Printed electronics - Part 301-2: Equipment - Contact printing - Rigid master - Measurement method of plate master pattern dimension

IEC 62899-301-2:2017(E) defines measurement terms and methods related to the critical dimension of features and the registration accuracy of features on rigid plate masters.
General critical dimensions are defined to evaluate the shape accuracy of features on the plate master. To evaluate the registration accuracy of features on the plate master, the specification for the registration mark for the plate master is specified. Then, common metrology procedures to measure the critical dimensions and the registration accuracy of the plate master are established for device manufacturers, printing master manufacturers and printing master manufacturing equipment vendors. The measurement terms which are measured by agreement between the user and the supplier are measured using the measurement methods given in this document.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Aug-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
30-Aug-2017
Completion Date
30-Aug-2017
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IEC 62899-301-2
Edition 1.0 2017-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 301-2: Equipment – Contact printing – Rigid master – Measurement method
of plate master pattern dimension
IEC 62899-301-2:2017-08(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 62899-301-2
Edition 1.0 2017-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 301-2: Equipment – Contact printing – Rigid master – Measurement method
of plate master pattern dimension
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 19.080; 37.100.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-4768-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Coordinate system [1] .................................................................................................... 10

5 1-D qualification features [1] .......................................................................................... 10

5.1 Measurement instrument ....................................................................................... 10

5.2 Feature types ........................................................................................................ 10

5.3 Pattern edge detection method ............................................................................. 11

5.4 Feature width and pitch ......................................................................................... 11

5.4.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 11

5.4.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) ................................ 12

5.5.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 12

5.5.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 13

5.6 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 13

6 2-D qualification features [2] .......................................................................................... 13

6.1 Measurement instrument ....................................................................................... 13

6.2 Pattern edge detection method ............................................................................. 13

6.3 Image alignment ................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Feature types ........................................................................................................ 14

6.5 Contact ................................................................................................................. 14

6.5.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 14

6.5.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 15

6.6 Corner rounding .................................................................................................... 15

6.6.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 15

6.6.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 16

6.7 Line-end shortening .............................................................................................. 16

6.7.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 16

6.7.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 17

6.8 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 17

7 Cross-sectional qualification features [3] ....................................................................... 19

7.1 Measurement instrument ....................................................................................... 19

7.2 Feature types ........................................................................................................ 19

7.3 Cross-sectional area and feature height [3] ........................................................... 19

7.3.1 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 19

7.3.2 Report ........................................................................................................... 21

7.4 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 21

8 Registration accuracy .................................................................................................... 22

8.1 Measurement instrument ....................................................................................... 22

8.2 Specification for registration marks for the plate master [4] ................................... 22

8.2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 22

8.2.2 Guidelines for shape and sizes of registration mark ....................................... 22

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IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –

8.3 Algorithm for calculating the feature position from image ...................................... 24

8.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 24

8.5 Report................................................................................................................... 25

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 1 – Coordinate system for measuring patterns on the plate master ............................ 10

Figure 2 – Evaluation example of feature width and pitch ...................................................... 11

Figure 3 – 2-D qualification of contact hole or dot ................................................................. 15

Figure 4 – 2-D qualification of corner rounding ...................................................................... 16

Figure 5 – 2D qualification of line-end shortening ................................................................. 17

Figure 6 – Effect of 1-D parameter such as line width ........................................................... 18

Figure 7 – Example of 1-D effect correction by reducing the line width .................................. 18

Figure 8 – Example of 1-D effect correction by enlarging the line width ................................. 18

Figure 9 – 3-D height distribution .......................................................................................... 20

Figure 10 – Cross-sectional height profile ............................................................................. 20

Figure 11 – Trapezoidal feature model .................................................................................. 21

Figure 12 – Measurement of the relief pattern ....................................................................... 21

Figure 13 – Shape of registration mark (cross form) .............................................................. 23

Figure 14 – Shape of registration mark (round form) ............................................................. 23

Figure 15 – Measurement of registration accuracy ................................................................ 25

Table 1 – Dimension of registration mark (cross from) .......................................................... 23

Table 2 – Dimension of registration mark (round form) .......................................................... 24

Table 3 – Example of report – Registration accuracy of reference marks relative to the

reference edges .................................................................................................................... 25

Table 4 – Example of report – Registration accuracy of marks relative to the

coordinate system of the plate master ................................................................................... 25

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– 4 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRINTED ELECTRONICS –
Part 301-2: Equipment – Contact printing – Rigid master –
Measurement method of plate master pattern dimension
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62899-301-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee

TC119: Printed electronics.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
119/178/FDIS 119/187/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62899 series, published under the general title Printed electronics,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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– 6 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

When dissecting the term "printed electronics", it can be easily understood that this industry

involves electronic devices and products that are made using some fashion of printing

technique. Printing methods have been widely used in textile and paper type substrates for

centuries. In the past, the advent of mass producible printouts has brought huge impacts on

how knowledge is stored, transferred and reproduced. At this stage of technological

development, printing on either rigid or flexible substrates is considered to supplement or

replace traditional electronic device manufacturing processes. The difference between media

printing and printed electronics stems from the fact that media print is used to convey

information for human to process using eyes while printed electronics requires machine to

process electronic information; the level of required resolution and functionality make the

differences. Some of the widely used functional materials for printed electronics are, but not

limited to nano- or micro-size metal particles, semiconductive polymers, and dielectric

materials. Due to the available and required readout resolution, small feature size below

20 µm needs to be printed. Layer thickness and registration accuracy of printed products are

closely related to quality control of electronic devices, and ink materials require a high level of

quality. Overall, printing tolerance is much smaller in printed electronics.

There are mainly two categories in printing process for the printed electronics. One is a non-

contact printing process such as inkjet printing and electrostatic discharge (ESD) printing

process. The other is a contact printing process such as gravure printing, gravure offset

printing, reverse offset printing and screen printing. This document provides a proposal for

measuring and assessing the printing master, therefore the scope is limited to the printing

process using the printing master.

The quality of the printing master is important because the ink is transferred from the printing

master to the substrate directly in these processes and it means that the quality of the results

of the printed circuit depends on the quality of the printing master. For a mass production of

the printed electronic devices, many companies such as device manufacturers, printing

master manufacturers and printing master manufacturing equipment vendors are related to

manufacturing and they need to use the printing master and the standardized measurement

and assessment methods.
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IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –
PRINTED ELECTRONICS –
Part 301-2: Equipment – Contact printing – Rigid master –
Measurement method of plate master pattern dimension
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62899 defines measurement terms and methods related to the critical

dimension of features and the registration accuracy of features on rigid plate masters.

General critical dimensions are defined to evaluate the shape accuracy of features on the

plate master. To evaluate the registration accuracy of features on the plate master, the

specification for the registration mark for the plate master is specified. Then, common

metrology procedures to measure the critical dimensions and the registration accuracy of the

plate master are established for device manufacturers, printing master manufacturers and

printing master manufacturing equipment vendors. The measurement terms which are
measured by agreement between the user and the supplier are measured using the
measurement methods given in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
plate master
device that carries the image to be printed

Note 1 to entry: The image on the plate may be raised above the surface (relief) or may be carved into the

surface.
3.2
machine direction
direction in which the stock flows
3.3
cross direction
direction at right angles to the machine direction of a substrate
3.4
pattern edge detection method

method for determining the edge position of a given pattern by a computer algorithm

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– 8 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017
3.5
feature

region within a single continuous boundary that is distinct from the region outside the

boundary

Note 1 to entry The feature is called "CD feature" if the length of the feature is aligned with the cross direction

while the feature is printed.

Note 2 to entry The feature is called "MD feature" if the length of the feature is aligned with the machine direction

while the feature is printed.
3.6
nominal feature
intended or designed feature
3.7
actual feature
manufactured feature on the master plate
3.8
critical dimension

dimension of the geometrical features (width of interconnected lines, contacts, trenches, etc.)

which can be formed during electronic device/circuit manufacturing and can be of interest for

further qualification
3.9
1-D qualification features
features which can be qualified by single directional parameters
3.9.1
feature width
width of feature which will be printed on the substrate

Note 1 to entry Generally, feature width is measured for the line and space pattern. It can be expressed by line

width or space width.
3.9.2
pitch
centroid-to-centroid distance between two repeatedly placed features
3.9.3
line edge roughness
LER

perpendicular point-to-point deviation of the feature's edge from the linear fitted feature edge

3.9.4
line width roughness
LWR

deviation of the point-to-point line width from the average width of the specified line width

3.10
2-D qualification feature
feature that is qualified by area-based qualification parameters
3.10.1
contact
rectangular feature whose length-to-width ratio ranges from 0,5 to 2
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IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017 – 9 –
3.10.2
line-end shortening
deviation of the actual feature from the nominal feature at the nominal line-end
3.10.3
corner rounding
deviation of an actual feature corner from the nominal one
3.10.4
area gain
area in the actual feature contour outside the nominal feature contour
3.10.5
area loss
area outside the actual feature but still inside the nominal feature
3.10.6
area difference
feature area gain minus feature area loss
3.10.7
area deviation
sum of the values of the feature area gain and the feature area loss
3.11
cross-sectional qualification feature
feature which can be qualified by cross-sectional qualification parameters
3.11.1
feature height
feature depth
dimension of feature perpendicular to reference plane
3.11.2
feature model

solid geometrical shape, with well-defined parameters (e.g. length, width, height, centroid,

etc), meant to approximate the actual shape of a feature boundary
3.11.3
reference plane
plane which is approximating the un-patterned surface on the master plate
3.12
registration accuracy
deviation of the measured feature position from the nominal feature position
3.12.1
registration accuracy of the reference marks relative to the reference edges

deviation of the measured feature position of the reference registration marks relative to

reference edges from their nominal feature position
3.12.2
reference registration marks
registration marks whose distance from two reference edges is measured
3.12.3
reference edges
two edges adjacent to the orientation corner
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– 10 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017
3.12.4
orientation corner

asymmetric orientation corner specified for the purpose of mechanical orientation and

operator’s visual confirmation of plate orientation
4 Coordinate system [1]

The coordinate system xyz for this document is defined in Figure 1. It is defined with the

patterned mask side upwards. Cross direction is aligned with the x axis, and machine

direction is aligned with the y axis. The z axis is the direction perpendicular to the xy plane; z

is zero at reference plane and (x, y) = (0,0) is tool or application specific.

Features are called "CD features" when their length is along x, and feature width is then

measured in y. The length of MD features is along y, and their feature width is measured in x.

The registration accuracy is expressed with this coordinate system.
Reference
Features
plane
IEC
Figure 1 – Coordinate system for measuring patterns on the plate master
5 1-D qualification features [1]
5.1 Measurement instrument
The measurement instrument is as follows.
– Microscope or measurement instrument with sufficient resolution:
• repeatability: less than 10 % of the tolerance specification of the width;
• accuracy: less than 10 % of the tolerance specification of the width;

• calibration: Calibration should be carried out periodically in accordance with the

guidelines of the instrument manufacturer.

– Measurement temperature: it is recommended that the measurement is carried out at the

temperature of 20 °C which is specified as the standard reference temperature in ISO 1.

5.2 Feature types
The feature types are as follows:
– feature width and pitch;
– line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR).
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017 – 11 –
5.3 Pattern edge detection method

There are several methods, such as the threshold method, the linear approximation method,

and the curve fitting method for determining the edge position automatically from the obtained

image. The method can be determined by the customer/vendor agreement. The pattern edge

detection method and its parameter settings should be specified in the report as they affect

the measurement results.

To enhance measurement accuracy, the measured feature width should be compared with the

cross-sectional measurement result. This is because the feature width is different due to the

distance from the reference plane. The measured feature width can be adjusted by modifying

the edge detection method.
5.4 Feature width and pitch
5.4.1 Procedure
The procedure is as follows.

1) Align the sample so that the line pattern is approximately perpendicular to the x axis. For

the convenience of explanation, the x axis is selected and the y axis can be applicable.

2) Acquire the two-dimensional signal intensity distribution of the line pattern.

3) Define the measurement area by determining the length of the evaluation interval (L) as

shown in Figure 2.
Line #i–1 Line #i
n–1
IEC
Figure 2 – Evaluation example of feature width and pitch
4) Average the signal intensity in the y axis for the whole evaluation interval.
I '(x)= I(x, y)dy (1)

5) Calculate the left and right edge positions (x , x ) from the signal intensity distribution

L,i R,i

I’(x). The subscript L and R indicate the left edge and right edge, respectively. The

subscript i refers to the line number.

6) Calculate the distance between the left and right edge point for obtaining the feature width

(w):
w= x − x (2)
R,i L,i
Evaluation interval
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– 12 – IEC 62899-301-2:2017  IEC 2017

7) Calculate the distance between the centroids of two adjacent lines to obtain the pitch (p):

x + x x + x
L,i R,i L,i−1 R,i−1
p= − (3)
2 2
5.4.2 Report
The report should contain the following.

– Provide the measured feature width in units of 0,1 µm and specify the measurement

location of features on the master plate and the length of the evaluation interval.

– Specify the measurement instrument.
– Specify the pattern edge detection method and its parameter settings.

– Specify the measurement temperature and temperature variation during measurement.

– Provide the acquired image for the measurement.
5.5 Line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR)
5.5.1 Procedure
The procedure is as follows.

1) Align the sample so that the line pattern is approximately perpendicular to the x-axis.

2) Acquire the two-dimensional signal intensity distribution of the line pattern.

3) Define the measurement area by determi
...

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