Primary batteries - Part 1: General

IEC 60086-1:2015 is available as IEC 60086-1:2015 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60086-1:2015 is intended to standardize primary batteries with respect to dimensions, nomenclature, terminal configurations, markings, test methods, typical performance, safety and environmental aspects. As a primary battery classification tool, electrochemical systems are also standardized with respect to system letter, electrodes, electrolyte, nominal and maximum open circuit voltage. The object of this part of IEC 60086 is to benefit primary battery users, device designers and battery manufacturers by ensuring that batteries from different manufacturers are interchangeable according to standard form, fit and function. Furthermore, to ensure compliance with the above, this part specifies standard test methods for testing primary cells and batteries. This twelfth edition cancels and replaces the eleventh edition (2011) and constitutes a technical revision. The major technical changes with respect to the previous edition are:
- the order of the Annexes was changed to the order in which they appearin the document and a caption was added to indicate where the Annex information first appears in the document;
- the humidity conditions for non P-system batteries in Table 3 was modified;
- the standard discharge voltage for the Y and W chemistries was determined to be at 3,5 V and 2,8 V respectively;
- details on capacity measurement were moved from Annex E to Subclause 5.1.
- the coin/button cell and battery definition was clarified in order to better address issues with the swallowing of coin cells. Keywords: fundamental requirements and information on primary cells and batteries

Piles électriques - Partie 1: Généralités

L'IEC 60086-1:2015 est disponible sous la référence IEC 60086-1:2015 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version "Redline", et qui montre toutes les modifications du contenu technique par rapport à l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60086-1:2015 est destinée à normaliser les piles électriques en ce qui concerne les points suivants: dimensions, nomenclature, configurations des bornes, marquages, méthodes d’essai, caractéristiques types de fonctionnement, sécurité et aspects environnementaux. En tant qu'outil de classification des piles électriques, les systèmes électrochimiques sont aussi normalisés en ce qui concerne leurs lettres de système, les électrodes, les électrolytes, les tensions en circuit ouvert nominales et maximales. L’objet de la présente partie de l'IEC 60086-1 est d’assurer aux utilisateurs de piles, aux concepteurs d’appareils et aux fabricants que les piles de fabricants différents sont interchangeables de par leur forme, leur montage et leur fonction qui sont normalisés. De plus, pour assurer la conformité avec ce qui précède, la présente partie spécifie des méthodes d’essai normalisées pour les piles électriques. Cette douzième édition annule et remplace la onzième édition parue en 2011. Elle constitue une révision technique. Les modifications techniques majeures par rapport à l’édition précédente, sont les suivantes:
- l'ordre des Annexes a été modifié pour respecter l'ordre dans lequel elles apparaissent dans le document et une légende a été ajoutée pour indiquer où une Annexe donnée est citée pour la première fois dans le document;
- les conditions d'humidité pour les piles qui ne sont pas du système P ont été modifiées dans le Tableau 3;
- la tension de décharge normalisée pour les systèmes électrochimiques Y et W a été déterminée comme étant de 3,5 V et 2,8 V respectivement;
- les indications détaillées concernant la mesure de la capacité ont été déplacées de l'Annexe E en 5.1.
- la définition de la pile / de l'élément bouton a été clarifiée afin de mieux mieux traiter les aspects liés à l'ingestion des éléments ou piles boutons. Mots clés: exigences et informations fondamentales concernant les piles électriques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jul-2015
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
27-Apr-2021
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IEC 60086-1
Edition 12.0 2015-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Primary batteries –
Part 1: General
IEC 60086-1:2015-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60086-1
Edition 12.0 2015-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Primary batteries –
Part 1: General
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-2813-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 11

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

4.1.1 Design ........................................................................................................... 11

4.1.2 Battery dimensions ........................................................................................ 11

4.1.3 Terminals ...................................................................................................... 11

4.1.4 Classification (electrochemical system) ......................................................... 13

4.1.5 Designation ................................................................................................... 14

4.1.6 Marking ......................................................................................................... 14

4.1.7 Interchangeability: battery voltage ................................................................. 15

4.2 Performance ......................................................................................................... 16

4.2.1 Discharge performance .................................................................................. 16

4.2.2 Dimensional stability ...................................................................................... 16

4.2.3 Leakage ........................................................................................................ 16

4.2.4 Open-circuit voltage limits ............................................................................. 16

4.2.5 Service output ............................................................................................... 16

4.2.6 Safety ............................................................................................................ 16

5 Performance – Testing .................................................................................................. 17

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

5.2 Discharge testing .................................................................................................. 17

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

5.2.2 Application tests ............................................................................................ 17

5.2.3 Service output tests ....................................................................................... 18

5.3 Conformance check to a specified minimum average duration .............................. 18

5.4 Calculation method of the specified value of a minimum average duration ............ 19

5.5 OCV testing .......................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Battery dimensions ............................................................................................... 19

5.7 Leakage and deformation ...................................................................................... 19

6 Performance – Test conditions ...................................................................................... 19

6.1 Storage and discharge conditions ......................................................................... 19

6.2 Commencement of discharge tests after storage ................................................... 20

6.3 Discharge test conditions ...................................................................................... 20

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

6.3.2 Compliance ................................................................................................... 20

6.4 Load resistance .................................................................................................... 20

6.5 Time periods ......................................................................................................... 20

6.6 Test condition tolerances ...................................................................................... 21

6.7 Activation of ‘P’-system batteries .......................................................................... 21

6.8 Measuring equipment ............................................................................................ 21

6.8.1 Voltage measurement .................................................................................... 21

6.8.2 Mechanical measurement .............................................................................. 21

7 Sampling and quality assurance .................................................................................... 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

8 Battery packaging .......................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (normative) Criteria for the standardization of batteries .......................................... 22

Annex B (informative) Recommendations for equipment design ........................................... 23

B.1 Technical liaison ................................................................................................... 23

B.2 Battery compartment ............................................................................................. 23

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

B.2.2 Limiting access by children ............................................................................ 24

B.3 Voltage cut-off ...................................................................................................... 24

Annex C (normative) Designation system (nomenclature) .................................................... 25

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

C.2 Designation system in use up to October 1990...................................................... 25

C.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

C.2.2 Cells .............................................................................................................. 25

C.2.3 Electrochemical system ................................................................................. 27

C.2.4 Batteries ........................................................................................................ 28

C.2.5 Modifiers ....................................................................................................... 28

C.2.6 Examples....................................................................................................... 28

C.3 Designation system in use since October 1990 ..................................................... 28

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

C.3.2 Round batteries ............................................................................................. 28

C.3.3 Non-round batteries ....................................................................................... 32

C.3.4 Ambiguity ...................................................................................................... 35

Annex D (informative) Standard discharge voltage U – Definition and method of

determination ........................................................................................................................ 37

D.1 Definition .............................................................................................................. 37

D.2 Determination ....................................................................................................... 37

D.2.1 General considerations: the C/R-plot .............................................................. 37

D.2.2 Determination of the standard discharge resistor R ...................................... 38

D.2.3 Determination of the standard discharge capacity C and standard

discharge time t ........................................................................................... 39

D.3 Experimental conditions to be observed and test results ....................................... 39

Annex E (informative) Preparation of standard methods of measuring performance

(SMMP) of consumer goods .................................................................................................. 41

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

E.2 Performance characteristics .................................................................................. 41

E.3 Criteria for the development of test methods ......................................................... 41

Annex F (informative) Calculation method for the specified value of minimum average

duration ................................................................................................................................ 42

Annex G (normative) Code of practice for packaging, shipment, storage, use and

disposal of primary batteries ................................................................................................. 43

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 43

G.2 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 43

G.3 Transport and handling ......................................................................................... 43

G.4 Storage and stock rotation .................................................................................... 43

G.5 Displays at sales points ........................................................................................ 44

G.6 Selection, use and disposal .................................................................................. 44

G.6.1 Purchase ....................................................................................................... 44

G.6.2 Installation ..................................................................................................... 44

G.6.3 Use ................................................................................................................ 44

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015

G.6.4 Replacement ................................................................................................. 45

G.6.5 Disposal ........................................................................................................ 45

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 46

Figure 1 – Ingestion gauge ................................................................................................... 11

Figure C.1 – Designation system for round batteries: d < 100 mm; height h < 100 mm ...... 29

1 1

Figure C.2 – Diameter code for non-recommended diameters ............................................... 30

Figure C.3 – Height code for denoting the hundredths of a millimetre of height ..................... 31

Figure C.4 – Designation system for round batteries: d ≥ 100 mm; height h ≥ 100 mm ...... 32

1 1

Figure C.5 – Designation system for non-round batteries, dimensions < 100 mm .................. 33

Figure C.6 – Designation system for non-round batteries, dimensions ≥ 100 mm .................. 34

Figure C.7 – Height code for discrimination per tenth of a millimetre ..................................... 35

Figure D.1 – Normalized C/R-plot (schematic) ....................................................................... 38

Figure D.2 – Standard discharge voltage (schematic) ........................................................... 39

Table 1 – Standardized electrochemical systems .................................................................. 13

Table 2 – Marking requirements ............................................................................................ 15

Table 3 – Conditions for storage before and during discharge testing ................................... 19

Table 4 – Resistive loads for new tests ................................................................................. 20

Table 5 – Time periods for new tests .................................................................................... 20

Table 6 – Test condition tolerances ...................................................................................... 21

Table A.1 – Items necessary to standardize .......................................................................... 22

Table C.1 – Physical designation and dimensions of round cells and batteries ...................... 26

Table C.2 – Physical designation and nominal overall dimensions of flat cells ...................... 27

Table C.3 – Physical designation and dimensions of square cells and batteries .................... 27

Table C.4 – Diameter code for recommended diameter ......................................................... 30

Table C.5 – Physical designation and dimensions of round cells and batteries based on

Clause C.2 ............................................................................................................................ 36

Table C.6 – Physical designation and dimensions of non-round batteries based on

Clause C.2 ............................................................................................................................ 36

Table D.1 – Standard discharge voltage by system ............................................................... 40

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 1: General
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries.

This twelfth edition cancels and replaces the eleventh edition (2011) and constitutes a

technical revision.
The major technical changes with respect to the previous edition are:

– the order of the Annexes was changed to the order in which they appear in the document

and a caption was added to indicate where the Annex information first appears in the

document;
– the humidity conditions for non P-system batteries in Table 3 was modified;

– the standard discharge voltage for the Y and W chemistries was determined to be at 3,5 V

and 2,8 V respectively;
– details on capacity measurement were moved from Annex E to Subclause 5.1.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015

– the coin/button cell and battery definition was clarified in order to better address issues

with the swallowing of coin cells.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1346/FDIS 35/1349/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, under the general title Primary batteries, can be

found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The technical content of this part of IEC 60086 provides fundamental requirements and

information on primary cells and batteries. All batteries within the IEC 60086 series are

considered dry cell batteries. In this sense, IEC 60086-1 is the main component of the

IEC 60086 series and forms the basis for the subsequent parts. For example, this part

includes elementary information on definitions, nomenclature, dimensions and marking. While

specific requirements are included, the content of this part tends to explain methodology (how)

and justification (why).

Over the years, this part has been changed to improve its content and remains under

continual scrutiny to ensure that the publication is kept up to date with the advances in both

battery and battery-powered device technologies.
NOTE Safety information is available in IEC 60086-4, IEC 60086-5 and IEC 62281.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 1: General
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 is intended to standardize primary batteries with respect to dimensions,

nomenclature, terminal configurations, markings, test methods, typical performance, safety

and environmental aspects.

As a primary battery classification tool, electrochemical systems are also standardized with

respect to system letter, electrodes, electrolyte, nominal and maximum open circuit voltage.

NOTE The requirements justifying the inclusion or the ongoing retention of batteries in the IEC 60086 series are

given in Annex A.

The object of this part of IEC 60086 is to benefit primary battery users, device designers and

battery manufacturers by ensuring that batteries from different manufacturers are

interchangeable according to standard form, fit and function. Furthermore, to ensure

compliance with the above, this part specifies standard test methods for testing primary cells

and batteries.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60086-2:− , Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications

IEC 60086-3:2011, Primary batteries – Part 3: Watch batteries
IEC 60086-4:2014, Primary batteries – Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

IEC 60086-5:2011, Primary batteries – Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
application test
simulation of the actual use of a battery in a specific application
3.2
battery

one or more cells electrically connected and fitted in a case, with terminals, markings and

protective devices etc., as necessary for use
_____________
To be published.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified definition]
3.3
button (cell or battery)
small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter

Note 1 to entry: In English, the term “button (cell or battery)” is only used for non-lithium batteries while the term

“coin (cell or battery)” is used for lithium batteries only. In languages other than English, the terms “coin” and

“button” are often used interchangeably, regardless of the electrochemical system.

3.4
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals

and usually separators, that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct conversion of

chemical energy
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01]
3.5
closed-circuit voltage
CCV (abbreviation)
voltage across the terminals of a battery when it is on discharge

[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-28, modified ("voltage between the terminals of a cell

or battery" replaced by "voltage across the terminals of a battery")]
3.6
coin (cell or battery)
see button (cell or battery)
3.7
cylindrical (cell or battery)

round cell or battery in which the overall height is equal to or greater than the diameter

[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482: 2004, 482-02-39, modified ("cell with a cylindrical shape" replaced

by "round cell or battery")]
3.8
discharge (of a primary battery)
operation during which a battery delivers current to an external circuit
3.9
dry (primary) battery
primary battery in which the liquid electrolyte is essentially immobilized
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-04-14, modified]
3.10
effective internal resistance – DC method

the internal d.c. resistance of any electrochemical cell is defined by the following relation:

∆U (V)
R (Ω) =
∆i (A)
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015
3.11
end-point voltage
EV (abbreviation)
specified voltage of a battery at which the battery discharge is terminated
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-30]
3.12
leakage
unplanned escape of electrolyte, gas or other material from a cell or battery
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-32]
3.13
minimum average duration
MAD (abbreviation)
minimum average time on discharge which is met by a sample of batteries

Note 1 to entry: The discharge test is carried out according to the specified methods or standards and designed

to show conformity with the standard applicable to the battery types.
3.14
nominal voltage (of a primary battery)
V (symbol)

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell, a battery or an

electrochemical system

[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified (addition of "(of a primary battery)" and

symbol V )]
3.15
open-circuit voltage
OCV (abbreviation)
voltage across the terminals of a cell or battery when it is off discharge
3.16
primary (cell or battery)
cell or battery that is not designed to be electrically recharged
3.17
round (cell or battery)
cell or battery with circular cross section
3.18
service output (of a primary battery)
service l
...

IEC 60086-1
Edition 12.0 2015-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Primary batteries –
Part 1: General
Piles électriques –
Partie 1: Généralités
IEC 60086-1:2015-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
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latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

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IEC 60086-1
Edition 12.0 2015-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Primary batteries –
Part 1: General
Piles électriques –
Partie 1: Généralités
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-8893-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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– 2 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 11

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

4.1.1 Design ........................................................................................................... 11

4.1.2 Battery dimensions ........................................................................................ 11

4.1.3 Terminals ...................................................................................................... 11

4.1.4 Classification (electrochemical system) ......................................................... 13

4.1.5 Designation ................................................................................................... 14

4.1.6 Marking ......................................................................................................... 14

4.1.7 Interchangeability: battery voltage ................................................................. 15

4.2 Performance ......................................................................................................... 16

4.2.1 Discharge performance .................................................................................. 16

4.2.2 Dimensional stability ...................................................................................... 16

4.2.3 Leakage ........................................................................................................ 16

4.2.4 Open-circuit voltage limits ............................................................................. 16

4.2.5 Service output ............................................................................................... 16

4.2.6 Safety ............................................................................................................ 16

5 Performance – Testing .................................................................................................. 17

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

5.2 Discharge testing .................................................................................................. 17

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

5.2.2 Application tests ............................................................................................ 17

5.2.3 Service output tests ....................................................................................... 18

5.3 Conformance check to a specified minimum average duration .............................. 18

5.4 Calculation method of the specified value of a minimum average duration ............ 19

5.5 OCV testing .......................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Battery dimensions ............................................................................................... 19

5.7 Leakage and deformation ...................................................................................... 19

6 Performance – Test conditions ...................................................................................... 19

6.1 Storage and discharge conditions ......................................................................... 19

6.2 Commencement of discharge tests after storage ................................................... 20

6.3 Discharge test conditions ...................................................................................... 20

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

6.3.2 Compliance ................................................................................................... 20

6.4 Load resistance .................................................................................................... 20

6.5 Time periods ......................................................................................................... 20

6.6 Test condition tolerances ...................................................................................... 21

6.7 Activation of ‘P’-system batteries .......................................................................... 21

6.8 Measuring equipment ............................................................................................ 21

6.8.1 Voltage measurement .................................................................................... 21

6.8.2 Mechanical measurement .............................................................................. 21

7 Sampling and quality assurance .................................................................................... 21

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IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

8 Battery packaging .......................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (normative) Criteria for the standardization of batteries .......................................... 22

Annex B (informative) Recommendations for equipment design ........................................... 23

B.1 Technical liaison ................................................................................................... 23

B.2 Battery compartment ............................................................................................. 23

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

B.2.2 Limiting access by children ............................................................................ 24

B.3 Voltage cut-off ...................................................................................................... 24

Annex C (normative) Designation system (nomenclature) .................................................... 25

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

C.2 Designation system in use up to October 1990...................................................... 25

C.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

C.2.2 Cells .............................................................................................................. 25

C.2.3 Electrochemical system ................................................................................. 28

C.2.4 Batteries ........................................................................................................ 28

C.2.5 Modifiers ....................................................................................................... 28

C.2.6 Examples....................................................................................................... 28

C.3 Designation system in use since October 1990 ..................................................... 28

C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

C.3.2 Round batteries ............................................................................................. 29

C.3.3 Non-round batteries ....................................................................................... 32

C.3.4 Ambiguity ...................................................................................................... 35

Annex D (informative) Standard discharge voltage U – Definition and method of

determination ........................................................................................................................ 37

D.1 Definition .............................................................................................................. 37

D.2 Determination ....................................................................................................... 37

D.2.1 General considerations: the C/R-plot .............................................................. 37

D.2.2 Determination of the standard discharge resistor R ...................................... 38

D.2.3 Determination of the standard discharge capacity C and standard

discharge time t ........................................................................................... 39

D.3 Experimental conditions to be observed and test results ....................................... 39

Annex E (informative) Preparation of standard methods of measuring performance

(SMMP) of consumer goods .................................................................................................. 41

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

E.2 Performance characteristics .................................................................................. 41

E.3 Criteria for the development of test methods ......................................................... 41

Annex F (informative) Calculation method for the specified value of minimum average

duration ................................................................................................................................ 42

Annex G (normative) Code of practice for packaging, shipment, storage, use and

disposal of primary batteries ................................................................................................. 43

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 43

G.2 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 43

G.3 Transport and handling ......................................................................................... 43

G.4 Storage and stock rotation .................................................................................... 43

G.5 Displays at sales points ........................................................................................ 44

G.6 Selection, use and disposal .................................................................................. 44

G.6.1 Purchase ....................................................................................................... 44

G.6.2 Installation ..................................................................................................... 44

G.6.3 Use ................................................................................................................ 44

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– 4 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015

G.6.4 Replacement ................................................................................................. 45

G.6.5 Disposal ........................................................................................................ 45

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 46

Figure 1 – Ingestion gauge ................................................................................................... 11

Figure C.1 – Designation system for round batteries: d < 100 mm; height h < 100 mm ...... 29

1 1

Figure C.2 – Diameter code for non-recommended diameters ............................................... 30

Figure C.3 – Height code for denoting the hundredths of a millimetre of height ..................... 31

Figure C.4 – Designation system for round batteries: d ≥ 100 mm; height h ≥ 100 mm ...... 32

1 1

Figure C.5 – Designation system for non-round batteries, dimensions < 100 mm .................. 33

Figure C.6 – Designation system for non-round batteries, dimensions ≥ 100 mm .................. 34

Figure C.7 – Height code for discrimination per tenth of a millimetre ..................................... 35

Figure D.1 – Normalized C/R-plot (schematic) ....................................................................... 38

Figure D.2 – Standard discharge voltage (schematic) ........................................................... 39

Table 1 – Standardized electrochemical systems .................................................................. 13

Table 2 – Marking requirements ............................................................................................ 15

Table 3 – Conditions for storage before and during discharge testing ................................... 19

Table 4 – Resistive loads for new tests ................................................................................. 20

Table 5 – Time periods for new tests .................................................................................... 20

Table 6 – Test condition tolerances ...................................................................................... 21

Table A.1 – Items necessary to standardize .......................................................................... 22

Table C.1 – Physical designation and dimensions of round cells and batteries ...................... 26

Table C.2 – Physical designation and nominal overall dimensions of flat cells ...................... 27

Table C.3 – Physical designation and dimensions of square cells and batteries .................... 27

Table C.4 – Diameter code for recommended diameter ......................................................... 30

Table C.5 – Physical designation and dimensions of round cells and batteries based on

Clause C.2 ............................................................................................................................ 36

Table C.6 – Physical designation and dimensions of non-round batteries based on

Clause C.2 ............................................................................................................................ 36

Table D.1 – Standard discharge voltage by system ............................................................... 40

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IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 1: General
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries.

This bilingual version (2020-10) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2015-07.

This twelfth edition cancels and replaces the eleventh edition (2011) and constitutes a

technical revision.
The major technical changes with respect to the previous edition are:

– the order of the Annexes was changed to the order in which they appear in the document

and a caption was added to indicate where the Annex information first appears in the

document;
– the humidity conditions for non P-system batteries in Table 3 was modified;
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– 6 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015

– the standard discharge voltage for the Y and W chemistries was determined to be at 3,5 V

and 2,8 V respectively;
– details on capacity measurement were moved from Annex E to Subclause 5.1.

– the coin/button cell and battery definition was clarified in order to better address issues

with the swallowing of coin cells.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1346/FDIS 35/1349/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60086 series, under the general title Primary batteries, can be

found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The technical content of this part of IEC 60086 provides fundamental requirements and

information on primary cells and batteries. All batteries within the IEC 60086 series are

considered dry cell batteries. In this sense, IEC 60086-1 is the main component of the

IEC 60086 series and forms the basis for the subsequent parts. For example, this part

includes elementary information on definitions, nomenclature, dimensions and marking. While

specific requirements are included, the content of this part tends to explain methodology (how)

and justification (why).

Over the years, this part has been changed to improve its content and remains under

continual scrutiny to ensure that the publication is kept up to date with the advances in both

battery and battery-powered device technologies.
NOTE Safety information is available in IEC 60086-4, IEC 60086-5 and IEC 62281.
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– 8 – IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 1: General
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 is intended to standardize primary batteries with respect to dimensions,

nomenclature, terminal configurations, markings, test methods, typical performance, safety

and environmental aspects.

As a primary battery classification tool, electrochemical systems are also standardized with

respect to system letter, electrodes, electrolyte, nominal and maximum open circuit voltage.

NOTE The requirements justifying the inclusion or the ongoing retention of batteries in the IEC 60086 series are

given in Annex A.

The object of this part of IEC 60086 is to benefit primary battery users, device designers and

battery manufacturers by ensuring that batteries from different manufacturers are

interchangeable according to standard form, fit and function. Furthermore, to ensure

compliance with the above, this part specifies standard test methods for testing primary cells

and batteries.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60086-2:− , Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications

IEC 60086-3:2011, Primary batteries – Part 3: Watch batteries
IEC 60086-4:2014, Primary batteries – Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

IEC 60086-5:2011, Primary batteries – Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
application test
simulation of the actual use of a battery in a specific application
3.2
battery

one or more cells electrically connected and fitted in a case, with terminals, markings and

protective devices etc., as necessary for use
_____________
To be published.
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IEC 60086-1:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
[SOURCE:IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-04, modified definition]
3.3
button (cell or battery)
small round cell or battery where the overall height is less than the diameter

Note 1 to entry: In English, the term “button (cell or battery)” is only used for non-lithium batteries while the term

“coin (cell or battery)” is used for lithium batteries only. In languages other than English, the terms “coin” and

“button” are often used interchangeably, regardless of the electrochemical system.

3.4
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals

and usually separators, that is a source of ele
...

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