Fire hazard testing - Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame - General guidance

IEC 60695-9-1:2013 provides guidance for the assessment of surface spread of flame for electrotechnical products and the materials from which they are formed. It provides an explanation of the principles of flame spread for both liquids and solids, guidance for the selection of test methods, guidance on the use and interpretation of test results, and informative references. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 60695-9-1 published in 2005, and constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- an expanded scope;
- updated references and
- updated terms and definitions.
Keywords: Surface spread, Flame
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60695-9-2:2005.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 9-1: Propagation de flammes en surface - Lignes directrices générales

La CEI 60695-9-1:2013 fournit les lignes directrices générales pour l'évaluation de la propagation de flammes en surface des produits électrotechniques et des matériaux à partir desquels ils sont faits. Elle fournit une explication des principes de la propagation de la flamme pour les liquides et les solides, des considérations pour la sélection des méthodes d'essai, des références informatives. Cette troisième édition de la CEI 60695-9-1 annule et remplace la deuxième édition publiée en 2005 dont elle constitue une révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition antérieure sont un domaine d'application étoffé, mise à jour des références et mise à jour des termes et définitions.
Mots-clés: Propagation en surface, Flamme, Combustion
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la CEI 60695-9-2:2005.

General Information

Publication Date
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
Completion Date
Ref Project


Buy Standard

IEC 60695-9-1:2013 - Fire hazard testing - Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame - General guidance
English and French language
30 pages
sale 15% off
sale 15% off

Standards Content (Sample)

IEC 60695-9-1 ®
Edition 3.0 2013-04
Fire hazard testing –
Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame – General guidance

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 9-1: Propagation des flammes en surface – Lignes directrices générales

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from
either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester.
If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,
please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni
utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les
microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de la CEI ou du Comité national de la CEI du pays du demandeur.
Si vous avez des questions sur le copyright de la CEI ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette
publication, utilisez les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de la CEI de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
CH-1211 Geneva 20
About the IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes
International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.

About IEC publications
The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the
latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.

Useful links:
IEC publications search - Electropedia -
The advanced search enables you to find IEC publications The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and
by a variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical electrical terms containing more than 30 000 terms and
committee,…). definitions in English and French, with equivalent terms in
It also gives information on projects, replaced and additional languages. Also known as the International
withdrawn publications. Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) on-line.

IEC Just Published - Customer Service Centre -
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication
details all new publications released. Available on-line and or need further assistance, please contact the
also once a month by email. Customer Service Centre:

A propos de la CEI
La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (CEI) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des
Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications CEI
Le contenu technique des publications de la CEI est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez
l’édition la plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.

Liens utiles:
Recherche de publications CEI - Electropedia -
La recherche avancée vous permet de trouver des Le premier dictionnaire en ligne au monde de termes
publications CEI en utilisant différents critères (numéro de électroniques et électriques. Il contient plus de 30 000
référence, texte, comité d’études,…). termes et définitions en anglais et en français, ainsi que
Elle donne aussi des informations sur les projets et les les termes équivalents dans les langues additionnelles.
publications remplacées ou retirées. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire Electrotechnique
International (VEI) en ligne.
Just Published CEI -
Service Clients -
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications de la CEI.
Just Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur
Disponible en ligne et aussi une fois par mois par email. cette publication ou si vous avez des questions
IEC 60695-9-1 ®
Edition 3.0 2013-04

Fire hazard testing –
Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame – General guidance

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –

Partie 9-1: Propagation des flammes en surface – Lignes directrices générales

ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-83220-753-6

– 2 – 60695-9-1 © IEC:2013
1 Scope . 6
2 Normative references . 6
3 Terms and definitions . 6
4 Principles of flame spread . 11
4.1 Liquids . 11
4.2 Solids . 11
5 Consideration for the selection of test methods . 12
5.1 Fire scenario . 12
5.2 Ignition sources . 12
5.3 Types of test specimen . 12
5.4 Test procedure and apparatus . 13
5.5 Measurement techniques . 13
5.5.1 Direct measurement . 13
5.5.2 Indirect measurement . 13
6 Use and interpretation of results . 13
Bibliography . 15

60695-9-1 © IEC:2013 – 3 –
Part 9-1: Surface spread of flame –
General guidance
1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote
international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To
this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,
Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC
Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested
in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-
governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely
with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by
agreement between the two organizations.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all
interested IEC National Committees.
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC
Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
misinterpretation by any end user.
4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence
between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in
the latter.
5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity
assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any
services carried out by independent certification bodies.
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and
members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or
other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and
expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC
8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is
indispensable for the correct application of this publication.
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 60695-9-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire
hazard testing.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1159/FDIS 89/1164/RVD
Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on
voting indicated in the above table.
This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 60695-9-1 published in 2005,
and constitutes a technical revision.

– 4 – 60695-9-1 © IEC:2013
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous
a) an expanded scope;
b) updated references;
c) updated terms and definitions.
It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.
This international standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-9-2.
A list of all the parts in the 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can be
found on the IEC web site.
IEC 60695-9 consists of the following parts:
– Part 9-1:Surface spread of flame – General guidance
– Part 9-2: Surface spread of flame – Summary of test methods
The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the
stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "" in the data related to
the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
60695-9-1 © IEC:2013 – 5 –
Fires are responsible for creating hazards to life and property as a result of the generation of
heat (thermal hazard), and also toxic effluent, corrosive effluent and smoke (non-thermal
hazard). Fire hazard increases with the burning area leading in some cases to flashover and a
fully developed fire. This is a typical fire scenario in buildings.
The surface spread of flame beyond the area of ignition occurs as a result of the creation of a
pyrolysis front on the surface of the material, ahead of the flame front, arising from the heating
by the flame and external heat sources. The pyrolysis front is the boundary between pyrolysed
material and unpyrolysed material on the surface of the material. Combustible vapours are
generated within the region of pyrolysed material, which mix with air and ignite, creating the
flame front.
The surface spread of flame rate is the distance travelled by the flame front divided by the time
required to travel that distance. The surface spread of flame rate depends on the heat supplied
externally and/or by the flame of the burning material ahead of the burning zone and on the
ease of ignition. The ease of ignition is a function of the minimum ignition temperature,
thickness, density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the material. The heat supplied by
the flame depends on the heat release rate, specimen orientation, air flow rate and air flow
direction relative to the surface spread of flame direction. In general, materials show one of the
following types of surface spread of flame behaviour:
a) non-propagation: there is no flame propagation beyond the area of ignition;
b) decele

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.