Fixed resistors for use in electronic equipment - Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 60115-1:2020 is a generic specification and is applicable to fixed resistors for use in electronic equipment. It establishes standard terms, inspection procedures and methods of test for use in sectional and detail specifications of electronic components for quality assessment or any other purpose.
This edition contains the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
this 5th edition employs a new document structure, where the tests of prior Clause 4 are given in Clauses 6 to 12 now, with an informative Annex X providing cross-references for references to the prior revision of this standard;
the terms and definitions have been revised and amended, supplemented by a new section on resistor technologies and a new section on product classification levels;
a new Subclause 4.7 on recommendations for permissible substitutions has been added;
the provisions for packaging, storage and transportation in Subclauses 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10 have been completely revised;
a new Subclause 5.3 on default tolerances for the most common test parameters has been added;
the generic method of measuring resistance, now Sublause 5.6, has been separated from the test for compliance with a prescribed resistance value in 6.1, as a revision of the prior 4.5;
the test for the temperature coefficient of resistance of Subclause 6.2 is a revision of the prior test 4.8, variation of resistance with temperature, where the special concessions for resistors below 10 Ω have been waived;
the test methods for endurance testing of Subclauses 7.1 to 7.3 (prior 4.25.1 to 4.25.3) have been completely revised;
the single‑pulse high‑voltage overload test of Subclause 8.2 (prior 4.27) has been completely revised, and now offers adjustable severities for the 1,2/50 and for the 10/700 pulse shape for the benefit of detail specifications with improved significance;
the periodic-pulse high-voltage overload test of Subclause 8.3 (prior 4.28) has been revised and a corrected table of severities provided;
the period-pulse overload test of Subclause 8.4 (prior 4.39) has been deprecated and streamlined to only offer the severity historically applied in subordinate specifications;
the Subclauses 9.1 on visual inspection, 9.2 on the gauging of dimensions, and 9.3 on the assessment of detail dimensions (all parts of prior 4.4) have been completely revised;
the tests for robustness of terminations (prior 4.16) have been revised and separated into tests for the robustness of solderable terminations, Subclause 9.5, and tests for the robustness of threaded stud or screw terminations, Subclause 9.6;
the bump test of Subclause 9.9 (prior 4.20) and the shock test of Subclause 9.10 (prior 4.21) have been revised to reflect the merged relevant test standard IEC 60068-2-29;
the dry heat and cold test of the climatic sequence of Subclause 10.3 (prior 4.23) have been revised to reflect the changes of the relevant test standards IEC 60068‑2‑2 and IEC 60068‑2‑1;
the accelerated damp heat, steady state test of Subclause 10.5 (prior 4.37) has been amended with an option for a reduced number of bias voltages;
the corrosion test of Subclause 10.6 has been completely revised in order to employ the better suitable test method of IEC 60068-2-52 instead of the prior used IEC 60068-2-11;
the whisker growth test of Subclause 10.7 has been revised to reflect the changes of the new revision of the test methods of IEC 60068-2-82;
the test methods for solderability of Subclause 11.1 (prior 4.17) and for resistance to soldering heat of Subclause 11.2 (prior 4.18) have been completely revised to incorporate the necessary option for the variety of lead-bearing and lead-free solder alloys and respective process conditions;
the solvent resistance test of Subclause 11.3 combines the prior tests 4.29, component solvent resistance, and 4.30, solvent resistance of marking, in one test;
the accidental overload test of Subclause 12.3 (prior 4.26) has been completely

Résistances fixes utilisées dans les équipements électroniques - Partie 1: Spécification générique

L'IEC 60115-1:2020 est une spécification générique et s'applique aux résistances fixes utilisées dans les équipements électroniques. Elle définit les termes normalisés, les procédures d'examen et les méthodes d'essai utilisés dans les spécifications intermédiaires et particulières des composants électroniques dans le cadre de l'assurance qualité, ainsi qu'à d'autres fins.
Cette édition contient les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:  
cette 5e édition s'appuie sur une nouvelle structure de document, dans laquelle les essais du précédent Article 4 sont désormais présentés de l'Article 6 à l'Article 12, avec une Annexe X informative donnant des références croisées vers la version précédente de la présente norme;
les termes et définitions ont été révisés et amendés, complétés par une nouvelle section relative aux technologies en matière de résistance et une nouvelle section relative aux niveaux de classification des produits;
un nouveau Paragraphe 4.7 relatif aux recommandations en matière de remplacements admis a été ajouté;
les dispositions en matière d'emballage, de stockage et de transport de 4.8, 4.9 et 4.10 ont été intégralement révisées;
un nouveau Paragraphe 5.3 relatif aux tolérances par défaut pour la plupart des paramètres d'essai habituels a été ajouté;
la méthode générique de résistance de mesure (5.6 désormais) a été séparée de l'essai pour des raisons de conformité avec une valeur de résistance spécifiée en 6.1, en révision du précédent 4.5;
l'essai de coefficient de température de résistance de 6.2 est une révision du précédent essai de 4.8 (Variation de la résistance avec la température), des concessions particulières sur les résistances inférieures à 10 Ω ayant été consenties;
les méthodes d'essai d'endurance de 7.1 à 7.3 (précédemment 4.25.1 à 4.25.3) ont été intégralement révisées;
l'essai de surcharge haute tension à une seule impulsion de 8.2 (précédemment 4.27) a été intégralement révisé. Il propose désormais des sévérités pour la forme d'onde des impulsions 1,2/50 et la forme d'onde des impulsions 10/700 au profit de spécifications particulières avec signification améliorée;
l'essai de surcharge haute tension à impulsions périodiques de 8.3 (précédemment 4.28) a été révisé et un tableau corrigé des sévérités est fourni;
l'essai de surcharge à impulsions périodiques de 8.4 (précédemment 4.39) a été déconseillé et simplifié pour ne présenter que la sévérité historiquement appliquée dans les spécifications subordonnées;
le Paragraphe 9.1 relatif à l'examen visuel, le Paragraphe 9.2 relatif au calibrage des dimensions et le Paragraphe 9.3 relatif à l'évaluation des dimensions détaillées (toutes les parties de l'ancien 4.4) ont été intégralement révisés;
les essais de robustesse des sorties (précédemment 4.16) ont été révisés et divisés en essais de robustesse des bornes soudables (9.5) et essais de robustesse des bornes à tiges filetées ou à vis (9.6);
l'essai de secousses de 9.9 (précédemment 4.20) et l'essai de choc de 9.10 (précédemment 4.21) ont été révisés pour refléter la norme d'essai pertinente fusionnée IEC 60068-2-29;
l'essai de chaleur sèche et à froid de la séquence climatique de 10.3 (précédemment 4.23) a été révisé pour refléter les modifications apportées aux normes d'essai pertinentes IEC 60068‑2‑2 et IEC 60068‑2‑1;
l'essai continu accéléré de chaleur humide de 10.5 (précédemment 4.37) a été amendé avec une option pour un nombre réduit de tensions de polarisation;
l'essai de corrosion de 10.6 a été intégralement révisé afin d'utiliser la meilleure méthode d'essai adaptée de l'IEC 60068-2-52 en lieu et place de la précédente norme IEC 60068-2-11;
l'essai sur le développement des trichites de 10.7 a été révisé pour refléter les modifications de la nouvelle révision des méthodes d'essai de l'IEC 60068-2-82;
les méthodes d'essai de brasabilité de 11.1 (précédemment 4.17) et de résistance à la chaleur de brasage de 11.2 (précédemment 4.

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Published
Publication Date
17-Mar-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Mar-2020
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IEC 60115-1
Edition 5.0 2020-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Fixed resistors for use in electronic equipment –
Part 1: Generic specification
Résistances fixes utilisées dans les équipements électroniques –
Partie 1: Spécification générique
IEC 60115-1:2020-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60115-1
Edition 5.0 2020-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Fixed resistors for use in electronic equipment –
Part 1: Generic specification
Résistances fixes utilisées dans les équipements électroniques –
Partie 1: Spécification générique
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.040.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-7904-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60115-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms, definitions, product technologies and product classifications .............................. 13

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 13

3.2 Product technologies ............................................................................................ 20

3.3 Resistor encapsulations ........................................................................................ 23

3.4 Product classification ............................................................................................ 24

4 General requirements .................................................................................................... 25

4.1 Units and symbols................................................................................................. 25

4.2 Preferred values ................................................................................................... 25

4.3 Coding .................................................................................................................. 26

4.4 Marking of the resistors......................................................................................... 26

4.5 Marking of the packaging ...................................................................................... 26

4.6 Ordering designation ............................................................................................. 27

4.7 Permissible substitutions ...................................................................................... 27

4.8 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 28

4.9 Storage ................................................................................................................. 29

4.10 Transportation ...................................................................................................... 29

5 General provisions for measurements and test methods ................................................ 30

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

5.2 Standard atmospheric conditions .......................................................................... 30

5.3 Tolerances on test severity parameters ................................................................. 32

5.4 Drying ................................................................................................................... 33

5.5 Mounting of specimens ......................................................................................... 33

5.6 Measurement of resistance ................................................................................... 35

6 Electrical measurements and tests ................................................................................ 37

6.1 Resistance ............................................................................................................ 37

6.2 Temperature coefficient of resistance ................................................................... 39

6.3 Inductance ............................................................................................................ 42

6.4 Voltage coefficient of resistance ........................................................................... 44

6.5 Non-linearity ......................................................................................................... 45

6.6 Current noise ........................................................................................................ 46

6.7 Temperature rise .................................................................................................. 47

7 Endurance tests ............................................................................................................ 48

7.1 Endurance at the rated temperature 70 °C ............................................................ 48

7.2 Endurance at room temperature ............................................................................ 50

7.3 Endurance at a maximum temperature .................................................................. 55

8 Electrical overload tests................................................................................................. 59

8.1 Short-term overload .............................................................................................. 59

8.2 Single-pulse high-voltage overload test ................................................................. 61

8.3 Periodic-pulse high-voltage overload test .............................................................. 66

8.4 Periodic-pulse overload test .................................................................................. 68

8.5 Electrostatic discharge .......................................................................................... 70

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IEC 60115-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

9 Mechanical measurements and tests ............................................................................. 71

9.1 Visual examination ................................................................................................ 71

9.2 Gauging of dimensions ......................................................................................... 72

9.3 Detail dimensions ................................................................................................. 73

9.4 Robustness of the resistor body ............................................................................ 74

9.5 Robustness of terminations ................................................................................... 75

9.6 Robustness of threaded stud or screw terminations .............................................. 78

9.7 Shear test ............................................................................................................. 79

9.8 Substrate bending test .......................................................................................... 81

9.9 Bump .................................................................................................................... 83

9.10 Shock ................................................................................................................... 84

9.11 Vibration ............................................................................................................... 85

10 Environmental and climatic tests ................................................................................... 87

10.1 Rapid change of temperature ................................................................................ 87

10.2 Operation at low temperature ................................................................................ 88

10.3 Climatic sequence................................................................................................. 89

10.4 Damp heat, steady state ....................................................................................... 92

10.5 Damp heat, steady state, accelerated ................................................................... 95

10.6 Corrosion .............................................................................................................. 97

10.7 Whisker growth test .............................................................................................. 99

10.8 Hydrogen sulphide test ....................................................................................... 100

11 Tests related to component assembly .......................................................................... 101

11.1 Solderability ........................................................................................................ 101

11.2 Resistance to soldering heat ............................................................................... 105

11.3 Solvent resistance .............................................................................................. 107

12 Tests related to safety ................................................................................................. 109

12.1 Insulation resistance ........................................................................................... 109

12.2 Voltage proof ...................................................................................................... 114

12.3 Accidental overload test ...................................................................................... 115

12.4 Flammability ....................................................................................................... 120

13 Quality assessment procedures ................................................................................... 121

Annex A (normative) Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................ 123

A.1 Symbols .............................................................................................................. 123

A.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................... 126

Annex B (normative) Rules for the preparation of detail specifications for resistors

and capacitors for electronic equipment for use within the IECQ system ............................. 129

Annex C (informative) Example of a certified test record .................................................... 130

Annex Q (informative) Quality assessment procedures ...................................................... 132

Q.1 General ............................................................................................................... 132

Q.2 IECQ Approved Component (IECQ AC) procedures ............................................ 136

Q.3 IECQ Qualification Approval (QA) procedures ..................................................... 137

Q.4 IECQ Approved Component – Capability Certification (IECQ AC-C)

procedures .......................................................................................................... 138

Q.5 IECQ Approved Component – Technology Certification (IECQ AC-TC)

procedure ........................................................................................................... 140

Annex R (informative) Failure rate level evaluation, determination and qualification ........... 143

R.1 General ............................................................................................................... 143

R.2 Certification and determination of a failure rate level ........................................... 144

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– 4 – IEC 60115-1:2020 © IEC 2020

R.3 Non-conformances .............................................................................................. 146

R.4 Extension of a qualification to a higher failure rate level ...................................... 146

R.5 Maintenance of a failure rate level ...................................................................... 146

R.6 Deliveries ............................................................................................................ 147

R.7 Determination of a component failure rate ........................................................... 148

Annex X (informative) Cross-references for references to the prior revision of this

document ............................................................................................................................ 151

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 155

Figure 1 – Hierarchical system of specifications .................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Voltage and dissipation on a resistor below and above its critical resistance ........ 14

Figure 3 – Standard measurement points on a leaded resistor .............................................. 36

Figure 4 – Standard measurement points on an SMD resistor ............................................... 36

Figure 5 – Measurement points on an assembled SMD resistor ............................................ 37

Figure 6 – Permissible resistance range due to tolerance ..................................................... 38

Figure 7 – Permissible resistance range due to tolerance and TCR ....................................... 39

Figure 8 – Variation of resistance with temperature (example) .............................................. 39

Figure 9 – Test circuit for measurement of the inductance .................................................... 43

Figure 10 – Exponential voltage rise caused by inductance .................................................. 44

Figure 11 – Standard derating curve for the rated dissipation P ......................................... 49

Figure 12 – Derating curve with specification of a suitable test dissipation ............................ 53

Figure 13 – Derating curve without specification of a suitable test dissipation ....................... 53

Figure 14 – Derating curve for UCT ≥ MET ........................................................................... 57

Figure 15 – Derating curve for UCT < MET ........................................................................... 57

Figure 16 – Parameters of an open-circuit lightning impulse voltage ..................................... 62

Figure 17 – Circuit for generation of 1,2/50 pulses ................................................................ 63

Figure 18 – Circuit for generation of 10/700 pulses ............................................................... 64

Figure 19 – Testing of resistor body robustness .................................................................... 75

Figure 20 – Shear test for SMD resistors .............................................................................. 80

Figure 21 – Substrate bending test for SMD resistors ........................................................... 82

Figure 22 – V-block fixture .................................................................................................. 110

Figure 23 – Foil method applied to a resistor specimen ....................................................... 111

Figure 24 – Mounting method applied to a resistor specimen .............................................. 111

Figure 25 – Parallel clamp fixture for rectangular SMD resistors ......................................... 112

Figure 26 – V-clamp test fixture for cylindrical SMD resistors .............................................. 113

Figure 27 – Gauze fixture for axial cylindrical specimens .................................................... 117

Figure 28 – Gauze fixture dimensions for cylindrical specimens .......................................... 118

Figure 29 – Gauze fixture dimensions for non-cylindrical specimens ................................... 119

Table 1 – Reference atmospheric conditions ......................................................................... 30

Table 2 – Referee atmospheric conditions ............................................................................ 31

Table 3 – Standard atmospheric conditions for testing .......................................................... 31

Table 4 – Controlled atmospheric conditions for recovery ..................................................... 32

Table 5 – Default tolerances on temperature specifications................................................... 32

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IEC 60115-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

Table 6 – Default tolerances on voltage specifications .......................................................... 32

Table 7 – Default tolerances on duration specifications ......................................................... 33

Table 8 – Specimen drying procedures ................................................................................. 33

Table 9 – Voltages for resistance measurement .................................................................... 35

Table 10 – Sequence of temperatures and measurements .................................................... 40

Table 11 – Severities for the single-pulse high-voltage overload test .................................... 65

Table 12 – Severities for the periodic-pulse high-voltage overload test ................................. 68

Table 13 – Tensile test force for wire terminations ................................................................ 76

Table 14 – Test torque for threaded studs, screws and integral mounting devices ............... 78

Table 15 – Recommended parameters for the substrate bending test ................................... 81

Table 16 – Recommended parameters for the bump test ...................................................... 84

Table 17 – Recommended parameters for the shock test ...................................................... 85

Table 18 – Recommended parameters for the vibration test .................................................. 86

Table 19 – Recommended parameters for the rapid change of temperature test .................. 88

Table 20 – Number of additional damp heat cycles ............................................................... 91

Table 21 – Severity parameters for the damp heat, steady state test .................................... 93

Table 22 – Bias voltage for the damp heat, steady state test ................................................ 94

Table 23 – Severity parameters for the accelerated damp heat, steady state test ................ 96

Table 24 – Grouped DC bias voltages for < 25 % deviation ................................................... 97

Table 25 – Recommended parameters for the corrosion test ................................................. 98

Table 26 – Test methods and parameters for the whisker growth test ................................. 100

Table 27 – Selection of accelerated ageing methods of IEC 60068-2-20 ............................. 101

Table 28 – Process temperatures for selected solder alloy examples .................................. 102

Table 29 – Solderability test parameters for SMD resistors ................................................. 103

Table 30 – Solderability test parameters for resistors with wire or tag terminations ............. 104

Table 31 – Resistance to soldering heat test parameters for SMD resistors ........................ 106

Table 32 – RSH test parameters for resistors with wire or tag terminations ......................... 106

Table 33 – Recommended parameters for the solvent resistance test ................................. 109

Table 34 – Insulation resistance measuring voltage ............................................................ 114

Table 35 – Recommended parameters for the accidental overload test ............................... 120

Table R.1 – Requirements for the qualification of a failure rate level ................................... 145

Table R.2 – Requirements for the maintenance of a failure rate level qualification .............. 147

Table R.3 – Environmental factor π for determination of the component failure rate ......... 150

Table R.4 – Quality factor π for determination of the component failure rate .................... 150

Table X.1 – Cross-references for references to clauses (1 of 3) .......................................... 151

Table X.2 – Cross-references for references to figures ....................................................... 153

Table X.3 – Cross reference for references to tables .......................................................... 154

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– 6 – IEC 60115-1:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIXED RESISTORS FOR USE IN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT –
Part 1: Generic specification
FOREWORD

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