Plastic films for electrical purposes - Part 3: Specifications for individual materials - Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented polypropylene (PP) films for capacitors

IEC 60674-3-1:2021 is available as IEC 60674-3-1:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 gives the requirements for biaxially oriented polypropylene film having a smooth or rough surface, corona treated when required for vacuum metallization. The films are for use as dielectric in capacitors. Materials which conform to this specification meet established levels of performance. However, the selection of a material by a user for a specific application is based on the actual requirements necessary for adequate performance in that application and not based on this specification alone. Safety warning: It is the responsibility of the user of the methods contained or referred to in this document to ensure that they are used in a safe manner. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998 and Amendment 1:2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- this document has been completely revised editorially and technically and included in the IEC 60674 series of standards;
- the test methods have been updated to reflect today’s state of the art.

Films plastiques à usages électriques - Partie 3: Spécifications pour matériaux particuliers - Feuille 1: Films de polypropylène biorienté (PP) pour condensateurs

IEC 60674-3-1:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60674-3-1:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60674-3-1:2021 donne les exigences relatives aux films de polypropylène biorienté à surface lisse ou rugueuse, avec traitement par effet couronne, si cela est exigé, pour la métallisation sous vide. Les films sont utilisés comme diélectrique dans les condensateurs. Les matériaux conformes à la présente spécification satisfont à des niveaux établis de performance. Toutefois, le choix d’un matériau par un utilisateur pour une application spécifique repose sur les exigences réelles nécessaires pour obtenir des performances adéquates de l’application concernée, et non sur la seule présente spécification. Mise en garde relative à la sécurité: Il incombe à l’utilisateur des méthodes contenues ou citées en référence dans le présent document d’assurer qu’elles sont utilisées d’une manière sûre. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 1998 ainsi que l’Amendement 1:2011. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- ce document a été entièrement revu sur le plan rédactionnel et technique et inclus dans les normes de la série IEC 60674;
- les méthodes d’essai ont été mises à jour pour refléter l’état actuel de la technique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Aug-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Aug-2021
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IEC 60674-3-1
Edition 2.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Plastic films for electrical purposes –
Part 3: Specifications for individual materials – Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented
polypropylene (PP) films for capacitors
Films plastiques à usages électriques –
Partie 3: Spécifications pour matériaux particuliers – Feuille 1: Films de
polypropylène biorienté (PP) pour condensateurs
IEC 60674-3-1:2021-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1
Edition 2.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Plastic films for electrical purposes –
Part 3: Specifications for individual materials – Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented
polypropylene (PP) films for capacitors
Films plastiques à usages électriques –
Partie 3: Spécifications pour matériaux particuliers – Feuille 1: Films de
polypropylène biorienté (PP) pour condensateurs
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.035.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1017-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 6

4 Classification ................................................................................................................. 6

5 Designation ................................................................................................................... 7

6 General requirements .................................................................................................... 7

7 Dimensions ................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Thickness ............................................................................................................. 7

7.2 Width .................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Length/diameter .................................................................................................... 8

8 Properties...................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Physical properties ................................................................................................ 8

8.2 Electric strength (DC test) ..................................................................................... 9

8.3 Electrical weak spots ............................................................................................. 9

8.4 Thermal endurance ............................................................................................. 10

8.5 Wetting tension (types 1b + 1c, 2b + 2c and 3b + 3c only) .................................... 10

8.6 Liquid absorption ................................................................................................. 10

8.7 Compatibility with impregnants ............................................................................ 10

8.8 Dissipation factor under impregnated conditions .................................................. 10

8.9 Space factor ....................................................................................................... 11

9 Roll characteristics ...................................................................................................... 11

9.1 Windability .......................................................................................................... 11

9.2 Joins ................................................................................................................... 11

9.3 Roll width (overall width) ..................................................................................... 12

9.4 Core ................................................................................................................... 12

9.5 Labelling ............................................................................................................. 12

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 13

Table 1 – Physical properties ................................................................................................ 8

Table 2 – Electric strength (DC test) for types 1, 2 and 3 ....................................................... 9

Table 3 – Electrical weak spots for types 1, 2 and 3 ............................................................. 10

Table 4 – Maximum number of joins within a roll (types 1, 2 and 3) ...................................... 11

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PLASTIC FILMS FOR ELECTRICAL PURPOSES –
Part 3: Specifications for individual materials –
Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented polypropylene (PP) films for capacitors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60674-3-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 15: Solid electrical insulating

materials.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998 and
Amendment 1:2011. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) this document has been completely revised editorially and technically and included in the

IEC 60674 series of standards;
b) the test methods have been updated to reflect today’s state of the art.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
15/909/CDV 15/925/RVC

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60674 series, published under the general title Plastic films for

electrical purposes, can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This standard is one of a series which deals with plastic films for electrical purposes. The series

will consist of three parts:
Part 1: Definitions and general requirements (IEC 60674-1);
Part 2: Methods of test (IEC 60674-2);
Part 3: Specifications for individual materials (IEC 60674-3).
This standard contains one of the sheets comprising Part 3, as follows:
Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented (PP) polypropylene films for capacitors.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
PLASTIC FILMS FOR ELECTRICAL PURPOSES –
Part 3: Specifications for individual materials –
Sheet 1: Biaxially oriented polypropylene (PP) films for capacitors
1 Scope

This sheet of IEC 60674-3 gives the requirements for biaxially oriented polypropylene film

having a smooth or rough surface, corona treated when required for vacuum metallization. The

films are for use as dielectric in capacitors.

Materials which conform to this specification meet established levels of performance. However,

the selection of a material by a user for a specific application is based on the actual

requirements necessary for adequate performance in that application and not based on this

specification alone.

Safety warning: It is the responsibility of the user of the methods contained or referred to in this

document to ensure that they are used in a safe manner.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60674-1:1980, Specification for plastic films for electrical purposes – Part 1: Definitions

and general requirements

IEC 60674-2:2016, Specification for plastic films for electrical purposes – Part 2: Methods of

test
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Classification
The polypropylene film shall be of the following types:
Type 1: having smooth surfaces (space factor <5 %, see 8.9);
Type 1a: not corona treated;
Type 1b: one side pre-treated to facilitate the vacuum deposition of metal;
Type 1c: both sides pre-treated;
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
Type 2: having at least one rough surface (space factor ≥5 %, see 8.9);
Type 2a: not corona treated;
Type 2b: one side pre-treated to facilitate the vacuum deposition of metal;
Type 2c: both sides pre-treated.
Type 3: having high electric strength for thin film (film thickness ≤ 3,5 µm);
Type 3a: not corona treated;
Type 3b: one side pre-treated to facilitate the vacuum deposition of metal;
Type 3c: both sides pre-treated.
5 Designation
The plastic film shall be identified by the following designation:

Designation of the film – IEC 60674-3-1 – PP – type – thickness in micrometres – width in

millimetres – length in metres.
EXAMPLE
Polypropylene film – IEC 60674-3-1 – PP – 1a – 6 – 100 – 3000.
6 General requirements

The materials shall be made essentially from isotactic type polypropylene homopolymer and

shall conform to the requirements laid down in IEC 60674-1.
7 Dimensions
7.1 Thickness

The film thickness shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of 4.3.2 of IEC 60674-

2:2016. This is in general the gravimetric thickness, but for type 2 distinction shall be made

between thickness determined by weighing (t = gravimetric thickness) and thickness measured

by micrometer method (t = bulking thickness).

Gravimetric thickness shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of 4.3.2 of

IEC 60674-2:2016.

Bulking (micrometric) thickness shall be measured according to 4.2.3 of IEC 60674-2:2016.

There are no requirements for thickness in this document, but preferred gravimetric thicknesses

are as follows:

Type 1: 4,0 µm; 5,0 µm; 6,0 µm; 7,0 µm; 8,0 µm; 10,0 µm; 12,0 µm; 15,0 µm; 18,0 µm;

20,0 µm and 25 µm.

Type 2: 7,4 µm; 9,0 µm; 10,1; 11,0 µm; 12,0 µm; 12,7 µm; 13,6 µm; 14,4 µm; 15,2 µm;

16,2 µm and 17,8 µm.
Type 3: 2,5 µm; 2,8 µm; 3,0 µm and 3,5 µm.

The thickness tolerance shall comply with the requirements of 4.1 of IEC 60674-1:1980 unless

otherwise specified.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
7.2 Width

The film width shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6 of

IEC 60674‑2:2016.

Preferred widths cannot be given on account of the great variety of applications and different

requirements throughout the capacitor industry.

The tolerance on the width shall comply with the requirements of 4.2 of IEC 60674-1:1980.

7.3 Length/diameter

There are no requirements in this document for length or diameters of rolls. These should be

subject to purchase contract.
8 Properties
8.1 Physical properties
See Table 1.
Table 1 – Physical properties
Property Test method Unit Requirement Remarks
Density ISO 1183-2:2019 0,91 ± 0,01 This method is only suitable for film
kg/dm
thickness >12 µm. The recommended
(g/cm )
mixture is methanol/ethylene glycol
Melting point ISO 11357-3:2018 °C 165 to 175 DSC method
Tensile strength IEC 60674-2:2016, MPa Minimum Specimen width (15 ± 3) mm,
(either direction) Clause 12 Type 1: 120 rate of extension (100 ± 2) mm/min,
Type 2: 90 reference lines with the initial grip
Type 3: 120 separation (100 ± 2) mm apart
Elongation at break % Minimum
(either direction) Type 1: 40
Type 2: 30
Type 3: 30
Surface resistivity IEC 60674-2:2016, Ω The test voltages are
≥10
100 V for thicknesses >10 µm
Clause 16
and 10 V for thicknesses ≤10 µm
Volume resistivity IEC 60674-2:2016, Ωm
>10
Clause 17
Dissipation factor IEC 60674-2:2016, Use evaporated metal electrodes or non-
at 23 °C and 18.2 or 18.3 contacting electrodes
48 Hz – 62 Hz: (18.2.4 or 18.2.5)
≤3 × 10
1 kHz:
≤3 × 10

Permittivity IEC 60674-2:2016, 2,2 ± 0,1 Use evaporated metal electrodes or non-

18.2 contacting electrodes
(18.2.4 or 18.2.5)
Dimensional change IEC 60674-2:2016, Shrinkage shall be agreed between
for shrinkage: Clause 25 supplier and purchaser
– Machine direction %
– Transverse %
direction

NOTE Although the potential effects of certain properties such as crystallinity, orientation and isotactic/ atactic

content on the performance of the film are recognized, no recommendations regarding the determination of these

parameters have been made, particularly as no suitable test methods are available in IEC 60674-2.

Measurement conditions: (23 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 5) % relative humidity after at least 24 h exposure.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
8.2 Electric strength (DC test)

Electric strength shall be measured according to 20.2 of IEC 60674-2:2016. The central value

shall be not less than the value given in Table 2. The winding tension shall
2 2
2,5 N/mm ± 0,5 N/mm .
Table 2 – Electric strength (DC test) for types 1, 2 and 3
Nominal film thickness Type Electric strength Not more than 1 of 21 results
(central value) shall be below
V/µm V/µm
23 °C 105 °C 23 °C 105 °C
2,5 250 125 150 75
2,8 250 125 150 75
3,0 250 125 150 75
3,5 250 125 150 75
4 120 - 40 -
5 150 - 60 -
6 190 - 80 -
7 and 7,4 230 - 100 -
8 250 - 120 -
9 1 and 2 270 - 145 -
10 and 10,1 290 - 165 -
11 300 - 175 -
12 310 - 185 -
12,7 315 - 195 -
320 - 200 -
>12,7 to 25
8.3 Electrical weak spots
Electrical weak spots shall be measured according to 21.4 of IEC 60674-2:2016.

The number of faults counted shall not exceed the numbers given in Table 3. A minimum surface

area of 5 m is to be tested.

Compliance with any one of two method criteria shall constitute compliance with this document.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
Table 3 – Electrical weak spots for types 1, 2 and 3
Nominal Method C1 Method C3
Type
thickness
(Aluminium foil electrodes) (Metal electrode with air gap)
21.4.2.2 of IEC 60674-2:2016 21.4.2.4 of IEC 60674-2:2016
Fault Test voltage Fault Test voltage
2 2
µm V/µm V/µm
count/m count/m
2,5
2,8
3 2,6 250 2,0 200
3,0
3,5
4 2,6 1,0 350
5 2,3 300
6 1,8 300
7 and 7,4 1,7 250
8 1 and 2 1,5 150 250
0,5
9 1,3 230
10 and 10,1 1,2 230
11 1,1 220
≥12 1,0 200
8.4 Thermal endurance
There is no requirement in this document for thermal endurance.
8.5 Wetting tension (types 1b + 1c, 2b + 2c and 3b + 3c only)

When tested in accordance with Clause 11 of IEC 60674-2:2016, the wetting tension of the

tested surface shall not be less than 35 mN⋅m .
8.6 Liquid absorption

For satisfactory construction of impregnated capacitors, the absorption of the impregnant by

the film may need to be controlled within certain limits. If required, the method of measurement,

the time and the temperature used and the absorption limits shall be agreed between supplier

and purchaser .
The preferred method shall conform with Clause 33 of IEC 60674-2:2016.
8.7 Compatibility with impregnants

The compatibility of the film with selected dielectric fluids shall be determined using a method

agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser. This method may, for example, be based

on swelling or solubility of the film in the fluid, or on contamination of the fluid or the film .

8.8 Dissipation factor under impregnated conditions

The impregnants and the methods of testing used throughout the capacitor industry vary widely

and many of the materials and procedures are proprietary. Where the dissipation factor of the

___________

In view of the wide variety of impregnants available today and under development for capacitor application, no

specific tests and/or limits can be given in this document for liquid absorption (8.6), compatibility with dielectric

fluids (8.7) and dissipation factor under impregnated conditions (8.8).
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

film under impregnated conditions must be to an agreed standard, the limiting values and the

method of measurement should be agreed between supplier and purchaser .
8.9 Space factor

Caused by surface roughness, space factor is the percentage increase in bulking (micrometric)

thickness over gravimetric thickness.
Space factor shall be measured according to Clause 9 of IEC 60674-2:2016.

There are no requirements for space factor in this document but the preferred space factor

value of type 2 is SF = (10 ± 5) %.
9 Roll characteristics
9.1 Windability
The windability shall be measured according to Clause 7 of IEC 60674-2:2016.
Two methods exist:
a) for reels of width less than 150 mm, method A shall be used.
Bias/camber <10 mm
Sag (tension 5 MN/m ) <2 mm
b) for reels of width 150 mm and above, method B shall be used.
Bias/camber <10 mm
Sag (tension 5 MN/m ) <2 mm

The extension required to achieve bias/camber and sag limit shall be not more than 0,1 %.

9.2 Joins

Where joins (splices) are permitted, their construction shall conform to the requirements given

in 3.3 of IEC 60674-1:1980. Breaks (unjoined pieces) shall also be indicated so as to be clearly

visible when viewed from the end faces of the roll. The offset of either edge at a join shall not

exceed 0,5 mm.

The number of joins (splices) or breaks in each roll shall not exceed the values given

in Table 4.
Table 4 – Maximum number of joins within a roll (types 1, 2 and 3)
Nominal Number of joins within a roll Number of joins within a roll
film thickness of width >350 mm, of width ≤350 mm,
µm core diameter = 150 mm and core diameter = 76 mm and
outer diameter outer diameter <250 mm
≤300 mm >300 mm >400 mm
≤400 mm ≤500 mm
≤3,5 1 1 1 1
4 3 4 – 3
5 2 3 4 3
6 2 3 4 2
7 and 7,4 2 2 3 2
8 2 2 3 2
≥9 2 2 2 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021
9.3 Roll width (overall width)

The overall width is the distance between roll end faces measured between the outermost points

of each end face (see 3.2 of IEC 60674-1:1980). The difference between the film width

measured according to Clause 6 of IEC 60674-2:2016 and the roll width excluding the core shall

be not greater than:
– 0,5 mm for film width ≤150 mm;
– 1,0 mm for film width >150 mm and <300 mm;
– 2,0 mm for film width ≥300 mm.
9.4 Core
The preferred inner diameters of cores are 76 mm and 150 mm.
9.5 Labelling

Films pre-treated on one side shall have the pre-treated side indicated on the label.

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 60674-3-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 13 –
Bibliography

IEC 60674-3 (all parts), Plastic films for electrical purposes – Part 3: Specifications for

individual materials

ISO 1183-2:2019, Plastics – Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics –

Part 2: Density gradient column method

ISO 11357-3:2018, Plastics – Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) – Part 3: Determination

of temperature and enthalpy of melting and crystallization
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SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS ................................................................................................................ 15

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1

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