Nanotechnologies -- Vocabulary -- Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes

ISO TS 80004-8:2013 gives terms and definitions related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies. It forms one part of multi-part terminology and definitions documentation covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication

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Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)
ISO 2013

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ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)

© ISO 2013
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ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .vi
1 Scope . 1
2 Terms and definitions from other parts of ISO/TS 80004 . 1
3 General terms . 3
4 Directed assembly . 4
5 Self-assembly processes . 4
6 Synthesis . 5
6.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods . 5
6.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods . 6
6.3 Liquid process phase — Physical methods . 7
6.4 Liquid process phase — Chemical methods . 8
6.5 Solid process phase — Physical methods . 8
6.6 Solid process phase — Chemical methods .10
7 Fabrication .11
7.1 Nanopatterning lithography .11
7.2 Deposition processes .14
7.3 Etching processes .16
7.4 Printing and coating .18
Annex A (informative) Identification of output resulting from defined synthesis processes .19
Annex B (informative) Index .21
Bibliography .27
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ISO/TS 80004-8:2013(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any
patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on
the ISO list of patent declarations received.
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity
assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical
Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
ISO/TS 80004-8 was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, and Technical
Committee IEC/TC 113, Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and electronic products and systems.
Documents in the 80000 to 89999 range of reference numbers are developed by collaboration
between ISO and IEC.
ISO/TS 80004 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary:
— Part 1: Core terms
— Part 3: Carbon nano-objects
— Part 4: Nanostructured materials
— Part 5: Nano/bio interface
— Part 6: Nano-object characterization
— Part 7: Diagnostics and therapeutics for healthcare
— Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 2: Nano-objects: Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate
— Part 9: Nano-enabled electrotechnical products and systems
— Part 10: Nano-enabled photonic components and systems
— Part 11: Nanolayer, nanocoating, nanofilm, and related terms
— Part 12: Quantum phenomena in nanotechnology
1) Revises and replaces ISO/TS 27687 .
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Graphene and other two-dimensional materials is to form the subject of a future part 13.
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Nanomanufacturing is the essential bridge between the discoveries of the nanosciences and real-world
nanotechnology products.
Advancing nanotechnology from the laboratory into volume production ultimately requires careful
study of manufacturing process issues including product design, reliability and quality, process design
and control, shop floor operations, supply chain management, workplace safety and health practices
during the production, use, and handling of nanomaterials. Nanomanufacturing encompasses directed
self assembly and assembly techniques, synthetic methodologies, and fabrication processes such as
lithography and biological processes. Nanomanufacturing also includes bottom-up directed assembly,
top-down high resolution processing, molecular systems engineering, and hierarchical integration with
larger scale systems. As dimensional scales of materials and molecular systems approach the nanoscale,
the conventional rules governing their behaviour may change significantly. As such, the behaviour of a
final product is enabled by the collective performance of its nanoscale building blocks.
Biological process terms are not included in this first edition of the nanomanufacturing vocabulary, but
considering the rapid development of the field, it is expected that terms in this important area will be
added in a future update to this Technical Specification or in companion documents in the 80004 series.
This could include both the processing of biological nanomaterials and the use of biological processes to
manufacture materials at the nanoscale.
Similarly, additional terms from other developing areas of nanomanufacturing, including composite
manufacturing, roll-to-roll manufacturing, and others, will be included in future documents.
There is a distinction between the terms nanomanufacturing and nanofabrication. Nanomanufacturing
encompasses a broader range of processes than does nanofabrication. Nanomanufacturing
encompasses all nanofabrication techniques and also techniques associated with materials processing
and chemical synthesis.
This document provides an introduction to processes used in the early stages of the nanomanufacturing
value chain, namely the intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, including
fabrication steps in the nanoscale. The nanomaterials that result from these manufacturing processes
are distributed in commerce where, for example, they may be further purified, be compatabilized to
be dispersed in mixtures or composite matrices, or serve as integrated components of systems and
devices. The nanomanufacturing value chain is, in actuality, a large and diverse group of commercial
value chains that stretch across these sectors:
— the semiconductor industry (where the push to create smaller, faster, and more efficient
microprocessors heralded the creation of circuitry less than 100 nm in size);
— electronics and telecommunications;
— aerospace, defence, and national security;
— energy and automotive;
— plastics and ceramics;
— forest and paper products;
— food and food packaging;
— pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, and biotechnology;
— environmental remediation;
— clothing and personal care.
There are thousands of tonnes of nanomaterials on the market with end use applications in several of
these sectors, such as carbon black and fumed silica. Nanomaterials which are rationally designed with
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specific purpose are expected to radically change the landscape in areas such as biotechnology, water
purification, and energy development.
The majority of sections in this document are organized by process type. In the case of section 6, the logic
of placement is as follows: in the step before the particle is made, the material itself is in a gas/liquid/
solid phase. The phase of the substrate or carrier in the process does not drive the categorization of
the process. As an example, consider iron particles that are catalysts in a process by which you seed oil
with iron particles, the oil vaporizes and condenses forming carbon particles on the iron particles. What
vaporizes is the oil, and therefore it is a gas phase process. Nanotubes grown from the gas phase, starting
with catalyst particles that react with the gas phase to grow the nanotubes, thus this is characterized
as a gas process. Indication of whether synthesis processes are used to manufacture nano-objects,
nanoparticles, or both, is provided in Annex A.
A common understanding of the terminology used in practical applications will enable communities of
practice in nanomanufacturing and will advance nanomanufacturing strength worldwide. Extending
the understanding of terms across the existing manufacturing infrastructure will serve to bridge
the transition between the innovations of the research laboratory and the economic viability of
For informational terms supportive of nanomanufacturing terminology, see Reference [1].
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Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
1 Scope
This Technical Specification gives terms and definitions related to nanomanufacturing processes in the
field of nanotechnologies. It forms one part of multi-part terminology and definitions documentation
covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.
All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing. Many of the listed processes
are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes may
result in material features at the nanoscale or, alternatively, larger scales.
There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or
metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.
2 Terms and definitions from other parts of ISO/TS 80004
The terms and definitions in this clause are given in other parts of ISO/TS 80004. They are reproduced
here for context and better understanding.
carbon nanotube
nanotube (2.9) composed of carbon
Note 1 to entry: carbon nanotubes usually consist of curved graphene layers, including single-wall carbon
nanotubes and multiwall carbon nanotubes.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 4.3.]
solid comprising a mixture of two or more phase-separated materials, one or more being nanophase
Note 1 to entry: Gaseous nanophases are excluded (they are covered by nanoporous material).
Note 2 to entry: Materials with nanoscale (2.7) phases formed by precipitation alone are not considered to be
nanocomposite materials.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 3.2.]
nano-object with two similar external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7) and the third dimension
significantly larger
Note 1 to entry: A nanofibre can be flexible or rigid.
Note 2 to entry: The two similar external dimensions are considered to differ in size by less than three times and
the significantly larger external dimension is considered to differ from the other two by more than three times.
Note 3 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale (2.7).
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[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.3.]
material with any external dimension in the nanoscale (2.7) or having internal structure or surface
structure in the nanoscale
Note 1 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of nano-object (2.5) and nanostructured material (2.9).
Note 2 to entry: See also engineered nanomaterial, manufactured nanomaterial and incidental nanomaterial
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.4.]
material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7)
Note 1 to entry: Generic term for all discrete nano-objects.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.5.]
nano-object (2.5) with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.7)
Note 1 to entry: if the lengths of the longest to the shortest axes of the nano-object (2.5) differ significantly
(typically by more than three times), the terms nanofibre (2.3) or nanoplate are intended to be used instead of the
term nanoparticle.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.1.]
size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm
Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size will typically, but not exclusively, be
exhibited in this size range. For such properties the size limits are considered approximate.
Note 2 to entry: The lower limit in this definition (approximately 1 nm) is introduced to avoid single and small
groups of atoms from being designated as nano-objects (2.5) or elements of nanostructures, which might be
implied by the absence of a lower limit.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.1.]
nanostructured material
material having internal or surface structure in the nanoscale (2.7)
Note 1 to entry: If external dimensions are in the nanoscale, the term nano-object (2.4) is recommended.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.7.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4, 2.11.]
hollow nanofibre (2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, 4.4]
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3 General terms
bottom up nanomanufacturing
processes that use small fundamental units in the nanoscale (2.7) to create larger functionally rich
structures or assemblies
simultaneous deposition of two or more source materials
Note 1 to entry: Common methods include vacuum, thermal spray, electrodeposition and liquid suspension
deposition techniques.
crushing or grinding for particle size reduction
directed assembly
formation of a structure guided by external intervention using components at the
nanoscale (2.7) that can, in principle, have any defined pattern
directed self-assembly
self-assembly (3.11) influenced by external intervention to produce a preferred structure, orientation or
Note 1 to entry: Examples of external intervention include an applied field, a chemical or structural template,
chemical gradient, and fluidic flow.
reproducible creation of a pattern
Note 1 to entry: The pattern can be formed in a radiation sensitive material or by transfer of material onto a
substrate either by transfer, by printing or by direct writing.
multilayer deposition
alternating deposition of two or more source materials to produce a composite layer structure
ensemble of activities, to intentionally manufacture devices in the nanoscale (2.7), for commercial purpose
intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, or fabrication steps in the nanoscale (2.7),
for commercial purpose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.11.]
nanomanufacturing process
ensemble of activities to intentionally synthesize, generate or control nanomaterials (2.4), or fabrication
steps in the nanoscale (2.7), for commercial purpose
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, 2.12.]
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autonomous action by which components organize themselves into patterns or structures
surface functionalization
chemical process that acts upon a surface to impart a selected chemical or physical functionality
top-down nanomanufacturing
processes that create structures at the nanoscale (2.7) from macroscopic objects
4 Directed assembly
electrostatic driven assembly
use of electrostatic force to orient or place nanoscale (2.7) elements in a device or
fluidic alignment
use of fluid flow to orient nanoscale (2.7) elements in a device or material
hierarchical assembly
use of more than one type of nanomanufacturing (3.9) process to control structure
at multiple length scales
magnetic driven assembly
use of magnetic force to assemble at the nanoscale (2.7) in a desired pattern or
shape-based assembly
use of geometric shapes of nanoparticles (2.6) to achieve a desired pattern or
supramolecular assembly
use of non-covalent chemical bonding to assemble molecules or nanoparticles (2.6) with surface ligands
surface-to-surface transfer
transfer of nanoparticles (2.6) or structures from the surface of one substrate, on
which they have been deposited, grown or assembled, onto another substrate
5 Self-assembly processes
colloidal crystallization
sedimentation of nanoparticles (2.6) from a solution to form a solid which consists
of a close-packed, ordered array of repeating units
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directed self-assembly (3.5) using nanoscale (2.7) topographical features
Note 1 to entry: Includes the growth of a thin layer on the surface and growth of an additional layer on top of a
substrate which has the same or different structure as the underlying crystal.
ion beam surface reconstruction
use of an accelerated ion beam to cause surface modification which may be at the
nanoscale (2.7)
Langmuir-Blodgett film formation
creation of a molecular monolayer at an air-liquid interface using a Langmuir-Blodgett trough
Langmuir-Blodgett film transfer
transfer of a Langmuir-Blodgett molecular monolayer formed at an air-liquid interface onto a solid
surface by dipping a solid substrate into the supporting liquid
layer-by-layer deposition
LbL deposition
electrostatic process of depositing polyelectrolytes with opposite charges laid over or under another
modulated elemental reactant method
use of vapour deposited precursors with regions of controlled composition as a template for the
formation of interleaved layers of two or more structures
self-assembled monolayer formation
SAM formation
spontaneous formation of an organized molecular layer on a solid surface from solution or the vapour
phase, driven by molecule-to-surface bonding and weak intermolecular interaction
Stranski-Krastanow growth
mode of thin film growth in which both layer and island formation mechanisms are present
6 Synthesis
6.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods
cold gas dynamic spraying
to fluidize either nanoscale (2.7) crystalline powders or conventional powders that are then consolidated
onto a surface coating in a high velocity inert gas
electron-beam evaporation
process in which a material is vaporized by incidence of high energy electrons in high or ultra-high
vacuum conditions for subsequent deposition onto a substrate
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6.1.3 Electro-spark deposition processes
electro-spark deposition
pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an
electrode material on a substrate
6.1.4 Spray drying processes
freeze drying
dehydration or solvent removal by rapid cooling immediately followed by vacuum sublimation
spray drying
producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapid removal of liquid droplets via contact with a hot gas
supercritical expansion
precipitation of nano-objects (2.5) resulting from an expansion of a solution above its critical temperature
(T ) and critical pressure (P ) through a spray device
suspension combustion thermal spray
thermal spray (7.2.16) in which the precursor is introduced to a plasma jet in the form of a liquid suspension
wire electric explosion
formation of nanoparticles (2.6) by applying an electrical pulse of high current density through a wire
causing it to volatilize with subsequent recondensation
process of assisted change of phase from solid or liquid to gas or plasma phases
Note 1 to entry: Vaporization process is often used to consequently deposit the vaporized material on a target
substrate. The whole process is known as PVD (ISO 2080:2008, 2.12) .
−6 −9
Note 2 to entry: High Vacuum PVD is usually performed at pressures in the range of 10 to 10 Torr. Ultra-High
Vacuum (UHV PVD) is the deposition performed at pressures below 10 Torr.
6.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods
6.2.1 Flame synthesis processes
liquid precursor combustion
creation of solid product, typically a nanomaterial (2.4) in aggregate form, via exothermic reaction of a
feedstock solution with an oxidizer
[SOURCE: ISO 19353, 3.3, modified.]
plasma spray
creation of a jet of solid product, typically a nanomaterial (2.4) in aggregate form from an ionized
gaseous source
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using combustion or other heat source to produce solid product, typically a nanomaterial (2.4) in
aggregate form facilitated by an aerosolized spray
solution precursor plasma spray
gas phase process in which a thermal (equilibrium) plasma is formed into which a solution containing
precursors is introduced resulting in gaseous species that during cooling form a solid product, typically
a nanomaterial (2.4) in aggregate form
thermal spray pyrolysis
creation of solid product, typically a nanomaterial (2.4) in aggregate form from liquid precursors through
liquid atomization and reaction using a thermal source
hot wall tubular reaction
chemical vapour deposition (7.2.3) performed in a tubular furnace in which the reaction surface is
maintained at a controlled elevated temperature
photothermal synthesis
gas phase process where a precursor or other gaseous species is heated by absorption of infrared
radiation resulting in heating of the gas and thermal decomposition of the precursor producing a solid
product, typically a nanoparticle (2.6)
vapour-liquid-solid nanofibre synthesis
growth of nanofibres (2.3) onto a substrate with feed material in gaseous form in the presence of a
liquid catalyst
Note 1 to entry: The VLS method for fibres exploits a liquid phase on the end of a fibre which can rapidly adsorb a
vapour to supersaturation levels, and from which crystal growth subsequently occurs.
6.3 Liquid process phase — Physical methods
use of electrical potential to induce drawing of fine fibres from a liquid phase
in-situ intercalative polymerization
insertion of monomers into layered inorganic materials followed by polymerization which result in
nanocomposites (2.2)
nanoparticle dispersion
creating a suspension of nanoparticles (2.6) in a liquid through molecular ligands, surface charges or
other interactions to prevent or slow sedimentation
tape casting
deposition of macroscopic layer by spreading slurry of ceramic paste onto a flat surface
Note 1 to entry: Nanoparticles (2.6) may be part of the composition of the layer.
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wet ball milling
grinding (6.5.5) process in liquid via rolling feedstock material with crushing balls of greater hardness
to create a force of impact in order to reduce the size of target components
Note 1 to entry: The product of the process is known as slurry.
6.4 Liquid process phase — Chemical methods
acid hydrolysis of cellulose
use of an acid to release nanocrystalline cellulose from cellulose
nanoparticle precipitation
formation of nanoparticles (2.6) from solution reactions where particle size may be controlled by
kinetic factors
prompt inorganic condensation
formation of atomically smooth and dense films by spin-coating (7.2.17) and low-temperature curing of
organic free aqueous solutions based on organometallic molecular precursors
reverse micelle process
synthesis of nanoparticles (2.6) in solution using reagents in the presence of reaction stopping ligands
that attach to the nanoparticle surface and inhibit further growth
sol-gel processing
conversion of a chemical solution or colloidal suspension (sol) to an integrated network (gel), which can
then be further densified
surfactant templating
use of surfactants to self-assemble molecular species such that they can be subsequently solidified in a
structured configuration at the nanoscale (2.7)
Stober process
generation of particles of silicate by using a tetra-alkyl orthosilicate and a combination of low molecular
weight alcohol and ammonia, used with or without water
Note 1 to entry: This is a sol-gel processing (6.4.5) method for synthesizing silica.
6.5 Solid process phase — Physical methods
6.5.1 Block copolymer processes
block copolymer phase segregation

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