Radiation protection instrumentation - Alarming personal radiation devices (PRDs) for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

IEC 62401:2017 describes design and functional criteria along with testing methods for evaluating the performance of Personal Radiation Devices (PRDs) used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material (e. g., for border radiation monitoring). This document applies to alarming radiation detection instruments that are pocket-sized, carried on the body and used to detect and indicate the presence and general magnitude of gamma radiation fields. Neutron detection may also be provided.
This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) making the standard consistent with the new standards for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material (see the Introduction);
b) changing some basic requirements;
c) creating a uniform functionality test for all environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical tests;
d) reference to IEC 62706 for the environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical test conditions.

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Dispositifs individuels d'alarme aux rayonnements pour la détection du trafic illicite des matières radioactives

IEC 62401:2017 décrire les critères fonctionnels et de conception ainsi que des méthodes d'essai pour évaluer les performances des PRD utilisés pour la détection de trafic illicite de matières radioactives (par exemple à la surveillance des frontières). Le présent document s'applique aux instruments de détection de rayonnement avec alarme qui sont portables en poche ou sur l'individu et qui sont utilisés pour détecter et signaler la présence et l'ordre de grandeur des champs de rayonnement gamma. La détection neutronique peut également être fournie.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) cohérence de la norme avec les nouvelles normes relatives à la détection du trafic illicite de matière radioactive (voir Introduction);
b) modification de certaines exigences:
c) création d'un essai de fonctionnalité uniforme pour tous les essais environnementaux, électromagnétiques et mécaniques, et d'une exigence relative au coefficient de variation de chaque relevé de moyenne nominal;
d) référence à l'IEC 62706 pour les conditions d'essais environnementaux, électromagnétiques et mécaniques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Dec-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
15-Dec-2017
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IEC 62401
Edition 2.0 2017-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Radiation protection instrumentation – Alarming personal radiation devices
(PRDs) for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Dispositifs individuels d'alarme aux
rayonnements pour la détection du trafic illicite des matières radioactives
IEC 62401:2017-12(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62401
Edition 2.0 2017-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Radiation protection instrumentation – Alarming personal radiation devices
(PRDs) for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material –
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Dispositifs individuels d'alarme aux
rayonnements pour la détection du trafic illicite des matières radioactives –
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.280 ISBN 978-2-8322-7945-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols, quantities and units .................... 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Abbreviated terms and symbols ............................................................................ 10

3.3 Quantities and units .............................................................................................. 10

4 General characteristics and requirements ...................................................................... 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Mechanical requirements ...................................................................................... 11

4.2.1 Size ............................................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Mass ............................................................................................................. 11

4.2.3 Alarm characteristics ..................................................................................... 11

4.2.4 Case construction .......................................................................................... 11

4.2.5 Reference point marking ................................................................................ 11

4.2.6 Switches ........................................................................................................ 11

4.3 Data format ........................................................................................................... 12

4.4 Explosive atmospheres ......................................................................................... 12

5 General test procedures ................................................................................................ 12

5.1 Nature of tests ...................................................................................................... 12

5.2 Statistical fluctuations ........................................................................................... 13

5.3 General test information ........................................................................................ 13

5.4 Instrument setup ................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Speed of moving sources ...................................................................................... 14

5.6 Functionality test ................................................................................................... 14

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

5.6.2 Pre-test (preparation) .................................................................................... 14

5.6.3 Post-test ........................................................................................................ 14

6 Radiation detection requirements .................................................................................. 15

6.1 Rate of false alarms .............................................................................................. 15

6.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 15

6.1.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 15

6.2 Gamma alarm ....................................................................................................... 15

6.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 15

6.2.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 15

6.3 Personal protection alarm ..................................................................................... 16

6.3.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 16

6.3.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 16

6.4 Relative intrinsic error ........................................................................................... 16

6.4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 16

6.4.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 16

6.5 Detection of gradually increasing radiation levels .................................................. 16

6.5.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 16

6.5.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 16

6.6 Over-range ........................................................................................................... 17

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

6.6.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 17

6.6.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 17

6.7 Detection of neutrons (if provided) ........................................................................ 17

6.7.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 17

6.7.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 17

6.8 Gamma response of neutron detector (if provided) ................................................ 18

6.8.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 18

6.8.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 18

7 Environmental requirements .......................................................................................... 18

7.1 Ambient temperature............................................................................................. 18

7.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 18

7.1.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 18

7.2 Relative humidity .................................................................................................. 19

7.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19

7.2.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 19

7.3 Moisture and dust protection ................................................................................. 19

7.3.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 19

7.3.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 19

8 Mechanical requirements ............................................................................................... 20

8.1 Drop test ............................................................................................................... 20

8.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 20

8.1.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 20

8.2 Vibration test ........................................................................................................ 20

8.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 20

8.2.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 20

9 Electric and electromagnetic requirements .................................................................... 20

9.1 Battery lifetime ...................................................................................................... 20

9.1.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 20

9.1.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 20

9.2 Electrostatic discharge, radiofrequency immunity, radiated emissions and

magnetic fields ...................................................................................................... 21

9.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................ 21

9.2.2 Method of test................................................................................................ 21

10 Documentation .............................................................................................................. 21

10.1 Type test report .................................................................................................... 21

10.2 Certificate ............................................................................................................. 21

10.3 Operation and maintenance manuals .................................................................... 22

Annex A (informative) Summary of performance requirements ............................................. 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 25

Table 1 – IEC standards concerning instruments for the detection of illicit trafficking of

radioactive material ................................................................................................................ 6

Table 2 – Standard test conditions ........................................................................................ 12

Table A.1 – Summary of the most important performance requirements ................................ 24

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– 4 – IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION – ALARMING PERSONAL
RADIATION DEVICES (PRDs) FOR THE DETECTION OF ILLICIT
TRAFFICKING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62401 has been prepared by subcommittee 45B: Radiation

protection instrumentation, of IEC technical committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 62401, issued in 2007. It

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) making the standard consistent with the new standards for detection of illicit trafficking of

radioactive material (see the Introduction);
b) changing some requirements:

– removal of the 2 levels of background levels (high and low) needed for the different

tests. Only one background level (laboratory) remains,
– the gamma alarm is tested using moving sources and not statically (6.2),
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –
– relative intrinsic error,
– over-range,
– detection of neutrons;

c) creating a uniform functionality test for all environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical

tests and a requirement for the coefficient of variation of each nominal mean reading;

d) reference to IEC 62706 for the environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical test

conditions.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
45B/881/FDIS 45B/888/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

Illicit and inadvertent movement of radioactive materials has become a problem of increasing

importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, so-called “orphan sources”, have

frequently caused serious radiation exposures and widespread contamination. Although illicit

trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials is not a new phenomenon, concern about

a nuclear “black market” has increased in the last few years, particularly in view of its terrorist

potential.

In response to the technical policy of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the

World Customs Organization (WCO) and the International Criminal Police Organization

(Interpol) related to the detection and identification of special nuclear materials and security

trends, nuclear instrumentation companies are developing and manufacturing radiation

instrumentation to assist in the detection of illicit movement of radioactive and special nuclear

materials. This type of instrumentation is widely used for security purposes at nuclear

facilities, border control checkpoints, and international seaports and airports.

However, to ensure that measurement results made at different locations are consistent, it is

imperative that radiation instrumentation be designed to rigorous specifications based upon

agreed performance requirements stated in international standards. Several IEC standards

have been developed to address body-worn, hand-held and portal instruments, see Table 1.

Table 1 – IEC standards concerning instruments for the detection
of illicit trafficking of radioactive material
Type of IEC
Title of the standard
instrumentation number
Radiation protection instrumentation – Alarming Personal Radiation Devices
62401
(PRDs) for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material
Radiation protection instrumentation – Spectroscopy-Based Alarming Personal
Body-worn 62618

Radiation Devices (SPRD) for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

Radiation protection instrumentation – Backpack-type radiation detector (BRD) for

62694
detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

Radiation protection instrumentation – Hand-held instruments for the detection and

62327 identification of radionuclides and for the estimation of ambient dose equivalent

rate from photon radiation
Portable or

Radiation protection instrumentation – Highly sensitive hand-held instruments for

62533
hand-held
photon detection of radioactive material

Radiation protection instrumentation – Highly sensitive hand-held instruments for

62534
neutron detection of radioactive material

Radiation protection instrumentation – Installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs)

62244
for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials
Portal
Radiation protection instrumentation – Spectroscopy-based portal monitors used
62484

for the detection and identification of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

Radiation protection instrumentation – Data format for radiation instruments used

Data format 62755
in the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION – ALARMING PERSONAL
RADIATION DEVICES (PRDs) FOR THE DETECTION OF ILLICIT
TRAFFICKING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
1 Scope

This document applies to alarming radiation detection instruments that are pocket-sized,

carried on the body and used to detect and indicate the presence and general magnitude of

gamma radiation fields. Neutron detection may also be provided.

Personal Radiation Devices (PRDs) alert the user to the presence of a source of radiation that

is distinctly above the measured average local background radiation level. They are not

intended to provide a measurement of the ambient or personal dose equivalent rate.

The object of this document is to describe design and functional criteria along with testing

methods for evaluating the performance of the PRDs used for detection of illicit trafficking of

radioactive material (e. g., for border radiation monitoring).

This document does not apply to the ambient or personal dose equivalent rate meters which

are covered in IEC 60846-1 or IEC 61526, respectively. If the manufacturer states that the

PRD can be used for radiation protection purposes, compliance with IEC 60846-1 or

IEC 61526 will be needed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60050-395, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 395: Nuclear

instrumentation: Physical phenomena, basic concepts, instruments, systems, equipment and

detectors

IEC 60068-2-11, Basic environmental testing procedures – Part 2-11: Tests – Test Ka: Salt

mist

IEC 62706:2012, Radiation protection instrumentation – Environmental, electromagnetic and

mechanical performance requirements

IEC 62755, Radiation protection instrumentation – Data format for radiation instruments used

in the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials
3 Terms and definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols, quantities and units
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-395, as well

as the following, apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62401:2017 © IEC 2017
3.1.1
A-weighted sound level

frequency weighting of an acoustic spectrum according to a standardized frequency response

curve based on the frequency response of the human ear
3.1.2
accuracy

quality which characterizes the ability of a measuring instrument to provide an indicated value

close to a true value of the measurand
3.1.3
alarm

audible, visual, or other signal activated when the instrument reading exceeds a pre-set value

or falls outside of a pre-set range
3.1.4
background

radiation field in which there are no external sources present other than those in the natural

radiation field at the location of the measurements
3.1.5
coefficient of variation
COV

ratio of the standard deviation s to the arithmetic mean of a set of n measurements x given

by the following formula:
3.1.6
conventionally true value of a quantity
best estimate of the value of a quantity used for a given purpose
3.1.7
effective range of measurement

range of values of the quantity to be measured over which the performance of a device meets

the requirements of this document
3.1.8
false alarm
alarm n
...

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