Smart community infrastructures — Smart transportation by autonomous vehicles on public roads

This document describes the concept and goals of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles on public roads. It provides guidelines for the successful introduction and organisation of autonomous vehicles, with the aim of enhancing the safety of public road transportation and addressing the challenges to cities such as an aging population and diverse travel demands. This document focuses on the deployment of autonomous vehicles as an operational system for actual use on public roads. This document is intended for those in academia, autonomous vehicle developers, policy makers, research institutions, road infrastructure operators, public road administrators, testing inspection and certification bodies, and vehicle manufacturers. NOTE 1 This document targets autonomous vehicle services except on-demand responsive services with shared vehicles. For on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles, see ISO 37168. NOTE 2 A bus vehicle is shared by different passenger groups and can be chartered. A taxi vehicle is hired and can, if local regulations permit, be shared by different passenger groups.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Transport intelligent par véhicules autonomes sur la voie publique

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
12-May-2023
Completion Date
14-Jun-2022
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ISO 37181:2022 - Smart community infrastructures — Smart transportation by autonomous vehicles on public roads Released:14. 06. 2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37181
First edition
2022-06
Smart community infrastructures —
Smart transportation by autonomous
vehicles on public roads
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Transport intelligent par
véhicules autonomes sur la voie publique
Reference number
ISO 37181:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 37181:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37181:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Autonomous vehicles as smart transportation ................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Autonomous vehicles used in smart transportation ............................................................................................ 2

5 Concept of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles ..................................................................................... 2

5.1 Objectives .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Concept and target city issues of smart transportation ................................................................................... 2

5.3 Application ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) .......................................................................... 3

6 Features of autonomous vehicles as smart transportation ................................................................................... 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Basic behaviour of autonomous vehicles......................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Safety of autonomous vehicle driving ................................................................................................................................ 4

6.4 Cybersecurity principles, framework and requirements ................................................................................. 4

6.5 Data types and formats................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.6 Data privacy protection ........................................................................................................................................... ....................... 5

7 Autonomous vehicle operation on public roads ................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Charging and recharging ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.3 Vehicle maintenance work ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Public transportation passenger services ..................................................................................................................... 6

7.5 Ride comfort ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.6 Weather and climate conditions ............................................................................................................................................. 6

7.7 Driving conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.8 Fleet management ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.9 Road safety and autonomous vehicle testing .............................................................................................................. 6

7.10 Emergency responses ........................................................................................................................................... ............................ 6

7.11 Energy saving .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Maintenance of the quality of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles .................................7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Parameters to be observed.......................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3 Modification of smart transportation ............................................................................................................................... 7

9 Long-term optimization of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles alongside

technology improvement ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

Annex A (informative) Contents of the Singapore Technical Reference 68 series .............................................8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37181:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 2, Sustainable cities and communities - Sustainable mobility and transportation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37181:2022(E)
Introduction

Various countries are facing critical issues as their population ages, often at a rate higher than expected.

One of the challenges is the shortage of manpower, where many sectors, including transportation, face

constraints. At the same time, as their economic activities expand, travel demands have also become

more diversified, thus imposing additional demand on transportation networks. These challenges are

especially acute for cities, where increased transportation needs have brought about traffic congestion

and led to a lower quality of life.

To overcome such challenges, cities have tried to improve transportation systems in a variety of ways,

investing in mass transit ranging from light rail transit to metro as well as public bus services. In mass

transit, Automatic Train Operation (ATO) has been widely used for decades. ATO are mostly deployed

at grade of automation 4, i.e. Unattended Train Operation (UTO), where the system is fully run without

any staff on board, as introduced in the metro systems in Barcelona, Copenhagen, Hong Kong, Sao Paulo,

Singapore, Tokyo and Vancouver.

Beyond mass transit, transportation services on public roads have potential to be automated as well.

Autonomous shuttle services are in operation as a means to provide first and last mile connectivity

between transport nodes and homes or workplaces as well as transport services within designated

areas such as campuses, parks and neighbourhoods. Such services have already been deployed in

Beijing, Las Vegas, Melbourne, Nice and Singapore.

Smart transportation by autonomous vehicles will work as a solution to transportation issues and

concerns in cities. However, the outcomes can be achieved only when autonomous vehicles are applied

under organised conditions with safety as a top priority. This document describes the concept of smart

transportation and aims to accelerate the proper introduction of autonomous vehicles onto public

roads.

NOTE 1 As of November 2021, there are no international or national standards published on the basic

behaviour and safety of autonomous vehicles operating on public roads except for the Singapore Technical

Reference (TR) 68 series, the summaries of which are available in Annex A for information.

NOTE 2 For autonomous vehicle introduction into on-demand responsive passenger services with shared

vehicles, ISO 37168 can be useful.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37181:2022(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Smart transportation
by autonomous vehicles on public roads
1 Scope

This document describes the concept and goals of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles on

public roads. It provides guidelines for the successful introduction and organisation of autonomous

vehicles, with the aim of enhancing the safety of public road transportation and addressing the

challenges to cities such as an aging population and diverse travel demands.

This document focuses on the deployment of autonomous vehicles as an operational system for actual

use on public roads. This document is intended for those in academia, autonomous vehicle developers,

policy makers, research institutions, road infrastructure operators, public road administrators, testing

inspection and certification bodies, and vehicle manufacturers.

NOTE 1 This document targets autonomous vehicle services except on-demand responsive services with

shared vehicles. For on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles, see ISO 37168.

NOTE 2 A bus vehicle is shared by different passenger groups and can be chartered. A taxi vehicle is hired and

can, if local regulations permit, be shared by different passenger groups.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

SAE J3016, Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor

Vehicles
Singapore TR 68-1, Autonomous vehicles — Part 1: Basic behaviour
Singapore TR 68-2, Autonomous vehicles — Part 2: Safety

Singapore TR 68-3, Autonomous vehicles — Part 3: Cybersecurity principles and assessment framework

Singapore TR 68-4, Autonomous vehicles — Part 4: Vehicular data types and formats

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in SAE J3016 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
autonomous vehicle

vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with no direct human input and

designed to be operated by automated driving systems

Note 1 to entry: Automated driving system in this document means no human intervention system characterised

as SAE levels 4 and 5 as defined by SAE J3016.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37181:2022(E)

Note 2 to entry: Autonomous vehicles in this document exclude those applied to on-demand responsive passenger

services with shared vehicles, which are designated in ISO 37168.
4 Autonomous vehicles as smart transportation
4.1 General

ISO 37154 provides general guidance on smart transportation that aims to solve specific city issues.

The deployment of autonomous vehicles on public roads is considered one of the ways to introduce

smart transportation systems.

NOTE Any transportation technologies or services cannot be used for smart transportation systems, if their

performance is not confirmed, formally documented or published as international or official standards.

4.2 Autonomous vehicles used in smart transportation

This document describes smart transportation using autonomous vehicles that have been validated

for public road operations based on the Singapore Technical Reference (TR) 68 series, Parts 1 to 4.

Singapore TR 68-1, Singapore TR 68-2, Singapore TR 68-3 and Singapore TR 68-4 shall be applied to the

validation when using autonomous vehicles as smart transportation.

NOTE Autonomous vehicles have been deployed on public roads and the experiences have been documented.

[8]

For example, public trials were conducted for on-demand autonomous shuttles at Sentosa, Singapore in 2019 .

5 Concept of smart transportation by autonomous vehicles
5.1 Objectives

The smart transportation system of autonomous vehicles can be introduced into a city in order

to improve connectivity, mainly first and last mile, and accessibility to mass transit and other

transportation networks, reduce traffic congestion levels, free up land used for roads and parking lots

for other purposes, alleviate manpower constraints, contribute to traffic accident avoidance and lead to

improving the quality of life of citizens.
5.2 Concept and target city issues of smart transportation

Autonomous vehicles can enhance the efficiency of transportation services in a variety of ways. They

help improve the regularity of conventional bus services plying fixed routes and optimise dispatching

dynamically routed shuttle fleets and delivery item/freight services. Autonomous vehicles can improve

the accessibility and inclusivity of public transport systems. Commuters that need point-to-point

mobility, such as the elderly or people with disabilities, can hail an autonomous shuttle on demand,

which can bring them to transport nodes.

Efficiently organised and highly accessible public transportation systems can reduce reliance on

privately owned or personally used vehicles that are often with single occupancy and encourage a shift

to public transportation, thereby reducing congestion on public roads. Goods delivery and municipal

services such as street cleaning, can be automated with autonomous vehicles operating during off-peak

hours, enabling the dispersion of traffic over the course of the entire day.

Reducing the number of vehicles will enable the use of roads for other purposes (i.e. parking lot

removal). This would be beneficial for dense and land-scarce cities. A
...

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