Intelligent transport systems -- Pedestrian detection and collision mitigation systems (PDCMS) -- Performance requirements and test procedures

ISO 19237:2017 specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system interfaces, and test procedures for Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS). It specifies the behaviours that are required for PDCMS, and the system test criteria necessary to verify that a given implementation meets the requirements of this document. Implementation choices are left to system designers wherever possible. PDCMS reduce the severity of pedestrian collisions that cannot be avoided, and may reduce the likelihood of fatality and severity of injury. PDCMS require information about range to pedestrians, motion of pedestrians, motion of the subject vehicle (SV), driver commands and driver actions. PDCMS detect pedestrians ahead of time, determine if detected pedestrians represent a hazardous condition, and warn the driver if a hazard exists. PDCMS estimate if the driver has an adequate opportunity to respond to the hazard. If there is inadequate time available for the driver to respond, and if appropriate criteria are met, PDCMS determine that a collision is imminent. Based upon this assessment, PDCMS will activate CWs and vehicle brakes to mitigate collision severity. This document, while not a collision avoidance standard, does not preclude a manufacturer from implementing collision avoidance with PDCMS. Systems that include other countermeasures such as evasive steering are not within the scope of this document. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver. ISO 19237:2017 applies to light duty passenger vehicles (see 3.6). It does not apply to other vehicle categories such as heavy vehicles or motorcycles. PDCMS are not intended for off-road use.

Systèmes intelligents de transport -- Systèmes de détection des piétons et de prévention des collisions (PDCMS) -- Exigences de performance et modes opératoires d'essai

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Dec-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
10-Nov-2017
Completion Date
08-Dec-2017
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ISO 19237:2017 - Intelligent transport systems -- Pedestrian detection and collision mitigation systems (PDCMS) -- Performance requirements and test procedures
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19237
First edition
2017-12
Intelligent transport systems —
Pedestrian detection and collision
mitigation systems (PDCMS) —
Performance requirements and test
procedures
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Systèmes de détection des
piétons et de prévention des collisions (PDCMS) — Exigences de
performance et modes opératoires d'essai
Reference number
ISO 19237:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19237:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Minimum enabling capabilities ................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Operating model — State transition diagram .............................................................................................................. 4

5.2.1 State functional descriptions................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Performance requirements .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.2 Operating speed................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3.3 Countermeasure requirements ........................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.4 Driver controls and human interface ............................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Types of PDCMS ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Test procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Pedestrian test target specification ................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.2 Driving surface................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.3 Ambient air temperature .......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.4 Horizontal visibility ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.5 Vehicle pre-conditioning ........................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.6 Vehicle mass ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Test requirements for Type 1 systems ............................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 Ambient illumination ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Test procedures................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.3 Pass criteria .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Test requirements for Type 2 systems ............................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Ambient illumination ................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.3 Illuminance measurement methods ............................................................................................................12

6.3.4 Illuminance values.......................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.5 Test procedures..............................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.6 Pass criteria .......................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19237:2017(E)
Introduction

The fatality and severe injury rates of traffic accidents involving pedestrians are significantly high,

resulting in the loss of many lives.

Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS) reduce the severity of pedestrian

collisions that cannot be avoided, and may reduce the likelihood of fatality. By a collision warning (CW)

and automatically activating EB, PDCMS assist in slowing a vehicle when a collision is likely.

Functional elements of PDCMS are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS) functional elements

System designers and other users of this document may apply it to stand-alone PDCMS or to the

integration of the PDCMS functions into other driving assistance and support systems.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19237:2017(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Pedestrian detection and
collision mitigation systems (PDCMS) — Performance
requirements and test procedures
1 Scope

This document specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system

interfaces, and test procedures for Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS). It

specifies the behaviours that are required for PDCMS, and the system test criteria necessary to verify

that a given implementation meets the requirements of this document. Implementation choices are left

to system designers wherever possible.

PDCMS reduce the severity of pedestrian collisions that cannot be avoided, and may reduce the likelihood

of fatality and severity of injury. PDCMS require information about range to pedestrians, motion of

pedestrians, motion of the subject vehicle (SV), driver commands and driver actions. PDCMS detect

pedestrians ahead of time, determine if detected pedestrians represent a hazardous condition, and warn

the driver if a hazard exists. PDCMS estimate if the driver has an adequate opportunity to respond to

the hazard. If there is inadequate time available for the driver to respond, and if appropriate criteria are

met, PDCMS determine that a collision is imminent. Based upon this assessment, PDCMS will activate

CWs and vehicle brakes to mitigate collision severity. This document, while not a collision avoidance

standard, does not preclude a manufacturer from implementing collision avoidance with PDCMS.

Systems that include other countermeasures such as evasive steering are not within the scope of this

document.
Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.

This document applies to light duty passenger vehicles (see 3.6). It does not apply to other vehicle

categories such as heavy vehicles or motorcycles. PDCMS are not intended for off-road use.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1176, Road vehicles — Masses — Vocabulary and codes

ISO 19206-2, Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for

assessment of active safety functions — Part 2: Requirements for pedestrian targets

ISO 19476:2014, Characterization of the performance of illuminance meter and luminance meter

United Nations Economic and Social Council World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle

Regulations. (WP.29) TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.2

United Nations Economic and Social Council World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle

Regulations. (WP.29) TRANS/WP.29/1045
No FMVSS 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems
1) To be published.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
collision warning

warning system that alerts the driver of a potential collision with a pedestrian in the forward path of

the subject vehicle
3.2
driver override
driver initiated suppression of an EB or CW countermeasure
3.3
emergency braking

PDCMS countermeasure that responds to the detection of an imminent pedestrian collision by

automatically activating braking to quickly reduce the relative velocity
3.4
heavy vehicle

any single vehicle or combination of vehicles defined as Category 1-2 or Category 2 in the United

Nations Economic and Social Council World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29)

TRANS/WP.29/1045
3.5
impact position

lateral contact position from the SV point of view or expected lateral contact position at the front of the

SV when the SV collides with a pedestrian or when a collision is expected
3.6
light duty passenger vehicle

vehicle according to category M1 (≦8 passenger seats except driver seat) in the United Nations

Economic and Social Council World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29)

TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.2.
3.7
minimum PDCMS speed reduction
minimum speed reduction achieved PDCMS shall achieve
3.8
minimum velocity
min
minimum SV speed for which PDCMS shall be capable of activating a countermeasure
3.9
pedestrian
human being on the road or near the road
3.10
pedestrian collision
collision between the SV and a pedestrian
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
3.11
subject vehicle
vehicle equipped with PDCMS as defined herein
3.12
target pedestrian

pedestrian that is positioned within the field of view of the sensor and that may be impacted by SV

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ABS Anti-lock Brake System
CW Collision Warning
ESC Electronic Stability Control
EB Emergency Braking
SV Subject Vehicle
TP Target Pedestrian
V Minimum velocity for PDCMS operation
min
v Subject vehicle velocity
vtpL Target pedestrian lateral velocity
V Maximum SV velocity for PDCMS operation
max
Ld (Lateral) distance between the vehicle pass and TP
xc (Longitudinal) distance between SV and TP
Figure 2
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
5 Requirements
5.1 Minimum enabling capabilities

Light duty passenger vehicles equipped with PDCMS shall be capable of providing the following

characteristics:
— detect the presence of pedestrian(s).

— determine the direction of the detected pedestrian from the SV, distance and relative velocity

between the SV and the detected forward pedestrian.
— determine the subject vehicle velocity.
— initiate appropriate PDCMS countermeasures.
— provide CWs.
— activate and modulate the brakes whether or not the driver is already braking.
— control the brake lights.

— enhance driver control based on brakes with a yaw stability capability and a capability to manage

longitudinal wheel slip, by utilizing an ESC system.

— generate at least the minimum required PDCMS speed reduction in the defined pass criteria in

6.2.3.1 or 6.3.6.

— after EB has been initiated, permit the driver to increase the deceleration to any higher value up to

the maximum possible vehicle deceleration.
— permit driver override at any time.
— provide information about system availability to the driver.
5.2 Operating model — State transition diagram
5.2.1 State functional descriptions

The PDCMS shall function according to the state transition diagram in Figure 3. Specific implementation,

beyond what is illustrated below, of the state transitions is left to the manufacturer.

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19237:2017(E)
Key
1 Ignition On or (optional) Ignition On and driver turn On
2 failure detected (automatic deactivation possible)
3 v ≥ v and v ≤ v
sv min sv max
4 v < v or v > v
sv min sv max

Exception: when the SV speed falls below v or exceeds v as long as the command is being issued.

min max
5 fail self-test, ignition Off or (optional) driver turn Off
Figure 3 — PDCMS state transition diagram including optional features

The PDCMS state descriptions address the functional requirements of PDCMS, identifying which

functions shall be performed in each state.
5.2.1.1 PDCMS Off

No countermeasures are performed in the PDCMS Off state. Upon turning the ignition to the Off

position, PDCMS shall transition to the PDCMS Off state. Whenever the self-test function determines

that PDCMS are not able to deliver adequate performance, or when the driver manually turns off the

PDCMS (optional), it shall transition to the PDCMS Off state. PDCMS may be in the PDCMS Off state

when the vehicle’s ignition is on.
5.2.1.2 PDCMS Inactive

In the PDCMS Inactive state, PDCMS shall monitor vehicle speed and determine if it is appropriate to

activate the system.

PDCMS shall enter the PDCMS Inactive state from the PDCMS Off state if the ignition on sequence

has been completed and the engine is running. PDCMS shall enter Inactive state from the Active

state if the conditions for activating are not met, for example, if the vehicle speed drops below Vmin.

If a manufacturer defined failure mode is encountered for which an automatic recovery (optional) is

possible, the PDCMS shall transition from PDCMS Active state to PDCMS Inactive state. Based

...

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