Fuel cell technologies - Part 7-1: Single cell test methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

IEC/TS 62282-7-1:2010(E) covers cell assemblies, test apparatus, measuring instruments and measuring methods, performance test methods, and test reports for PEFC single cells. This Technical Specification is used for evaluating:
- the performance of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEFCs;
- materials or structures of other components of PEFCs;
- or the influence of impurities in fuel and/or in air on the fuel cell performance.

General Information

Publication Date
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
Ref Project


Buy Standard

Technical specification
IEC TS 62282-7-1:2010 - Fuel cell technologies - Part 7-1: Single cell test methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) Released:6/10/2010
English language
49 pages
sale 15% off
sale 15% off

Standards Content (Sample)

IEC/TS 62282-7-1
Edition 1.0 2010-06

Fuel cell technologies –
Part 7-1: Single cell test methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

IEC/TS 62282-7-1:2010(E)

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
Copyright © 2010 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either IEC or
IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester.
If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,
please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite
ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie
et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de la CEI ou du Comité national de la CEI du pays du demandeur.
Si vous avez des questions sur le copyright de la CEI ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette
publication, utilisez les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de la CEI de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office
3, rue de Varembé
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Email: inmail@iec.ch
Web: www.iec.ch

About IEC publications
The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the
latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
ƒ Catalogue of IEC publications: www.iec.ch/searchpub
The IEC on-line Catalogue enables you to search by a variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical committee,…).
It also gives information on projects, withdrawn and replaced publications.
ƒ IEC Just Published: www.iec.ch/online_news/justpub
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published details twice a month all new publications released. Available
on-line and also by email.
ƒ Electropedia: www.electropedia.org
The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and electrical terms containing more than 20 000 terms and definitions
in English and French, with equivalent terms in additional languages. Also known as the International Electrotechnical
Vocabulary online.
ƒ Customer Service Centre: www.iec.ch/webstore/custserv
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or need further assistance, please visit the Customer Service
Centre FAQ or contact us:
Email: csc@iec.ch
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
Fax: +41 22 919 03 00

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TS 62282-7-1
Edition 1.0 2010-06

Fuel cell technologies –
Part 7-1: Single cell test methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

ICS 27.070 ISBN 978-2-88910-984-5
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)
1 Scope.8
2 Normative references .8
3 Terms and definitions .8
4 General safety considerations .11
5 Cell components.11
5.1 General .11
5.2 Sizing the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) .11
5.3 Gas diffusion layer (GDL) .12
5.4 Gasket .12
5.5 Flow plate .12
5.6 Current collector.12
5.7 Clamping plate (or pressure plates).12
5.8 Clamping hardware .12
5.9 Temperature-control device.13
6 Cell assembly.13
6.1 Assembly procedure.13
6.2 Cell orientation and gas connections .13
6.3 Leak check.13
7 Test station setup.14
7.1 Minimum equipment requirement.14
7.2 Schematic diagram.14
7.3 Maximum variation in test station controls (inputs to test).15
8 Measurement .16
8.1 Instrument uncertainty.16
8.2 Measuring instruments and measuring methods .16
8.3 Measurement units .18
9 Gas composition.18
9.1 Fuel composition .18
9.2 Oxidant composition.18
10 Test preparation .19
10.1 Standard test conditions .19
10.2 Ambient conditions .19
10.3 Frequency of measurement .19
10.4 Repeatability and reproducibility .19
10.5 Maximum permissible variation in measured values.20
10.6 Number of test samples .20
10.7 Leak check of gas circuit with inert or test gas .20
10.8 Initial conditioning and stable state check.20
10.9 Shutdown .20
10.10 Re-conditioning .20
11 Performance tests .21
11.1 Steady test .21
11.2 I-V characteristics tests .21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E) – 3 –
11.3 IR measurement .22
11.4 Limiting current test .22
11.5 Gain tests .23
11.6 Gas stoichiometry tests .24
11.7 Temperature effect test.24
11.8 Pressure effect test .25
11.9 Humidity effect tests .25
11.10 Fuel composition test.26
11.11 Overload test .26
11.12 Long-term operation test.26
11.13 Start/stop cycling test .27
11.14 Load cycling test.27
11.15 Impurity influence tests.28
12 Test report.29
12.1 General .29
12.2 Report items.30
12.3 Test data description.30
12.4 Measurement condition description .30
12.5 Test cell data description.30
Annex A (informative) Flow plate .31
Annex B (informative) Cell component alignment .33
Annex C (informative) Leak test.34
Annex D (informative) Initial conditioning .35
Annex E (informative) Shutdown .36
Annex F (informative) Reconditioning .37
Annex G (informative) I-V characteristic test .38
Annex H (informative) Start/stop cycling test.40
Annex I (informative) Load cycling test .41
Annex J (informative) Test report.43

Figure 1 – Test station schematic diagram for single cell testing.15
Figure 2 – Typical testing flowchart.19
Figure A.1 – Design for flow plate (single serpentine flow channel) .32
Figure A.2 – Design for flow plate (triple serpentine flow channel) .32
Figure B.1 – Single cell assembly using typical components .33
Figure I.1 – First load cycling profile .41
Figure I.2 – Second load cycling profile .42

Table 1 – Parameters and units .18
Table G.1 – Current density increments if maximum current density is known.38
Table G.2 – Current density increments if maximum current density is unknown .39
Table J.1– Test input parameters.45
Table J.2 – Test output parameters.46

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)
Table J.3 – Functional performance before the measurement step (start up and
conditioning) .46
Table J.4 – Functional performance during the polarization step .47

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E) – 5 –


Part 7-1: Single cell test methods
for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote
international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To
this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,
Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC
Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested
in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-
governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely
with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by
agreement between the two organizations.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all
interested IEC National Committees.
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC
Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
misinterpretation by any end user.
4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence
between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in
the latter.
5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity
assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any
services carried out by independent certification bodies.
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and
members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or
other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and
expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC
8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is
indispensable for the correct application of this publication.
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In
exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a technical
specification when
• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,
despite repeated efforts, or
• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the
future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.
Technical specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide
whether they can be transformed into International Standards.
IEC 62282-7-1, which is a technical specification, has been prepared by IEC technical
committee 105: Fuel cell technologies.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)
The text of this technical specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
105/241/DTS 105/253A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical specification can be found in
the report on voting indicated in the above table.
This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
A list of all parts of the IEC 62282 series, under the general title: Fuel cell technologies, can
be found on the IEC website.
The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until
the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data
related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be be
• transformed into an International standard,
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E) – 7 –
This Technical Specification describes standard single-cell test methods for polymer
electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs); it provides consistent and repeatable methods to test the
performance of single cells. This Technical Specification is to be used by component
manufacturers or stack manufacturers who assemble components in order to evaluate the
performance of cell components, including membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) and flow
plates. This Technical Specification is also available for fuel suppliers to determine the
maximum allowable impurities in fuels.
Users of this Technical Specification may selectively execute test items suitable for their
purposes from those described in this technical specification. This document is not intended
to exclude any other methods.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)

Part 7-1: Single cell test methods
for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

1 Scope
This part of IEC 62282 covers cell assemblies, test apparatus, measuring instruments and
measuring methods, performance test methods, and test reports for PEFC single cells.
This Technical Specification is used for evaluating:
a) the performance of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEFCs,
b) materials or structures of other components of PEFCs, or
c) the influence of impurities in fuel and/or in air on the fuel cell performance.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition
of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC/TS 62282-1:2010, Fuel cell technologies – Part 1: Terminology
ISO/TS 14687-2:2008, Hydrogen fuel – Product specification – Part 2: Proton exchange
membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications for road vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:
the electrode at which fuel oxidation takes place by the removal of electrons from the fuel to
the external electric load, concurrent with the release of protons (H ) to the polymer
substance that accelerates (increases the rate of) a reaction without being consumed itself
The catalyst lowers the activation energy of the reaction, allowing for an increase in the
reaction rate. This is also referred to as an electrocatalyst, as defined in IEC/TS 62282-1.
catalyst-coated membrane
term used to describe a membrane (in a PEFC) whose surfaces are coated with a layer of
catalyst to form the reaction zone of the electrode

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E) – 9 –
the electrode at which oxidant reduction takes place, facilitated by the donation of electrons
from the external circuit and protons (H ) from the polymer electrolyte, followed by the release
of reduced oxidant products (water)
clamping plate (or pressure plate)
frame used to compress the cell components together to maintain electrical conductivity and
current collector
conductive material, which can consist of metals, graphite or composite materials, that
collects electrons from an anode or disburses electrons to a cathode
catalytic layer that facilitates either an oxidation or reduction reaction, and has both electronic
and ionic conduction.
flow plate
conductive plate made of metals, a material such as graphite, or a conductive polymer that
may be a carbon-filled composite, which is incorporated with flow channels for fuel or oxidant
gas feed and has electrical contact with an electrode
hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas that reacts at the anode
fuel cell
electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant to electrical
energy (DC power), heat and reaction products
The fuel and oxidant are typically stored outside of the fuel cell and transferred into the fuel
cell as the reactants are consumed.
gas diffusion electrode
component on the anode or cathode side comprising all electronic conductive elements of the
electrode, i.e. gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer
gas diffusion layer
porous conductive component placed between an electrode and a flow plate, to serve as
electric contact and allow access of reactants to the electrode and the removal of reaction
sealing component which prevents the reaction gas from leaking out of a cell

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)
limiting current density
the current density where the cell voltage sharply decreases to near zero
maximum current density
the highest current density specified by the manufacturer allowed for a short time
membrane electrode assembly
component of a fuel cell (3.10) consisting of an electrolyte membrane with gas diffusion
electrodes (3.11) on either side
minimum cell voltage
the lowest cell voltage specified by the manufacturer
open circuit voltage
the cell voltage at zero current density with the cell under operating conditions
oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (e.g., air) that reacts at the cathode
polymer electrolyte
polymer resin membrane having proton exchange capability in which current is carried by the
movement of such ions from an anode to a cathode
polymer electrolyte fuel cell
fuel cell that employs a polymer electrolyte membrane as an electrolyte, which is also called a
proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)
measure calculated from the voltage multiplied by the current at a steady state (P = V × I)
power density
measure calculated by dividing the power by the geometric, electrode area
rated current density
maximum current density specified by the manufacturer of the MEA or single cell for
continuous operation
rated power density
maximum power density specified by the manufacturer of the MEA or single cell for
continuous operation

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E) – 11 –
rated voltage
minimum cell voltage specified by the manufacturer of the MEA or single cell for continuous
single cell
cell typically consisting of an anode flow plate, MEA, cathode flow plate and sealing gaskets
(see Annex B for additional information)
single cell test
test of the fuel cell performance based on a single cell
molar ratio of the fuel (or oxidant) gases supplied to the cell to that required by the chemical
reaction, as calculated from the current
4 General safety considerations
An operating fuel cell uses oxidizing and reducing gases. Typically, these gases are stored in
high-pressure containers. The fuel cell itself may or may not be operated at pressures greater
than atmospheric pressure.
Those who carry out single cell testing shall be trained and experienced in the operation of
single cell test systems and specifically in safety procedures involving electrical equipment
and reactive, compressed gases. Safely operating a single cell test station requires
appropriate technical training and experience as well as safe facilities and equipment, all of
which are outside the scope of this technical specification.
5 Cell components
5.1 General
A single cell of a PEFC shall be composed of all or some of the following components:
a) an MEA,
b) gaskets,
c) an anode-side flow plate and a cathode-side flow plate,
d) an anode-side current collector and a cathode-side current collector,
e) an anode-side clamping plate and a cathode-side clamping plate,
f) electrically insulating sheets,
g) clamping or axial load hardware which may include bolts, washers, springs, etc.,
h) temperature-control devices,
i) other miscellaneous parts.
5.2 Sizing the membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
The electrode area shall be as large as needed to measure desired parameters. A suggested
electrode size should be approximately 25 cm , though larger cells having larger electrodes
may give more relevant data for practical applications. The active electrode area shall be
reported and shall be the smaller of the two electrode active areas. The approximate
uncertainty in the area measurement shall be reported also.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – TS 62282-7-1 © IEC:2010(E)
5.3 Gas diffusion layer (GDL)
A gas diffusion layer shall be made of highly gas-diffusible, electrically conductive and
corrosion-resistant materials.
5.4 Gasket
The gasket material shall be compatible with fuel cell reactants, components and reaction
products, and cell operating temperature. It shall prevent gas leakage.
5.5 Flow plate
Flow plates shall be made of materials that have negligible gas permeability, but high electric
conductivity. Resin-impregnated, high-density, synthetic graphite, polymer/carbon composites,
or corrosion-resistant metal, such as titanium or stainless steel, is recommended. If metal is
used, the plate surface may be coated/plated (e.g., with gold) in order to reduce contact
resistance. The flow plate should be corrosion-resistant and should provide a suitable seal.
A serpentine flow channel is suggested. Further information about a suggest design is given
in Annex A. The flow field configuration shall be documented in the test report.
The flow plates for testing shall allow the accurate measurement of cell operating temperature.
For example, flow plates may have a small hole on an edgewise face in order to
accommodate a temperature sensor. In this case, the hole shall reach the centre of the flow
NOTE If the objective of testing is to evaluate the design of a particular flow channel, it is not necessary to use
the suggested flow plate des

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.