Guidelines for simplified design of reinforced concrete bridges

The purpose of ISO 28842:2013 is to provide sufficient information to perform the design of the structural concrete bridge that complies with the limitations established in ISO 28842:2013. The rules of design as set forth in ISO 28842:2013 are simplifications of more elaborate requirements. ISO 28842:2013 can be used as an alternative to the development of a national concrete bridge design and construction code, or equivalent document in countries where no national design codes are available by themselves, or as an alternative to the national concrete bridge design and construction code in countries where specifically considered and accepted by the national standards body or other appropriate regulatory organization, and applies to the planning, design and construction of structural concrete bridges to be used in new bridges of restricted span length, height of piers, and type.

Lignes directrices pour la conception simplifiée des ponts en béton armé

Smernice za poenostavljeno projektiranje majhnih armiranobetonskih mostov

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jun-2013
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
06-Dec-2018
Completion Date
06-Dec-2018

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28842
First edition
2013-06-15
Guidelines for the simplified design of
reinforced concrete bridges
Lignes directrices pour la conception simplifiée des ponts en béton
armé
Reference number
ISO 28842:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 28842:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 28842:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

4  Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................ 13

5  Design and construction procedure .................................................................................................. 18

5.1  Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 18

5.2  Design documentation ........................................................................................................................ 20

6  General Guides .................................................................................................................................... 20

6.1  Limitations ........................................................................................................................................... 20

6.2  Limit states ........................................................................................................................................... 23

6.3  Ultimate limit state design format ...................................................................................................... 25

6.4  Serviceability limit state design format ............................................................................................. 26

7  Structural systems and layout ........................................................................................................... 26

7.1  Description of the components of the structure .............................................................................. 26

7.2  General program .................................................................................................................................. 27

7.3  Structural layout .................................................................................................................................. 28

7.4  Feasibility under the guidelines ......................................................................................................... 29

8  Actions (Loads) ................................................................................................................................... 30

8.1  General ................................................................................................................................................. 30

8.2  Dead loads ........................................................................................................................................... 30

8.3  Live loads ............................................................................................................................................. 31

8.4  Longitudinal forces ............................................................................................................................. 33

8.5  Earth pressure ..................................................................................................................................... 33

8.6  Wind loads ........................................................................................................................................... 34

8.7  Earthquake inertial forces .................................................................................................................. 34

8.8  Thermal Forces .................................................................................................................................... 44

8.9  Load combinations .............................................................................................................................. 46

9  Design requirements ........................................................................................................................... 46

9.1  Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 46

9.2  Additional requirements ..................................................................................................................... 46

9.3  Materials for structural concrete ....................................................................................................... 47

9.4  Concrete Mixture Proportioning ........................................................................................................ 48

9.5  Development length, lap splicing and anchorage of reinforcement .............................................. 57

9.6  Limits for longitudinal reinforcement ................................................................................................ 59

9.7  Minimum amounts of transverse reinforcement .............................................................................. 62

10  Superstructure ..................................................................................................................................... 66

10.1  Strength of members subjected to flexural moments ..................................................................... 66

10.2  Strength of members subjected to shear stresses .......................................................................... 72

10.3  Decks .................................................................................................................................................... 76

10.4  Solid slabs supported on girders, beams, or joists ......................................................................... 83

10.5  Girders, beams and joists ................................................................................................................ 103

10.6  Railings ............................................................................................................................................... 119

11  Substructure ...................................................................................................................................... 120

11.1  Girders that are part of a frame ........................................................................................................ 120

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 28842:2013(E)

11.2  Strength of members subjected to axial loads with or without flexure ....................................... 128

11.3  Torsion ................................................................................................................................................ 132

11.4  Bearing strength ................................................................................................................................ 133

11.5  Columns and Piers ............................................................................................................................ 133

11.6  Concrete walls ................................................................................................................................... 142

12  Foundations ....................................................................................................................................... 150

12.1  Foundation type and capacity .......................................................................................................... 150

12.2  Subsurface exploration and testing programs ............................................................................... 151

12.3  Dimensioning of the foundation elements ...................................................................................... 151

12.4  Footings .............................................................................................................................................. 151

12.5  Foundation mats ................................................................................................................................ 153

12.6  Footings on piles ............................................................................................................................... 153

12.7  Foundation beams ............................................................................................................................. 154

12.8  Retaining Walls .................................................................................................................................. 154

13  Lateral load resisting system ........................................................................................................... 163

13.1  General ................................................................................................................................................ 163

13.2  Specified lateral forces ..................................................................................................................... 164

13.3  Lateral force resisting structural system ........................................................................................ 164

13.4  Minimum amount of structural concrete walls ............................................................................... 164

13.5  Special reinforcement details for seismic zones ........................................................................... 165

14  Bearings .............................................................................................................................................. 176

14.1  General ................................................................................................................................................ 176

14.2  Multiple roller bearings ..................................................................................................................... 176

14.3  Elastomeric bearings ........................................................................................................................ 177

14.4  Anchorage .......................................................................................................................................... 179

14.5  Design forces for supporting structure ........................................................................................... 179

Annex A (normative) Equivalent equations for material factors .............................................................. 181

Annex B (normative) Beam Deflection ........................................................................................................ 186

Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................... 187

iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any patent

rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO list of

patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed

concrete, Subcommittee SC 5, Simplified design standard for concrete structures.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
Introduction

The aim of this International Standard is to provide rules for the design and construction of relatively short

span concrete bridges. This International Standard is developed for countries that do not have existing

national standards on this subject and to offer to local regulatory authorities an alternative for the design of

relatively small bridges that abound in urban overpasses and over creeks and rivers everywhere. This

International Standard shall not be used in place of a national standard unless specifically considered and

accepted by the national standards body or other appropriate regulatory organization. The design rules are

based in simplified worldwide-accepted strength models. This International Standard is self-contained;

therefore, loads, simplified analysis procedures and design specifications are included, as well as minimum

acceptable construction practice guidelines.

The minimum dimensional guidelines contained in this International Standard are intended to account for

undesirable side effects that will require more sophisticated analysis and design procedures. Material and

construction guidelines are aimed at site-mixed concrete as well as ready-mixed concrete, and steel of the

minimum available strength grades.

The earthquake resistance guidelines are included to account for the numerous regions of the world which lie

in earthquake prone areas. The earthquake resistance for zones with high seismic hazard is based upon the

employment of structural concrete walls (shear walls) that limit the lateral deformations of the structure and

provide for its lateral strength, in place of piers or frames that can be used in zones with intermediate, low or

no significant earthquake hazard.

This International Standard contains guidelines that can be modified by the national standards body due to

local design and construction requirements and practices. These guidelines that can be modified are included

using ["boxed values"]. The authorities in each member country are expected to review the "boxed values"

and may substitute alternative definitive values for these elements for use in the national application of the

document.

A great effort was made to include self-explanatory tables, graphics, and design aids to simplify the use of this

International Standard and provide foolproof procedures. Notwithstanding, the economic implications of the

conservatism inherent in approximate procedures as a substitute for sound and experienced engineering

should be a matter of concern to the designer that employs the document, and to the owner that hires him.

vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28842:2013(E)
Guidelines for the simplified design of reinforced concrete
bridges
1 Scope

This International Standard can be used as an alternative to the development of a National Concrete Bridge

Design and Construction Code, or equivalent document in countries where no national design codes are

available by themselves, or as an alternative to the National Concrete Bridge Design and Construction Code

in countries where specifically considered and accepted by the national standards body or other appropriate

regulatory organization, and applies to the planning, design and construction of structural concrete bridges to

be used in new bridges of restricted span length, height of piers, and type.

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide sufficient information to perform the design of the structural

concrete bridge that complies with the limitations established in 6.1. The rules of design as set forth in this

International Standard are simplifications of more elaborate requirements.

Although the guidelines contained in this International Standard were drawn to produce, when properly

employed, a structural concrete structure with an appropriate margin of safety, these guidelines are not a

replacement for sound and experienced engineering. In order for the resulting structure designed employing

these guidelines to attain the intended margin of safety, this International Standard must be used as a whole

and alternative procedures should be employed only when explicitly permitted by the guidelines. The minimum

dimensioning guides as prescribed in this International Standard replace, in most cases, more elaborate

procedures such as those prescribed in the National Code, and the possible economic impact is compensated

for by the simplicity of the procedures prescribed here.

The professional performing the structural design under these guidelines should meet the legal requirements

for structural designers in the country of adoption and have training and a minimum appropriate knowledge of

structural mechanics, statics, strength of materials, structural analysis, and reinforced concrete design and

construction.

Designs and details for new bridges should address structural integrity by considering the following:

- the use of continuity and redundancy to provide one or more alternate paths;

- structural members and bearing seat widths that are resistant to damage or instability;

- external protection systems to minimize the effects of reasonably conceived severe loads.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 679, Cement — Test methods — Determination of strength
ISO 863, Cement — Test methods — Pozzolanicity test for pozzolanic cements
ISO 3010, Basis for design of structures — Seismic actions on structures
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
ISO 4354, Wind actions on structures
ISO 6274, Concrete — Sieve analysis of aggregates
ISO 6782, Aggregates for concrete — Determination of bulk density

ISO 6783, Coarse aggregates for concrete — Determination of particle density and water absorption —

Hydrostatic balance method

ISO 6934-1, Steel for the prestressing of concrete — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 6934-3, Steel for the prestressing of concrete — Part 3: Quenched and tempered wire

ISO 6934-4, Steel for the prestressing of concrete — Part 4: Strand

ISO 6934-5, Steel for the prestressing of concrete — Part 5: Hot-rolled steel bars with or without subsequent

processing
ISO 6935-1, Steel for the reinforcement of concrete — Part 1: Plain bars
ISO 6935-2, Steel for the reinforcement of concrete — Part 2: Ribbed bars
ISO 6935-3, Steel for the reinforcement of concrete — Part 3: Welded fabric

ISO 7033, Fine and coarse aggregates for concrete — Determination of the particle mass-per-volume and

water absorption — Pycnometer method

ISO 9194, Bases for design of structures — Actions due to the self-weight of structures, non-structural

elements and stored materials — Density
ISO 9597, Cement — Test methods — Determination of setting time and soundness

ISO 10144, Certification scheme for steel bars and wires for the reinforcement of concrete structures

ISO 3766:2003, Construction drawings — Simplified representation of concrete reinforcement

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
abutment
end support of a bridge superstructure

NOTE Abutments are used to transmit the reaction of superstructure to the foundations, to retain the earth filling and

to connect the superstructure to the approach roads.
3.2
acceleration of gravity, g
acceleration produced by gravity at the surface of the earth

NOTE For the application of these guidelines its value can be approximated to g ≈ [10] m/s .

3.3
admixture

material other than water, aggregate, or hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete and added to

concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
3.4
aggregate

granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used in conjunction with a

cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar
3.5
anchorage
device used to anchor a non-structural element to the structural framing
3.6
backfill
material used for refilling any hole that has been excavated
3.7
bar diameter, nominal

approximate diameter of a steel reinforcing bar, often used as a class designation

NOTE For deformed bars, it is common practice to use the diameter of a plain bar having the same area.

3.8
beam

horizontal, or nearly horizontal, structural member supported at one (such as a cantilever) or more points, but

not throughout its length, transversely supporting a load, and subjected primarily to flexure

3.9
bearing capacity of the soil

maximum permissible stress on the foundation soil that provides adequate safety against bearing failure of the

soil, or settlement of the foundation of such magnitude as to impair the structure

NOTE Its value is defined at the working stress level.
3.10
bearing – elastomeric

device constructed partially or wholly from elastomer to transmit loads and accommodate movements

between a bridge and its supporting structure
3.11
bending moment

product of a force and the distance to a particular axis, producing bending effects in a structural element

3.12
boundary elements

portions along wall edges strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement

NOTE Boundary elements do not necessarily require an increase in thickness of the wall.

3.13
bridge
structure carrying a road, path or railway over an obstacle
3.14
caisson

foundation pile of large diameter, built partly or totally above ground and sunk below ground usually by digging

out the soil inside
3.15
cantilever
element that extends beyond its support and is supported on one end only
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
3.16
cement

material as specified in the corresponding referenced ISO standards, which, when mixed with water, has

hardening properties
NOTE Used either in concrete or by itself.
3.17
clearance
distance by which one thing clears another; the space between them
3.18
column
vertical member used primarily to support axial compressive loads
3.19
collector elements

elements that serve to transmit the inertia forces within the diaphragm to members of the lateral-force resisting

system
3.20
combined footing

footing that transmits to the supporting soil the load carried by several columns or structural concrete walls

3.21
compression reinforcement

reinforcement provided to resist compression stresses induced by flexural moments acting on the member

section
3.22
concrete

mixture of portland cement and any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water, with

or without admixtures
3.23
concrete mix design
choice and proportioning of the ingredients of concrete
3.24
concrete specified compressive strength, f

compressive cylinder strength of concrete used in design and evaluated in accordance with the appropriate

ISO standard, expressed in megapascals (MPa)
' '

NOTE Whenever the quantity f is under a radical sign ( f ), the positive square root of numerical value only is

c c
intended, and the result has units of megapascals (MPa).
3.25
confinement hook

hook on a stirrup, hoop, or crosstie having a bend not less than 135° with a six-diameter (but not less than

75 mm) extension that engages the longitudinal reinforcement and projects into the interior of the stirrup or

hoop
3.26
confinement stirrup or tie
closed stirrup, tie or continuously wound spiral

NOTE A closed stirrup or tie can be made up of several reinforcement elements each having confinement hooks at

both ends. A continuously wound spiral should have a confinement hook at both ends.

4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
3.27
corrosion

gradual removal or weakening of metal from its surface that requires the presence of humidity and oxygen,

and is helped by the presence of other materials
3.28
cover, concrete

thickness of concrete between surface of any reinforcing bar and the nearest face of the concrete member

3.29
crosstie

continuous reinforcing bar having a 135° hook at one end and a hook not less than 90° at least a six-diameter

extension at the other end

NOTE The hooks should engage peripheral longitudinal bars. The 90° hooks of two successive crossties engaging

the same longitudinal bars should be alternated end for end.
3.30
crown
highest point of a convex structure, such as an arch or a vault
3.31
curb

edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or

other roadway
3.32
curing

keeping the concrete damp for a period of time, usually several days, starting from the moment it is cast, in

order for the cement to be provided with enough water to harden and attain the intended strength

NOTE Appropriate curing will greatly reduce shrinkage, increase strength of concrete, and should reduce surface

cracking. Curing time will depend on temperature and relative humidity of surrounding air, the amount of wind, the direct

sunlight exposure, the type of concrete mix employed, and other factors.
3.33
deformed reinforcement

steel reinforcement that has deformations in its surface to increase its bond to the concrete.

NOTE The following steel reinforcement should be considered deformed reinforcement under these guidelines:

deformed reinforcing bars, deformed wire, welded plain wire fabric, and welded deformed wire fabric conforming to the

appropriate ISO standards.
3.34
depth of member, h
vertical size of a cross section of a horizontal structural element
3.35
design load combinations
combinations of factored loads and forces as specified in these guidelines
3.36
design strength
product of the nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor
3.37
development length

length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical

section
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 28842:2013(E)
3.38
development length for a bar with a standard hook

shortest distance between the critical section (where the strength of the bar is to be developed) and a tangent

to the outer edge of the 90° or 180° hook
3.39
differential settlement
when the foundation of different parts of a structure settle different amounts
3.40
drainage
natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area
NOTE Drainage is a system that carries water or sewage away from a place.
3.41
durability

characteristic of a structure to resist gradual degradation of its serviceability in a given environment for the

design service life
3.42
effective depth of section, d

distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement

3.43
embedment length
length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section
3.44
factored loads and forces
specified nominal loads and forces multiplied by the load factors prescribed in
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
01-november-2010
Smernice za poenostavljeno projektiranje majhnih armiranobetonskih mostov
Guidelines for simplified design of small reinforced concrete bridges
Lignes directrices pour la conception simplifiée des petits ponts en béton armé
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 28842
ICS:
91.080.40 Betonske konstrukcije Concrete structures
93.040 Gradnja mostov Bridge construction
oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
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oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 28842
ISO/TC 71/SC 5 Secretariat: ICONTEC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2010-06-30 2010-11-30

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ • ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Guidelines for simplified design of small reinforced concrete
bridges
Lignes directrices pour la conception simplifiée des petits ponts en béton armé
ICS 91.080.40

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993 this document is circulated in

the English language only.

Conformément aux dispositions de la Résolution du Conseil 15/1993, ce document est distribué

en version anglaise seulement.

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.

ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at publication

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Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

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THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO

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RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
International Organization for Standardization, 2010
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oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
ISO/DIS 28842
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ii ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
ISO/DIS 28842
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................ix

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

4 Symbols (and abbreviated terms)......................................................................................................12

5 Clause...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................22

5.1.1 Step A ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.2 Step B ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.3 Step C ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.4 Step D ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.5 Step E....................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.6 Step F....................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.7 Step G ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.8 Step H ...................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.9 Step I.....................................................................................................................................................22

5.1.10 Step J....................................................................................................................................................23

5.1.11 Step K ...................................................................................................................................................23

5.2 Design documentation........................................................................................................................23

5.2.1 Calculation memoir .............................................................................................................................24

5.2.2 Geotechnical report.............................................................................................................................24

5.2.3 Structural drawings.............................................................................................................................24

5.2.4 Specifications ......................................................................................................................................24

6 General guides.....................................................................................................................................24

6.1 Limitations ...........................................................................................................................................24

6.1.1 Permitted use.......................................................................................................................................24

6.1.2 Maximum number of spans................................................................................................................24

6.1.3 Maximum span length.........................................................................................................................25

6.1.4 Maximum difference in span length ..................................................................................................25

6.1.5 Maximum cantilever length ................................................................................................................25

6.1.6 Maximum height of bridge..................................................................................................................25

6.1.7 Maximum number of lanes .................................................................................................................25

6.1.8 Width limitations..................................................................................................................................25

6.1.9 Clearances ...........................................................................................................................................26

6.1.10 Maximum skew angle..........................................................................................................................27

6.1.11 Maximum bridge horizontal curvature ..............................................................................................27

6.1.12 Cross section variation.......................................................................................................................27

6.1.13 Interaction between superstructure and substructure....................................................................27

6.2 Limit states...........................................................................................................................................27

6.2.1 Ultimate limit state design format......................................................................................................28

6.2.2 General .................................................................................................................................................28

6.2.3 Required factored loads .....................................................................................................................28

6.2.4 Design strength ...................................................................................................................................28

6.3 Serviceability limit state design format.............................................................................................29

7 Structural systems and layout ...........................................................................................................29

7.1 Description of the components of the structure..............................................................................29

7.1.1 Superstructure system .......................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST ISO/DIS 28842:2010
ISO/DIS 28842

7.1.2 Substructure system .......................................................................................................................... 29

7.1.3 Foundation .......................................................................................................................................... 30

7.2 General program................................................................................................................................. 30

7.2.1 Architectural program ........................................................................................................................ 30

7.2.2 General structural guides for the project......................................................................................... 30

7.3 Structural layout ................................................................................................................................. 31

7.3.1 General structural layout ................................................................................................................... 31

7.3.2 Vertical layout ..................................................................................................................................... 31

7.4 Feasibility under the guidelines........................................................................................................ 32

8 Actions (loads).................................................................................................................................... 33

8.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 33

8.2 Dead loads........................................................................................................................................... 33

8.2.1 Structural elements ............................................................................................................................ 33

8.2.2 Non structural elements..................................................................................................................... 33

8.3 Live loads ............................................................................................................................................ 34

8.3.1 Vehicular bridges................................................................................................................................ 34

8.3.2 Pedestrian bridges.............................................................................................................................. 35

8.3.3 Dynamic effect of live loads .............................................................................................................. 35

8.4 Longitudinal forces............................................................................................................................. 36

8.5 Earth pressure..................................................................................................................................... 36

8.6 Wind loads........................................................................................................................................... 36

8.7 Earthquake inertial forces.................................................................................................................. 37

8.7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 37

8.7.2 Seismic hazard.................................................................................................................................... 37

8.7.3 No seismic hazard zones:.................................................................................................................. 37

8.7.4 Low seismic hazard zones: ............................................................................................................... 37

8.7.5 Intermediate seismic hazard zones: ................................................................................................. 37

8.7.6 High seismic hazard zones:............................................................................................................... 37

8.7.7 Soil profile types................................................................................................................................. 43

8.7.8 Site effects........................................................................................................................................... 44

8.7.9 Design response spectral ordinates................................................................................................. 44

8.7.10 Seismic equivalent uniformly distributed load................................................................................ 45

8.7.11 Fundamental mode shape ................................................................................................................. 45

8.7.12 Lateral equivalent design forces....................................................................................................... 46

8.8 Thermal forces .................................................................................................................................... 46

8.9 Load combinations............................................................................................................................. 48

8.9.1 Ultimate loads ..................................................................................................................................... 48

8.9.2 Service loads....................................................................................................................................... 48

9 Design requirements .......................................................................................................................... 48

9.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 48

9.2 Additional requirements .................................................................................................................... 49

9.3 Materials for structural concrete....................................................................................................... 49

9.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 49

9.3.2 Cement................................................................................................................................................. 49

9.3.3 Aggregates .......................................................................................................................................... 49

9.3.4 Water .................................................................................................................................................... 49

9.3.5 Steel reinforcement ............................................................................................................................ 49

9.3.6 Admixtures .......................................................................................................................................... 50

9.3.7 Storage of materials ........................................................................................................................... 50

9.3.8 Minimum and maximum reinforcement bar diameter..................................................................... 50

9.4 Concrete mixture proportioning........................................................................................................ 50

9.4.1 Durability requirements ..................................................................................................................... 51

9.4.2 Required average compressive strength ......................................................................................... 52

9.4.3 Proportioning of the concrete mixture ............................................................................................. 52

9.4.4 Concrete cover of reinforcement ...................................................................................................... 52

9.4.5 Minimum reinforcement bend diameter ........................................................................................... 53

9.4.6 Standard hook dimensions................................................................................................................ 54

9.4.7 Bar separation and maximum aggregate size .................................................................................55

9.4.8 Minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer ............................................................... 56

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9.4.9 Minimum clear spacing between parallel layers of reinforcement ................................................56

9.4.10 Minimum clear spacing between longitudinal bars in columns.....................................................56

9.4.11 Clear spacing between parallel lap splices ......................................................................................57

9.4.12 Maximum flexural reinforcement spacing in solid slabs ................................................................57

9.4.13 Maximum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement spacing in solid slabs...............................57

9.4.14 Maximum reinforcement spacing in structural concrete walls ......................................................58

9.5 Development length, lap splicing and anchorage of reinforcement..............................................59

9.5.1 Development length ............................................................................................................................59

9.5.2 Lap splice dimensions........................................................................................................................60

9.5.3 Minimum standard hook anchorage distance..................................................................................60

9.6 Limits for longitudinal reinforcement................................................................................................61

9.6.1 General .................................................................................................................................................61

9.6.2 Solid slabs and footings.....................................................................................................................61

9.6.3 Girders, beams and joists ..................................................................................................................62

9.6.4 Columns ...............................................................................................................................................64

9.6.5 Structural concrete walls....................................................................................................................65

9.7 Minimum amounts of transverse reinforcement..............................................................................65

9.7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................65

9.7.2 Slabs.....................................................................................................................................................65

9.7.3 Girders, beams and joists ..................................................................................................................65

9.7.4 Columns ...............................................................................................................................................66

9.7.5 Structural concrete walls....................................................................................................................68

10 Superstructure.....................................................................................................................................69

10.1 Strength of members subjected to flexural moments.....................................................................69

10.1.1 General .................................................................................................................................................69

10.1.2 Factored flexural moment at section.................................................................................................70

10.1.3 Minimum design flexural moment strength......................................................................................70

10.1.4 Design moment strength for rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only ..................70

10.1.5 Use of compression reinforcement in girders, beams, and joists .................................................71

10.1.6 T-beam effect .......................................................................................................................................73

10.2 Strength of members subjected to shear stresses..........................................................................75

10.2.1 General .................................................................................................................................................75

10.2.2 Factored shear.....................................................................................................................................75

10.2.3 Design shear strength.........................................................................................................................76

10.2.4 Beam-action shear ..............................................................................................................................76

10.2.5 Two-way action shear (punching shear) in solid slabs and footings............................................79

10.3 Decks ....................................................................................................................................................80

10.3.1 Types of deck systems .......................................................................................................................80

10.3.2 Criteria for the selection of the deck system ...................................................................................84

10.3.3 Guides for structural integrity............................................................................................................85

10.3.4 Slab one-way and two-way action and load path.............................................................................85

10.3.5 Minimum allowable depth of the deck system elements ................................................................86

10.3.6 Initial trial dimensions for the deck system .....................................................................................87

10.4 Solid slabs supported on girders, beams, or joists.........................................................................87

10.4.1 General .................................................................................................................................................87

10.4.2 Design load definition.........................................................................................................................87

10.4.3 Details of reinforcement .....................................................................................................................88

10.4.4 Top thin solid slab that spans between joists..................................................................................92

10.4.5 Cantilevers of slabs supported on girders, beams..........................................................................93

10.4.6 One-way one-span solid slabs spanning between girders or beams............................................96

10.4.7 One-way solid slabs supported on girders or beams, with two or more spans...........................98

10.4.8 Two-way solid slabs spanning between girders, or beams..........................................................102

10.5 Girders, beams and joists ................................................................................................................113

10.5.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................113

10.5.2 Design load definition.......................................................................................................................113

10.5.3 Details of reinforcement ...................................................................................................................114

10.5.4 Joists and beams supported on girders.........................................................................................121

10.6 Railings...............................................................................................................................................129

10.6.1 Vehicular Railing ...............................................................................................................................129

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10.6.2 Bicycle Railing .................................................................................................................................. 129

10.6.3 Pedestrian Railing.......................................................................

...

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