Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Characteristic of piezoelectric properties under high-load conditions — Part 2: Electrical transient response method under high vibration levels

This document specifies a method of measuring piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric fine ceramics and other piezoelectric devices. It applies to electrical transient response methods for evaluating the piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric fine ceramics resonators under high vibration levels.

Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques avancées) — Caractéristique des propriétés piézoélectriques en conditions de charge élevée — Partie 2: Méthode de la réponse transitoire électrique sous des niveaux vibratoires élevés

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Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Aug-2018
Completion Date
02-Aug-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21819-2
First edition
2018-08
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
advanced technical ceramics) —
Characteristic of piezoelectric
properties under high-load
conditions —
Part 2:
Electrical transient response method
under high vibration levels
Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques
avancées) — Caractéristique des propriétés piézoélectriques en
conditions de charge élevée —
Partie 2: Méthode de la réponse transitoire électrique sous des
niveaux vibratoires élevés
Reference number
ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Measurement equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Function generator .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Power amplifier ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 Vibration velocity meter ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.5 Current probe ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6 Digital storage oscilloscope.......................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.7 Test piece holder ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.8 Numerical analysis software (numerical analyser)................................................................................................. 5

7 Specimens .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Test piece form ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2 Measurement of test piece density ........................................................................................................................................ 5

7.3 Measurement of characteristics values ............................................................................................................................. 5

8 Measurement procedures ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Analytical procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10 Calculation of characteristic values .................................................................................................................................................. 8

10.1 Calculation procedures for characteristic values ...................................................................................................... 8

10.2 How to obtain principal constants and round off characteristic values ................................................ 9

11 Report of test results .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Example of a data evaluation .......................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

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on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

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expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21819 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Characteristic of piezoelectric properties
under high-load conditions —
Part 2:
Electrical transient response method under high
vibration levels
1 Scope

This document specifies a method of measuring piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric fine ceramics

and other piezoelectric devices. It applies to electrical transient response methods for evaluating the

piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric fine ceramics resonators under high vibration levels.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20507, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Vocabulary

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 20507 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
electrical transient response method

method in which a voltage close to the resonance frequency is applied to a piezoelectric fine ceramic

resonator, and a large amplitude state is realized by driving only for a brief time until vibration is

excited, before characteristics of piezoelectric properties under an arbitrary vibration level are

evaluated by using the attenuation waveform of vibration velocity and the current under short circuit

of the electrical terminal

Note 1 to entry: Superior ability to exclude the effects of external electrical fields and temperature allows

measurement and evaluation of characteristics in a vibrational stress load environment excluding these factors.

3.2
burst
driving for only a brief duration to excite vibration
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
4 Symbols
A Force factor (N/V)
d Equivalent piezoelectric constant (C/N)
f Resonance frequency of current (Hz)
f Resonance frequency of vibration velocity (Hz)
f Instantaneous frequency of vibration velocity (Hz)
rv1
i Current (A)
l Instantaneous amplitude of current (A)
l Amplitude of current (A)
M Mass of test piece determined in 7.2 (kg)
Q * Equivalent mechanical quality factor
E 2
s * Equivalent elastic compliance(m /N)
t Time (s)
T * Amplitude of equivalent maximum stress on central region of test piece (Pa)
v Vibration velocity (m/s)
V Amplitude of vibration velocity (m/s)
V Instantaneous amplitude of vibration velocity (m/s)
X Width of test piece (m)
Y Length of test piece (m)
β Decay constant of current (S )
β Decay constant of vibration velocity (S )
β Instantaneous decay constant of vibration velocity (S )
ϕ Initial phase of current
Φ Initial phase of vibration velocity
ρ Density determined in 7.2 (kg/m )
5 Principle

A voltage e near the resonance frequency of a piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator is applied to driving

voltage then reduced to 0, placing the electrical terminals in a shorted state (e = 0, see Figure 1).

2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
Key
1 burst drive
2 short circuited
3 voltage
4 vibration velocity
5 current
6 time

Figure 1 — Waveform of vibration velocity and current during burst voltage driving of a

piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator

The decay waveforms of vibration velocity v and current i when electrical terminals are shorted

(e = 0) after burst driving decay with a mechanical resonance frequency are shown in Formula (1) and

Formula (2) (see Figure 1).
−β t
vV=+εϕsin(2πft ) (1)
0 rv v
−β t
iI=+εϕsin(2πft ) (2)
0 ri i

β and β , and likewise f and f , can be taken as nearly the same values, but considering that this is a

v i rv ri

measurement analysis concerning mechanical vibration level, β is used as a decay constant and f is

v rv

used as a resonance frequency. In a large amplitude range, various other factors can also produce other

frequency components. Consequently, only a first (fundamental) resonance frequency component is

extracted from the decay waveform of the vibration velocity and the current when electrical terminals

are shorted; the amplitude of the vibration velocity V , the amplitude of current l , resonance frequency

1 1

f and decay constant β in a selected schedule are measured and calculated, and these values are

rv1 v1

used to calculate the required constants at a selected vibration velocity. A voltage is applied only for

a brief duration, and it then drops to 0 V, meaning that the electrical field applied to elements after

electrical terminals are shorted and is also deemed zero, and since driving is only for a brief duration,

measurements can be made under conditions where temperature change attributable to vibration loss

is negligible, and piezoelectric characteristics can be evaluated in a vibrational stress load environment

[1–10]
free from the effects of external electrical fields and temperature .
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
6 Measurement equipment
6.1 General

This clause details the apparatus used for measurement. Figure 2 also presents a simplified schematic

of the measurement apparatus. A calibrated apparatus is used in measurement.
Key
1 function generator
2 power amplifier
3 current probe
4 digital storage oscilloscope
5 numerical analysis software
6 vibration velocity meter
7 test piece
8 thermocouple
9 test piece holder
Figure 2 — Simplified schematic of measurement apparatus
6.2 Function generator

The function generator shall output a sine wave greater than the first (fundamental) resonance

frequency of the piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator, and allow the setting of its drive duration (burst

driving).
6.3 Power amplifier

The power amplifier shall be capable of providing power amplification for sine waves at least two times

greater than the first (fundamental) resonance frequency of a piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator, as

well as four-quadrant output. The power amplifier should provide peak amplitudes of 200 V or more and

1 A or more for output voltage and current, respectively, and output impedance should be 0,5 Ω or less.

6.4 Vibration velocity meter

The vibration velocity meter shall be capable of measurement in a frequency range up to roughly

five times the first (fundamental) resonance frequency of a piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator, in a

vibration velocity range of approximately 0,01 m/s to 2 m/s. The vibration velocity meter shall also be

calibrated.
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21819-2:2018(E)
6.5 Current probe

The current probe shall be capable of measurement in a frequency range up to roughly five times

the first (fundamental) resonance frequency of a piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator (material) and

allow measurement of current in a range of approximately 1 mA to 1 A. The current probe shall also be

calibrated.
6.6 Digital storage oscilloscope

The digital storage oscilloscope shall be capable of recording waveforms at a sampling frequency at least

10 times greater than the first (fundamental) resonance frequency of a piezoelectric fine ceramic and

shall allow output of wave form data as numerical data. The oscilloscope should also allow recording of

1 s or more waveform data and have excellent y-axis resolution.
6.7 Test piece holder

The test piece holder shall have at its tip a pair of electrode pins measuring 1 mm or less in diameter

and be capable of using these structures to sandwich and hold the upper and lower electrode surfaces

of a piezoelectric fine ceramic resonator at a single point of contact on each surface.

NOTE 1 Providing the holder with a mechanism that has a Z-stage to move the upper pin vertically allows easy

mounting of test pieces.

NOTE 2 If a thermocouple is installed inside the lower electrode pin, the temperature of a piezoelectric fine

ceramic resonator can be measured easily.
6.8 Numerical analysis software (numerical analyser)

Numerical analysis software shall allow frequency analysis of waveform data and extraction of selected

frequency components. The software shall als
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