Test methods for natural fibre-reinforced plastic composite (NFC) deck boards

ISO 16616:2015 provides test methods of natural fibre-reinforced composite (NFC) deck boards used in exterior applications. This International Standard will cover the preparation of specimen, test equipments, procedures of measurements and evaluation methods.

Méthodes d'essai pour les planches en composite bois-plastique (WPC)

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ISO 16616:2015 - Test methods for natural fibre-reinforced plastic composite (NFC) deck boards
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Test methods for natural fibre-
reinforced plastic composite (NFC)
deck boards
Méthodes d’essai pour les planches en composite bois-plastique (WPC)
Reference number
ISO 16616:2015(E)
ISO 2015

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior
written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of
the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .v
Introduction .vi
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 2
4 Test specimens. 2
5 Conditioning . 2
6 Test method . 2
6.1 Density . 2
6.1.1 Test method . 2
6.1.2 Test specimens. 2
6.1.3 Immersion liquid . 2
6.1.4 Procedure . 2
6.2 Maximum bending load . 3
6.2.1 Test specimens. 3
6.2.2 Test method . 3
6.3 Bending creep strain . 4
6.3.1 Test specimens. 4
6.3.2 Test method . 4
6.4 Impact resistance . 4
6.4.1 Test specimens. 4
6.4.2 Test method . 4
6.5 Impact strength . 5
6.5.1 Test specimens. 5
6.5.2 Test method . 5
6.6 Distortion . 6
6.6.1 Test specimens. 6
6.6.2 Test method . 6
6.7 Screw holding strength . 6
6.7.1 Test specimens. 6
6.7.2 Test method . 7
6.8 Skid resistance . 7
6.8.1 Test specimens. 7
6.8.2 Test method . 7
6.9 Water absorption . 9
6.9.1 Test specimens. 9
6.9.2 Test method . 9
6.10 Freeze and thaw test .11
6.10.1 Test specimens.11
6.10.2 Test method .12
6.11 Lengthwise linear thermal expansion coefficient .12
6.12 Weatherproofing .12
6.12.1 Test specimens.12
6.12.2 Test method .12
6.13 Harmful substance test .13
6.14 Formaldehyde emission .13
6.14.1 Test specimens.13
6.14.2 Test method .13
6.15 Burning behaviour .13
6.16 Resistance against discolouration caused by microorganisms .13
6.16.1 Resistance against discolouring micro-fungi .13
6.16.2 Resistance against discolouring algae .13
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

7 Test reports .14
Bibliography .15
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity
assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical
Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 11, Products.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

Natural fibre-reinforced composite (NFC) or wood-plastics composite (WPC) is made from one or more
natural fibres or flours and a polymer or mixture of polymers. Natural fibres and flours come from
different vegetable sources. Any kinds of polymers, virgin or recycled, can be used but currently the
most common ones are poly(vinyl chloride), polypropylene, and polyethylene. For editorial reasons, in
this International Standard, the term and abbreviation “natural fibre-reinforced composite” (NFC) is
used instead of “wood-plastics composite” (WPC).
NFC materials can be considered neither as filled plastics nor as a special kind of wood material. They
are to be considered as different materials having their own characteristics.
At present, the main application of NFC products is deck boards. NFC deck boards can be processed by
different techniques, as extruding for profiles and pipes, compression moulding or injection moulding.
Recently, industrial interests have focused on NFC as a composite material partially derived from biomass.
However, as NFC’s main constituents are hydrophilic natural fibres and hydrophobic polymer(s),
problems such as cracking, bending, and strength reduction may occur in case of long-term use due
to their different characteristics in the use environment related to e.g. moisture, UV resistance and
thermal changes. However, due to the lack of standardized testing methods to evaluate the performance
and durability of NFC, it is difficult to give the orientation for the product development and to protect
the consumers’ interest. Consequently International Standards are being established in order to
encourage technology development in the NFC production field and to protect consumers from NFC
products of low quality.
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Test methods for natural fibre-reinforced plastic
composite (NFC) deck boards
1 Scope
This International Standard provides test methods of natural fibre-reinforced composite (NFC)
deck boards used in exterior applications. This International Standard will cover the preparation of
specimen, test equipments, procedures of measurements and evaluation methods.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document
and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 178, Plastics — Determination of flexural properties
ISO 179-1, Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties — Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test
ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer
(Shore hardness)
ISO 899-2, Plastics — Determination of creep behaviour — Part 2: Flexural creep by three-point loading
ISO 1183-1, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 1: Immersion
method, liquid pyknometer method and titration method
ISO 1478, Tapping screws thread
ISO 4892-2, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps
ISO 8124-3, Safety of toys — Part 3: Migration of certain elements
ISO 9239-1, Reaction to fire tests for floorings — Part 1: Determination of the burning behaviour using a
radiant heat source
ISO 11359-2, Plastics — Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) — Part 2: Determination of coefficient of linear
thermal expansion and glass transition temperature
ISO 11664-1, Colorimetry — Part 1: CIE standard colorimetric observers
ISO 11664-2, Colorimetry — Part 2: CIE standard illuminants
ISO 11664-4, Colorimetry — Part 4: CIE 1976 L*a*b* Colour space
ISO 12460-4, Wood-based panels-Determination of formaldehyde release
ISO 18314-1, Analytical colorimetry — Part 1: Practical colour measurement (in preparation)
EN 15534-1, Composites made from cellulose-based materials and thermoplastics (usually called wood
polymer composites (WPC) or natural fibre composites (NFC)) — Part 1: Test methods for characterization
of compounds and products
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1

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ISO 16616:2015(E)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
natural fibre composite
product made thereof being the result of the combination of one or several cellulosic materials with one
or several thermoplastics
solid type board
board that have a totally filled cross section
Note 1 to entry: It can be fixed to the supports by using anchoring clips or screws.
structured type board
board that have hollow parts in the cross section
Note 1 to entry: It can be fixed to the supports by using anchoring clips or screws.
Note 2 to entry: It is available e.g. in hollow, honeycomb, and arch types.
4 Test specimens
Unless otherwise specified, test specimens having the actual thickness and width of the product shall
be used for testing. Sampling may be agreed between the supplier and the applicant.
5 Conditioning
Unless otherwise specified in the relevant test method, the test specimens shall be conditioned during
at least 72 h in the standard atmosphere 23/50 according to ISO 291 [(23 ± 2) °C, (50 ± 10) % RH].
6 Test method
6.1 Density
6.1.1 Test method
The density of NFC materials shall be determined according to ISO 1183-1 Method A (immersion method).
6.1.2 Test specimens
The density of NFC materials shall be measured using test specimens which the mass is at least 1,0 g.
6.1.3 Immersion liquid
Use freshly distilled or deionised water containing not more than 0,1 % of a wetting agent to help
removing air bubbles. The liquid with which the test specimens come into contact during the
measurement shall have no effect on the test specimens.
6.1.4 Procedure
Weigh the test specimen, to the nearest 0,1 mg, in air while suspended with a wire of maximum
diameter 0,5 mm. Record the mass of the test specimen.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved

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