Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and batteries during transport

IEC 62281:2019 is available as IEC 62281:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 62281:2019 specifies test methods and requirements for primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium cells and batteries to ensure their safety during transport other than for recycling or disposal. Requirements specified in this document do not apply in those cases where special provisions given in the relevant regulations, listed in 7.3, provide exemptions. NOTE Different standards may apply for lithium-ion traction battery systems used for electrically propelled road vehicles. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2016. This edition constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) button cell definition revised, moved to coin (cell or battery);
b) addition of provisions for batteries forming an integral part of equipment (5.4);
c) all tests for secondary cells and batteries now also contain a requirement for 25 charge and recharge cycles prior to the test;
d) addition of alternative tables for Table 1 and Table 2 in Annex B;
e) addition of "forcible" to the rupture criteria;
f) test report 6.8 merged with test certificate 6.9 and replaced with the items listed in [13];
g) addition of an informative Annex B with important deviations from the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, Chapter 38.3.
Keywords: transport of primary lithium cells and batteries

Sécurité des piles et des accumulateurs au lithium pendant le transport

IEC 62281:2019 est disponible sous forme de IEC 62281:2019 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 62281:2019 spécifie les méthodes d’essai et les exigences pour les éléments et les batteries de piles et d'accumulateurs au lithium afin de garantir leur sécurité pendant les opérations de transport autres que celles relatives à leur recyclage ou leur mise au rebut. Les exigences spécifiées dans le présent document ne s’appliquent pas aux cas bénéficiant d'exemptions accordées par des dispositions spéciales prévues dans les réglementations applicables énumérées en 7.3. NOTE Différentes normes peuvent s'appliquer aux systèmes de batteries de traction ion-lithium utilisés pour les véhicules routiers électriques. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2016. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) la définition de l’élément bouton révisée, a été intégrée à celle de (élément ou batterie) bouton;
b) ajout de dispositions pour les batteries faisant partie intégrante du matériel (5.4);
c) tous les essais pour accumulateurs intègrent désormais une exigence de 25 cycles de charge et de recharge avant l’essai.
d) ajout dans l’Annexe B de tableaux alternatifs au Tableau 1 et au Tableau 2;
e) ajout de "violent" aux critères de rupture;
f) le rapport d’essai en 0 a été fusionné avec le certificat d’essai en 6.9 et remplacé par les éléments énumérés dans [13];
g) ajout d’une Annexe B informative indiquant d’importants écarts par rapport au Manuel d’épreuves et de critères et de l'Organisation des Nations unies, Chapitre 38.3.
Mots clés : transports des piles au lithium.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Apr-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
10-Apr-2019
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IEC 62281
Edition 4.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and batteries during transport
Sécurité des piles et des accumulateurs au lithium pendant le transport
IEC 62281:2019-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62281
Edition 4.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and batteries during transport
Sécurité des piles et des accumulateurs au lithium pendant le transport
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-6661-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Requirements for safety ................................................................................................. 11

4.1 General considerations ......................................................................................... 11

4.2 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 11

4.3 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 11

5 Type testing, sampling and re-testing ............................................................................ 11

5.1 Type testing .......................................................................................................... 11

5.2 Overcharge protection .......................................................................................... 12

5.3 Battery assemblies................................................................................................ 12

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

5.3.2 Small battery assemblies ............................................................................... 12

5.3.3 Large battery assemblies ............................................................................... 12

5.4 Batteries forming an integral part of equipment ..................................................... 12

5.5 Sampling............................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Re-testing ............................................................................................................. 13

6 Test methods and requirements ..................................................................................... 14

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

6.1.1 Cautionary notice........................................................................................... 14

6.1.2 Ambient temperature ..................................................................................... 14

6.1.3 Parameter measurement tolerances .............................................................. 14

6.1.4 Pre-discharge and pre-cycling ....................................................................... 14

6.2 Evaluation of test criteria ...................................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Shifting .......................................................................................................... 14

6.2.2 Distortion ....................................................................................................... 14

6.2.3 Short-circuit ................................................................................................... 15

6.2.4 Excessive temperature rise ............................................................................ 15

6.2.5 Leakage ........................................................................................................ 15

6.2.6 Venting .......................................................................................................... 15

6.2.7 Fire ................................................................................................................ 15

6.2.8 Rupture ......................................................................................................... 15

6.2.9 Explosion ....................................................................................................... 15

6.3 Tests and requirements – Overview ...................................................................... 16

6.4 Transport tests ...................................................................................................... 16

6.4.1 Test T-1: Altitude ........................................................................................... 16

6.4.2 Test T-2: Thermal cycling .............................................................................. 16

6.4.3 Test T-3: Vibration ......................................................................................... 17

6.4.4 Test T-4: Shock ............................................................................................. 18

6.4.5 Test T-5: External short-circuit ....................................................................... 18

6.4.6 Test T-6: Impact/crush ................................................................................... 19

6.5 Misuse tests .......................................................................................................... 21

6.5.1 Test T-7: Overcharge ..................................................................................... 21

6.5.2 Test T-8: Forced discharge ............................................................................ 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –

6.6 Packaging test – Test P-1: Drop test ..................................................................... 21

6.7 Information to be given in the relevant specification .............................................. 22

6.8 Test report summary ............................................................................................. 22

7 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 23

7.1 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 23

7.2 Handling of battery cartons ................................................................................... 23

7.3 Transport .............................................................................................................. 23

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

7.3.2 Air transport................................................................................................... 23

7.3.3 Sea transport ................................................................................................. 23

7.3.4 Land transport ............................................................................................... 23

7.3.5 Classification ................................................................................................. 23

7.4 Storage ................................................................................................................. 24

8 Instructions for packaging and handling during transport – Quarantine .......................... 24

9 Marking ......................................................................................................................... 24

9.1 Marking of primary and secondary (rechargeable) cells and batteries ................... 24

9.2 Marking of the packaging and shipping documents ............................................... 24

Annex A (informative) Shock test – adjustment of acceleration for large batteries ................ 25

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

A.2 Shock energy depends on mass, acceleration, and pulse duration ........................ 25

A.3 The constant acceleration approach ...................................................................... 26

A.4 The constant energy approach .............................................................................. 27

Annex B (informative) Deviations from Chapter 38.3 of the UN Manual ................................ 28

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Summary table of required tests for primary cells and batteries ............................ 28

B.3 Summary table of required tests for rechargeable cells and batteries .................... 29

B.4 Evaluation of a rupture .......................................................................................... 31

B.5 Evaluation of an explosion .................................................................................... 31

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 32

Figure 1 – Example of a test set-up for the impact test.......................................................... 20

Figure A.1 – Half sine shock for batteries (constant peak acceleration) ................................. 26

Figure A.2 – Half sine shock for batteries (constant energy) ................................................. 27

Table 1 – Number of primary test cells and batteries for type testing .................................... 13

Table 2 – Number of secondary test cells and batteries for type testing ................................ 13

Table 3 – Number of packages with primary or secondary test cells and batteries................. 13

Table 4 – Mass loss limits ..................................................................................................... 15

Table 5 – Transport and packaging tests and requirements .................................................. 16

Table 6 – Vibration profile (sinusoidal) .................................................................................. 17

Table 7 – Shock parameters ................................................................................................. 18

Table B.1 – Summary table of required tests for primary cells and batteries .......................... 29

Table B.2 – Summary table of required tests for rechargeable cells and batteries ................. 30

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS
AND BATTERIES DURING TRANSPORT
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62281 has been prepared jointly by IEC technical committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries and subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells and batteries containing

alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee 21: Secondary cells and

batteries.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2016. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) button cell definition revised, moved to coin (cell or battery);

b) addition of provisions for batteries forming an integral part of equipment (5.4);

c) all tests for secondary cells and batteries now also contain a requirement for 25 charge

and recharge cycles prior to the test;
d) addition of alternative tables for Table 1 and Table 2 in Annex B;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –
e) addition of "forcible" to the rupture criteria;

f) test report 6.8 merged with test certificate 6.9 and replaced with the items listed in [12];

g) addition of an informative Annex B with important deviations from the UN Manual of Tests

and Criteria, Chapter 38.3.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1416/FDIS 35/1422/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION

Primary lithium cells and batteries were first introduced in military applications in the 1970s.

At that time, little commercial interest and no industrial standards existed. Consequently, the

United Nations (UN) Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, although

usually referring to industrial standards for testing and criteria, introduced a sub-section in the

Manual of tests and criteria concerning safety tests relevant to transport of primary lithium

cells and batteries. Meanwhile, commercial interest in primary and secondary (rechargeable)

lithium cells and batteries has grown and several industrial standards exist. However, the

existing IEC standards are manifold, not completely harmonized, and not necessarily relevant

to transport. They are not suitable to be used as a source of reference in the UN Model

Regulations. Therefore this group safety standard has been prepared to harmonize the tests

and requirements relevant to transport.

This document applies to primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium cells and batteries

containing lithium in any chemical form: lithium metal, lithium alloy or lithium-ion. Lithium-

metal and lithium alloy primary electrochemical systems use metallic lithium and lithium alloy,

respectively, as the negative electrode. Lithium-ion secondary electrochemical systems use

intercalation compounds (intercalated lithium exists in an ionic or quasi-atomic form within the

lattice of the electrode material) in the positive and in the negative electrodes.

This document also applies to lithium polymer cells and batteries, which are considered either

as primary lithium-metal cells and batteries or as secondary lithium-ion cells and batteries,

depending on the nature of the material used in the negative electrode.

The history of transporting primary and secondary lithium cells and batteries is worth noting.

Since the 1970s, over ten billion primary lithium cells and batteries have been transported,

and since the early 1990s, over one billion secondary (rechargeable) lithium cells and

batteries utilizing a lithium-ion system have been transported. As the number of primary and

secondary lithium cells and batteries to be transported is increasing, it is appropriate to also

include in this document the safety testing of packaging used for the transportation of these

products.

This document specifically addresses the safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and

batteries during transport and also the safety of the packaging used.

The UN Manual of Tests and Criteria [12] distinguishes between lithium metal and lithium

alloy cells and batteries on the one hand, and lithium ion and lithium polymer cells and

batteries on the other hand. While it defines that lithium metal and lithium alloy cells and

batteries can be either primary (non-rechargeable) or rechargeable, it always considers

lithium ion cells and batteries as rechargeable. However, test methods in the UN Manual of

Tests and Criteria are the same for both secondary lithium metal and lithium alloy cells and

batteries and lithium ion and lithium polymer cells and batteries. The concept is only needed

to distinguish between small and large battery assemblies. Battery assemblies assembled

from (primary or secondary) lithium metal and lithium alloy batteries are distinguished by the

aggregate lithium content of all anodes (measured in grams), while battery assemblies

assembled from lithium ion or lithium polymer batteries are distinguished by their "nominal"

energy (measured in Watt-hours).
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019 – 7 –
SAFETY OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS
AND BATTERIES DURING TRANSPORT
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies test methods and requirements for primary and

secondary (rechargeable) lithium cells and batteries to ensure their safety during transport

other than for recycling or disposal. Requirements specified in this document do not apply in

those cases where special provisions given in the relevant regulations, listed in 7.3, provide

exemptions.

NOTE Different standards may apply for lithium-ion traction battery systems used for electrically propelled road

vehicles.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
aggregate lithium content
total lithium content of the cells comprising a battery
3.2
battery

one or more cells electrically connected and fitted in a case, with terminals, markings and

protective devices etc., as necessary for use

Note 1 to entry: This definition is different from the definition used in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria [12].

This document was, however, carefully prepared so that the test set-up for each test is harmonized with the UN

Manual.

Note 2 to entry: A cell used in equipment where the equipment is providing the functions of a case, terminals,

markings and protective devices etc., as necessary for use in the equipment, is, for the purposes of this document,

considered to be a battery.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004 [1], 482-01-04, modified – Reference to "electrically

connected" has been added.]
3.3
battery assembly
battery comprising two or more batteries
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62281:2019  IEC 2019
3.4
coin cell or battery
lithium button cell or battery

small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter, containing non-

aqueous electrolyte

Note 1 to entry: The nominal voltage of lithium batteries is typically greater than 2 V.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-40, modified – The definition "small round cell or

battery" replaces the original "cell with a cylindrical shape", "containing non-aqueous

electrolyte" was added, the term "lithium button" was added]
3.5
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals

and, usually, separators that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct conversion of

chemical energy
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01]
3.6
component cell
cell contained in a battery
3.7
cycle

set of operations that is carried out on a

secondary (rechargeable) cell or battery and is repeated regularly in the same sequence

Note 1 to entry: These operations may consist of a sequence of a discharge followed by a charge or a charge

followed by a discharge under specified conditions. This sequence may include rest periods.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-05-28, modified – The words "secondary
(rechargeable)" have been added.]
3.8
cylindrical cell or battery

round cell or battery in which the overall height is equal to or greater than the diameter

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-39, modified – The words "round cell or battery"

replace the original "cell with a cylindrical shape", the term "cylindrical battery" has been

added.]
3.9
depth of discharge
DOD
percentage of rated capacity discharged from a battery
Note 1 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
3.10
first cycle

initial cycle of a secondary (rechargeable) cell or battery following completion of all

manufacturing, formation and quality control processes
3.11
fully charged, adj

state of charge of a secondary (rechargeable) cell or battery corresponding to 0 % depth of

discharge
---------------------- Page: 10 ------
...

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