tube assembly contains the high-voltage transformer assembly; and
- the geometrical relations between the X-ray source, the anatomical object being imaged in the patient, and the X-ray image receptor, are preset in the design and cannot be arbitrarily altered by the operator during intended use.
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IEC 60601-2-65:2012 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of dental intra-oral X-ray equipment and its main components. The scope of this standard is restricted to X-ray equipment where the X-ray tube assembly contains the high-voltage transformer assembly. Dental extra-oral X-ray equipment is excluded from the scope of this standard. This particular standard has been prepared to provide, based on IEC 60601-1:2005 and its collaterals, a complete set of basic safety and essential performance requirements for dental intra-oral X-ray equipment. While the previously existing standards for such equipment were dedicated to components and subsystems, this particular standard addresses the system level of dental intra-oral X-ray equipment. Components and their functions are addressed as far as necessary.
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IEC 60601-2-45:2011 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of mammographic X-ray equipment and mammographic stereotactic devices. IEC 60601-2-45:2011 addresses the system level of mammographic X-ray equipment, which consists of a combination of an X-ray generator, associated equipment and accessories. Components functions are addressed as far as necessary. The minimum safety requirements specified in this particular standard are considered to provide for a practical degree of safety in the operation of mammographic X-ray equipment. Like the previous edition of this Part 2-45, the present third edition includes requirements on high-voltage generators for mammography. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2001. This edition constitutes a technical revision. The document has been aligned to the 3rd edition of IEC 60601-1 (2005) and to IEC 60601-1-3 (2010). Further modifications have been made with respect to the current technology of mammographic X-ray equipment.
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IEC 62464-2:2010 specifies the description of pulse sequences of magnetic resonance imaging. The classification in this standard is suitable for:
- tender texts;
- image annotation;
- protocol definition;
- technical publications.
IEC 62464-2:2010 does not apply to magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The classification does not focus on image contrast (T1, T2, proton density), as this is defined by pulse sequence parameters (e.g. repetition time, echo time) and is not a property of the pulse sequence alone. The pulse sequence classification does not specify the k-space acquisition scheme, reconstruction algorithm or post-processing.
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IEC 60601-2-43:2010 establishes particular basic safety and essential performance requirements for the design and manufacture of X ray equipment for radioscopically guided interventional procedures. It specifies information which is to be provided with such interventional X-ray equipment for the assistance of the responsible organization and operator in managing the radiation risk and equipment failure risk arising from these procedures which could affect patients or staff. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000. This particular standard has been revised to provide a complete set of safety requirements for X-ray equipment for radioscopically guided interventional procedures, based on the third edition of IEC 60601-1 and relevant collaterals. The present edition is extended to become a system standard for X-ray equipment designed for the use during interventional procedures using X-ray imaging, whether of prolonged or normal duration.
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IEC 60601-2-33:2010 establishes particular basic safety and essential performance requirements for magnetic resonance equipment to provide protection for the patient and the magnetic resonance worker. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2002, its Amendment 1 (2005) and Amendment 2 (2007) and constitutes a technical revision. This third edition of IEC 60601-2-33 is based on the second amendment to Edition 2. It has also been adapted to the third edition of IEC 60601-1 (2005), with technical modifications being introduced where appropriate. The contents of the corrigenda of March 2012 and February 2016 have been included in this copy.
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IEC 60613:2010 applies to X-ray tube assemblies either with a rotating anode X-ray tube or a stationary anode X-ray tube, intended for use in medical diagnosis. For an X-ray tube head, its X-ray tube assembly aspects are also within the scope. IEC 60613:2010 covers performance-related definitions and conditions of electrical and loading characteristics of X-ray tube assemblies in relation to their behaviour during and after energization and, where appropriate, methods of presentation and measurement of these characteristics. This International Standard is therefore relevant for the manufacturer and the responsible organization. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 60613, published in 1989. It constitutes a technical revision. This third edition has been adapted to apply to the present technology.
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IEC 62563-1:2009 describes the evaluation methods for testing medical image display systems. It is directed to practical tests that can be visually evaluated or measured using basic test equipment. More advanced or more quantitative measurements can be performed on these devices, but these are beyond the scope of this document. IEC 62563-1:2009 applies to medical image display systems, which can display monochrome image information in the form of greyscale values on colour and greyscale image display systems (e.g. cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors, flat panel displays, projection system). This standard applies to medical image display systems used for diagnostic (interpretation of medical images toward rendering clinical diagnosis) or viewing (viewing medical images for medical purposes other than for providing a medical interpretation) purposes and therefore having specific requirements in terms of image quality. Head mounted image display systems and image display systems used for confirming positioning and for operation of the system are not covered by this standard.
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IEC 60601-2-54:2009 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of medical electrical equipment and medical electrical systems intended to be used for projection radiography and radioscopy. The minimum safety requirements specified in this particular standard are considered to provide for a practical degree of safety in the operation of ME equipment for radiography and radioscopy. Requirements for additional provisions for ME equipment for interventional applications are covered by IEC 60601-2-43. IEC 60601-2-54:2009 has been developed for use with the third edition of IEC 60601-1 (2005) and its collateral standards. IEC 60601-2-54:2009 is about type testing of X-ray systems. For the type test of a given product only one particular standard applies. Thus, IEC 60601-2-28 cannot be used in the type test according to IEC 60601-2-54:2009. The system aspects of the X-ray source integrated into X-ray systems are covered by IEC 60601-2-54:2009. IEC 60601-2-32 and IEC 60601-2-7, which had been written for use with the second edition of IEC 60601-1 (1988), cannot be used with the third edition of IEC 60601-1 (2005) and IEC 60601-2-54. The contents of the corrigenda of March 2010 and June 2011 have been included in this copy.
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IEC 60601-2-44:2009 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of CT scanners. The scope of IEC 60601-2-44:2009 is limited to CT scanners intended to be used for both head and body characterised by an enclosure of the X-ray source(s) and imaging detector(s) in a common protective cover in the shape of a toroid. It includes safety requirements for the X-ray generators used in CT scanners, including those where high-voltage generators are integrated with an X-ray tube assembly. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2001 and its Amendment 1 (2002). This edition constitutes a technical revision primarily related to radiation protection and control. The contents of the corrigendum of May 2010 have been included in this copy.
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IEC 62494-1:2008 specifies definitions and requirements for the exposure index of images acquired with digital X-ray imaging systems. IEC 62494-1:2008 is applicable to digital X-ray imaging systems used in general radiography for producing projection X-ray images for general applications, such as, but not exclusively:
- computed radiography (CR) systems based on stimulable phosphors;
- flat-panel detector based systems;
- charge-coupled device (CCD) based systems.
Image intensifier based systems and systems for mammographic or dental application are not covered in this first edition. IEC 62494-1:2008 defines the exposure index only for images generated with a single irradiation event. Images generated from multiple irradiations (e.g., tomosynthetic or dual-energy images, multiple views on a single CR plate) are not covered.
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IEC 62220-1-3:2008 specifies the method for the determination of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray imaging devices as a function of air kerma and of spatial frequency for the working conditions in the range of the medical application as specified by the manufacturer. The intended users of this part of IEC 62220 are manufacturers and well equipped test laboratories. This Part 1-3 is restricted to digital X-ray imaging devices that are used for dynamic imaging such as, but not exclusively, direct and indirect flat panel-detector based systems. It is not recommended to use this part of IEC 62220 for digital X-ray image intensifier-based systems.
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This collateral standard applies to X-ray equipment and to subassemblies of such equipment, where radiological images of a human patient are used for diagnosis, planning or guidance of medical procedures. The object of this collateral standard is to establish general requirements for protection against X-radiation in X-ray equipment, in order that the irradiation of the human patient, the operator, staff and members of the public can be kept as low as reasonably achievable, without jeopardizing the benefit of the radiological procedure. Particular standards may specify their appropriate values and/or measures for general requirements specified in this collateral standard. The implementation of the general requirements or the reference to the particular standard instead, shall be justified in the risk management process. This collateral standard considers radiation protection aspects related to X-radiation only. Requirements for the control of the electrical energy used to generate X-radiation, which is also an important aspect of radiation protection, are included in IEC 60601-1 and in particular standards for the safety and essential performance of the equipment concerned. This document cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60601-1-3, published in 1994 (which replaced IEC 407 issued in 1973). It constitutes a technical revision. This edition has been restructured and aligned to IEC 60601-1(2005) and focussed on general requirements for RADIATION PROTECTION that apply to all diagnostic X-RAY EQUIPMENT. Requirements particular to specific equipment have been removed and will be covered in particular standards. For a description of the changes, see the mapping in Annex C.
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Applies to the basic safety and essential performance of ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. The approach and philosophy used in drafting this particular standard for safety of ultrasonic diagnostic equipment are consistent with those in standards of the IEC 60601 2 xx series that apply to other diagnostic modalities, such as X-ray equipment and magnetic resonance systems. In each case, the safety standard is intended to require increasing sophistication of output display indicators and/or controls with increasing energy levels in the interrogating field of diagnosis. Thus, for all such diagnostic modalities, it is the responsibility of the operator to understand the risk of the output of the ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, and to act appropriately in order to obtain the needed diagnostic information with the minimum risk to the patient. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2001 and its Amendment 1 (2004) and Amendment 2 (2005). This edition combines the previous edition and its amendments into a form compatible with the parent IEC 60601-1:2005.
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This part of IEC 61223 applies to the effectiveness of mammographic X-ray equipment, with respect to image quality and dose, in combination with aspects of equipment safety. This standard applies to mammographic X-ray equipment and mammographic stereotactic devices. The tests described in this standard require the quality and performance of the X-ray image receptors to be assured prior to the acceptance testing when they are not an integral part of the mammographic X-ray equipment. This includes radiographic films, intensifying screens, radiographic cassettes, storage phosphor plates and associated equipment such as film processors or storage phosphor plate readers, image display devices and hard copy cameras. For testing radiographic cassettes and intensifying screens, this standard makes reference to ISO 4090. Sensitivity and contrast for the screen-film image receptors are considered to be stated according to ISO 9236-3. By the measurements described in this standard, data for average glandular dose calculation can be determined. When the results of the acceptance test are in compliance with the expected values, the baseline values for the subsequent constancy tests are established. This part of IEC 61223 defines a) the essential parameters which describe the performance of the above-mentioned mammographic X ray equipment with regard to image quality and dose; and b) the methods of testing whether measured quantities related to those parameters comply with specified tolerances. These methods mainly rely on non-invasive measurements that use appropriate test equipment and are performed during or after the installation. Signed statements covering steps in the installation procedure can be used as part of the acceptance test. Tests required by a higher level of compliance take precedence over similar tests with a lower level of compliance.
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Specifies the method for the determination of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray imaging devices as a function of air kerma and of spatial frequency for the working conditions in the range of the medical application as specified by the manufacturer. The intended users of this part of IEC 62220 are manufacturers and well equipped test laboratories. This Part 1-2 is restricted to digital X-ray imaging devices that are used for mammographic imaging such as but not exclusively, CR systems, direct and indirect flat panel detector based systems, scanning systems (CCD based or photon-counting). This part of IEC 62220 is not applicable to - digital X-ray imaging devices intended to be used in general radiography or in dental radiography; - computed tomography; and - devices for dynamic imaging (where series of images are acquired, as in fluoroscopic or cardiac imaging).
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