Semiconductor devices - Mechanical and climatic test methods - Part 17: Neutron irradiation

IEC 60749-17:2019 is performed to determine the susceptibility of semiconductor devices to non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) degradation. The test described herein is applicable to integrated circuits and discrete semiconductor devices and is intended for military- and aerospace-related applications. It is a destructive test.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
updates to better align the test method with MIL-STD 883J, method 1017, including removal of restriction of use of the document, and a requirement to limit the total ionization dose;
addition of a Bibliography, including US MIL- and ASTM standards relevant to this test method.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Méthodes d'essais mécaniques et climatiques - Partie 17: Irradiation aux neutrons

L’IEC 60749-17:2019 est réalisé pour déterminer la sensibilité des dispositifs à semiconducteurs à la dégradation par perte d’énergie non ionisante (NIEL, Non-Ionizing Energy Loss). L’essai décrit dans le présent document s’applique aux circuits intégrés et aux dispositifs discrets à semiconducteurs, et est destiné aux applications des domaines militaire et aérospatial. Il s’agit d’un essai destructif.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:  
mises à jour afin de mieux aligner la méthode d’essai avec la méthode 1 017 du document MIL-STD 883J, comprenant la suppression des restrictions d’utilisation du document, et une exigence visant à limiter la dose ionisante totale;
ajout d’une bibliographie, comprenant les normes US MIL- et ASTM correspondant à la présente méthode d’essai.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Mar-2019
Ref Project

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IEC 60749-17
Edition 2.0 2019-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods –
Part 17: Neutron irradiation
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Méthodes d’essais mécaniques et climatiques –
Partie 17: Irradiation aux neutrons
IEC 60749-17:2019-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17
Edition 2.0 2019-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods –
Part 17: Neutron irradiation
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Méthodes d’essais mécaniques et climatiques –
Partie 17: Irradiation aux neutrons
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-6702-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 Test apparatus ................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 Test instruments ..................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Radiation source ..................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Dosimetry equipment .............................................................................................. 6

4.4 Dosimetry measurements ........................................................................................ 6

4.4.1 Neutron fluences ............................................................................................. 6

4.4.2 Dose measurements ........................................................................................ 6

5 Procedure ........................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 Safety requirements ................................................................................................ 6

5.2 Test samples .......................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Pre-exposure .......................................................................................................... 7

5.3.1 Electrical tests ................................................................................................. 7

5.3.2 Exposure set-up .............................................................................................. 7

5.4 Exposure ................................................................................................................ 7

5.5 Post-exposure ......................................................................................................... 7

5.5.1 Electrical tests ................................................................................................. 7

5.5.2 Anomaly investigation ...................................................................................... 7

5.6 Reporting ................................................................................................................ 7

6 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 9

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MECHANICAL AND CLIMATIC TEST METHODS –
Part 17: Neutron irradiation
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 60749-17 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2003. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) updates to better align the test method with MIL-STD 883J, method 1017, including

removal of restriction of use of the document, and a requirement to limit the total

ionization dose;

b) addition of a Bibliography, including US MIL- and ASTM standards relevant to this test

method.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2538/FDIS 47/2553/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60749 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MECHANICAL AND CLIMATIC TEST METHODS –
Part 17: Neutron irradiation
1 Scope

The neutron irradiation test is performed to determine the susceptibility of semiconductor

devices to non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) degradation. The test described herein is

applicable to integrated circuits and discrete semiconductor devices and is intended for

military- and aerospace-related applications. It is a destructive test.
The objectives of the test are as follows:

a) to detect and measure the degradation of critical semiconductor device parameters as

a function of neutron fluence, and

b) to determine if specified semiconductor device parameters are within specified limits after

exposure to a specified level of neutron fluence (see Clause 6).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Test apparatus
4.1 Test instruments

Test instrumentation to be used in the radiation test shall be standard laboratory electronic

test instruments such as power supplies, digital voltmeters, and pico-ammeters, etc., capable

of measuring the electrical parameters required.
4.2 Radiation source

The radiation source used in the test shall be a well characterized neutron source that

produces either a broad neutron energy spectrum (such as a TRIGA® reactor or a fast burst

reactor) or a monoenergetic neutron spectrum such as available from deuterium-tritium or

deuterium-deuterium accelerators) provided that the output can be converted to a 1 MeV

equivalent spectrum.
__________

TRIGA is the trade name of a product supplied by General Atomics. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC of the product named.

Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019
4.3 Dosimetry equipment
The following dosimetry equipment shall be used (as required):
32 54 58
a) fast-neutron threshold activation foils such as S, Fe, and Ni;
b) CaF2 thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs);
c) appropriate activation foil counting and TLD readout equipment.
4.4 Dosimetry measurements
4.4.1 Neutron fluences

The neutron fluence used for device irradiation shall be obtained by measuring the amount of

32 54 58

radioactivity induced in a fast-neutron threshold activation foil such as S, Fe, or Ni,

irradiated simultaneously with the device.

A standard method for converting the measured radioactivity in the specific activation foil

employed into a neutron fluence is given in national and international standards (examples

are given in the Bibliography).

The conversion of the foil radioactivity into a neutron fluence requires a knowledge of the

neutron spectrum incident on the foil. If the spectrum is not known, it shall be determined by

use of a recognised national standard or equivalent (examples are given in the Bibliography).

Once the neutron energy spectrum has been determined and the equivalent monoenergetic

32 54 58
S, Fe, or Ni) should be
fluence calculated, then an appropriate monitor foil (such as

used in subsequent irradiations to determine the neutron fluence. Thus, the neutron fluence is

described in terms of the equivalent monoenergetic neutron fluence per unit monitor

response. Use of a monitor foil to predict the equivalent monoenergetic neutron fluence is

valid only if the energy spectrum remains constant.
4.4.2 Dose measurements
If absorbed dose measurements of the gamma-ray component during the device test

irradiations are required, then such measurements shall be made with CaF2 thermo-

luminescence dosimeters (TLDs), or their equivalent. These TLDs shall be used in

accordance with the recommendations of recognised national standards or their equivalent

(examples are given in the Bibliography).
5 Procedure
5.1 Safety requirements

Neutron irradiated devices may be radioactive. Handling and storage of test specimens or

equipment subjected to radiation environments shall be governed by the procedures

established by the local Radiation Safety Officer or Health Physicist.
5.2 Test samples

A test sample shall be randomly selected and consist of a minimum of 10 devices, unless

otherwise specified. All sample devices shall have met all the requirements of the relevant

specification for that device. Each device shall be serialised to enable pre- and post-test

identification and comparison.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
5.3 Pre-exposure
5.3.1 Electrical tests

Pre-exposure electrical tests shall be performed on each device as required. Where delta

parameter limits are specified, the pre-exposure data shall be recorded.
5.3.2 Exposure set-up

Each device shall be mounted unbiased and have its terminal leads either all shorted or all

open. For MOS devices or any microcircuit containing an MOS element, all leads shall be

shorted. An appropriate mounting fixture shall be used. The mounting fixture shall

accommodate the units-under-test as well as any required dosimeters. The configuration of

the mounting fixture will depend on the type of facility used and should be discussed with

facility personnel. Test devices shall be mounted such that the total variation of fluence over

the entire sample does not exceed 20 %.
5.4 Exposure

The test devices and dosimeters shall be exposed to the neutron fluence as specified.

If multiple exposures are required, the post-radiation electrical tests shall be performed

(see 5.5.1) after each exposure. A new set of dosimeters is required for each exposure level.

Since the effects of neutrons are cumulative, each additional exposure will have to be

determined to give the specified total accumulated fluence. All exposures shall be made at

24 °C ± 6 °C and shall be correlated to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence. To avoid confounding

NIEL effects with total ionizing dose (TID) damage effects, units-under-test shall not be

exposed to a neutron fluence that causes the unit-under-test to receive a TID in excess of

10 % of its rated value. If necessary, the use of shielding to reduce the accompanying gamma

TID exposure is acceptable.
5.5 Post-exposure
5.5.1 Electrical tests

Test items shall be removed only after clearance has been obtained from the Health physicist

at the test facility. The temperature of the sample devices shall be maintained at

20 °C ± 10 °C from the time of the exposure until the post-electrical tests are made. The post-

exposure electrical tests as specified shall be made within 24 h after the completion of the

exposure. If the residual radioactivity level is too high for safe handling – this level to be

determined by the local Radiation Safety Officer –, the elapsed time before post-test electrical

measurements may be extended to one week. Alternatively, provisions may be made for

remote testing. All required data shall be recorded for each device after each exposure.

5.5.2 Anomaly investigation

Devices which exhibit previously defined anomalous behaviour (e.g., non-linear degradation

of 0,125) shall be subjected to failure analysis, in accordance with national and international

standards (an example is given in the Bibliography, [10]).
5.6 Reporting

As a minimum, the report shall include the device type number, serial number, manufacturer,

controlling specification, the date code and other identifying numbers given by the manu-

facturer. Each data sheet shall include radiation test date, electrical test conditions, radiation

exposure levels, ambient conditions as well as the test data. Where other than specified

electrical test circuits are employed, the parameter measurement circuits shall accompany the

data. Any anomalous incidents during the test shall be fully explained in footnotes to the data.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019
6 Summary

The following details shall be specified in the request for test or, when applicable, the relevant

specification:
a) device types (see 5.6);
b) quantities of each device type to be tested, if other than specified in 5.2;

c) electrical parameters to be measured in pre- and post-exposure tests (see 5.3.1 and 5.5.1);

d) criteria for pass, fail, record actions on tested devices (see 5.3.1, 5.5.1 and 5.6);

e) criteria for anomalous behaviour designation (see 5.5.2);
f) radiation exposure levels (see 5.4);
g) test instrument requirements (see Clause 4);
h) radiation dosimetry requirements, if other than 4.3;
i) ambient temperature, if other than specified herein (see 5.4 and 5.5.1);
j) requirements for data reporting and submission, where applicable (see 5.6).
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
Bibliography

[1] ASTM E 263, Standard test method for measuring fast-neutron reaction rates by

radioactivation of iron

[2] ASTM E 264, Standard test method for measuring fast-neutron reaction rates by

radioactivation of nickel

[3] ASTM E 265, Standard test method for measuring fast-neutron reaction rates by

radioactivation of sulfur

[4] ASTM E 720, Standard guide for selection of a set of neutron-activation foils for

determining neutron spectra used in radiation-hardness testing of electronics

[5] ASTM E 721, Standard method for determining neutron energy spectra with neutron-

activation foils for radiation-hardness testing of electronics

[6] ASTM E 722, Standard practice for characterizing neutron energy fluence spectra in

terms of an equivalent monoenergetic neutron fluence for radiation-hardness testing of

electronics

[7] ASTM E 1018, Standard guide for application of ASTM evaluated cross section data

file

[8] ASTM E 668, Standard practice for application of thermoluminescence-dosimetry

(TLD) systems for determining absorbed dose in radiation-hardness testing of
electronic devices

[9] ASTM E 2450, Standard practice for application of CaF2(Mn) thermoluminescence

dosimeters in mixed neutron-photon environments
[10] MIL-STD-883 Method 5003, Failure analysis procedures for microcircuits
___________
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019
SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS .................................................................................................................. 11

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................... 13

2 Références normatives .................................................................................................. 13

3 Termes et définitions ..................................................................................................... 13

4 Appareillage d’essai ...................................................................................................... 13

4.1 Appareils de mesure pour les essais ..................................................................... 13

4.2 Source de rayonnements ...................................................................................... 14

4.3 Equipement dosimétrique ...................................................................................... 14

4.4 Mesures dosimétriques ......................................................................................... 14

4.4.1 Fluences des neutrons................................................................................... 14

4.4.2 Mesures de dose ........................................................................................... 14

5 Procédure ...................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 Exigences de sécurité ........................................................................................... 15

5.2 Echantillons d’essai .............................................................................................. 15

5.3 Avant exposition ................................................................................................... 15

5.3.1 Essais électriques ......................................................................................... 15

5.3.2 Montage pour l’exposition .............................................................................. 15

5.4 Exposition ............................................................................................................. 15

5.5 Après exposition ................................................................................................... 15

5.5.1 Essais électriques ......................................................................................... 15

5.5.2 Investigation d’anomalie ................................................................................ 16

5.6 Rapport ................................................................................................................. 16

6 Résumé ......................................................................................................................... 16

Bibliographie ......................................................................................................................... 17

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60749-17:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –
COMMISSION ÉLECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE
____________
DISPOSITIFS À SEMICONDUCTEURS –
MÉTHODES D’ESSAIS MÉCANIQUES ET CLIMATIQUES –
Partie 17: Irradiation aux neutrons
AVANT-PROPOS

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