Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11452-1:2015 specifies general conditions, defines terms, gives practical guidelines, and establishes the basic principles of the component tests used in the other parts of ISO 11452 for determining the immunity of electronic components of passenger cars and commercial vehicles to electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy, regardless of the vehicle propulsion system (e.g. spark-ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor). The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to continuous narrowband electromagnetic fields. A wide frequency range (d.c. and 15 Hz to 18 GHz) is allowed for the immunity testing of the components in this and in the other parts of ISO 11452.

Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d'essai d'un équipement soumis à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie électromagnétique en bande étroite — Partie 1: Principes généraux et terminologie

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Jun-2015
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
18-Jun-2021
Completion Date
18-Jun-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 11452-1:2015 - Road vehicles -- Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy
English language
33 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11452-1
Fourth edition
2015-06-01
Road vehicles — Component test
methods for electrical disturbances
from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy —
Part 1:
General principles and terminology
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d’essai d’un équipement soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d’énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 1: Principes généraux et terminologie
Reference number
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General aim and practical use ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Supply voltage ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 Low Voltage (LV) power supply .......................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 HV d.c. power supply (excluding charger) ................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 Charger power supply (a.c. or d.c.) for HV battery ............................................................................. 8

5.4 Modulation ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Dwell time ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Frequency step sizes .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.7 Definition of test severity levels ............................................................................................................................................10

5.8 Disturbance application ...............................................................................................................................................................10

6 Instrumentation .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Grounding and shielding .............................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 AN, AMN, and AAN ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3 Power supply .........................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 LV power supply ............................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 HV d.c. power supply (excluding charger) ..............................................................................................11

6.3.3 Charger power supply (a.c. or d.c.) ...............................................................................................................11

6.4 Load simulator .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Test signal quality ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

7 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Test plan .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.2 Substitution method ..................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.3 Closed loop levelling ..................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.4 DUT immunity measurement ............................................................................................................................13

7.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (normative) Function Performance Status Classification (FPSC) ................................................................15

Annex B (normative) Artificial networks (AN), artificial mains networks (AMN), and

asymmetric artificial networks (AAN) ........................................................................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Constant peak test level .....................................................................................................................................27

Annex D (informative) Example of load simulator design ..........................................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32, Electrical

and electronic components and general system aspects.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 11452-1:2005) which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 11452-1:2005/Amd 1:2008.

ISO 11452 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Component test methods

for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy:
— Part 1: General principles and terminology
— Part 2: Absorber-lined shielded enclosure
— Part 3: Transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell
— Part 4: Harness excitation methods
— Part 5: Stripline
— Part 7: Direct radio frequency (RF) power injection
— Part 8: Immunity to magnetic fields
— Part 9: Portable transmitters

— Part 10: Immunity to conducted disturbances in the extended audio frequency range

— Part 11: Reverberation chamber
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
Introduction

In recent years, an increasing number of electronic devices for controlling, monitoring, and displaying a

variety of functions have been introduced into vehicle designs. It is necessary to consider the electrical

and electromagnetic environment in which these devices operate.

Electrical and radio-frequency disturbances occur during normal operation of many items of motor

vehicle equipment. They are generated over a wide frequency range with various electrical characteristics

and can be distributed to on-board electronic devices and systems by conduction, radiation, or both.

Narrowband signals generated from sources on or off the vehicle can also be coupled into the electrical or

electronic system, affecting the normal performance of electronic devices. Such sources of narrowband

electromagnetic disturbances include mobile radios and broadcast transmitters.

The characteristics of the immunity of components to radiated disturbances have to be established.

The ISO 11452 series provides various test methods for the evaluation of component immunity

characteristics. Not all test methods need be used for a given device under test (DUT). For example,

stripline and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell test methods provide very similar exposure to the

DUT. Only those tests necessary for replicating the use and mounting location of the DUT need to be

included in the test plan. This will help to ensure a technically and economically optimized design for

potentially susceptible components and systems.

The ISO 11452 series is not intended as a product specification and cannot function as one (see A.1).

Therefore, no specific values for the test severity level are given.

Annex A of this part of ISO 11452 specifies a general method for functional performance status

classification (FPSC), Annex B specifies Artificial Networks (AN), Artificial Mains Networks (AMN), and

Asymmetric Artificial Networks (AAN), Annex C explains the principle of constant peak test level while

Annex D describes an example for the design of a load simulator. Typical severity levels are included in

an annex of each of the other parts of ISO 11452.

Protection from potential disturbances has to be considered as a part of total vehicle validation as

described in ISO 11451, which covers vehicle test methods. Component test method described in

the ISO 11452 series is to be performed prior to vehicle test. Due to the vehicle’s shape, harness, and

component location diversities, conformity to parts of ISO 11452 does not guarantee conformity to parts

of ISO 11451. Nevertheless, the ISO 11452 series component tests are essential for giving a sufficient

level of confidence before integration on vehicle(s).
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 1:
General principles and terminology
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11452 specifies general conditions, defines terms, gives practical guidelines, and

establishes the basic principles of the component tests used in the other parts of ISO 11452 for

determining the immunity of electronic components of passenger cars and commercial vehicles to

electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy, regardless of the vehicle

propulsion system (e.g. spark-ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor).

The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to continuous narrowband electromagnetic

fields. A wide frequency range (d.c. and 15 Hz to 18 GHz) is allowed for the immunity testing of the

components in this and in the other parts of ISO 11452.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CISPR 16-1-2; Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods —

Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus — Ancillary equipment — Conducted

disturbances; Edition 1.2
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
absorber-lined shielded enclosure

shielded enclosure/screened room with radio-frequency-absorbing material on its internal ceiling and walls

Note 1 to entry: The common practice is for the room to have a metallic floor, but absorbing material may also be

used on the floor.
3.2
amplitude modulation

process by which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied following a specified law, resulting in an AM signal

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
3.3
artificial mains network
AMN

network that provides a defined impedance to the EUT at radio frequencies, couples the disturbance

voltage to the measuring receiver, and decouples the test circuit from the supply mains

Note 1 to entry: There are two basic types of AMN, the V-network (V-AMN) which couples the unsymmetrical

voltages, and the delta-network which couples the symmetric and the asymmetric voltages separately. The terms

line impedance stabilization network (LISN) and V-AMN are used.

Note 2 to entry: Network inserted in the power mains of the vehicle in charging mode and provides, in a given frequency

range, a specified load impedance and which isolates the vehicle from the power mains in that frequency range.

3.4
artificial network

network inserted in the supply lead or signal/load lead of apparatus to be tested which provides, in a

given frequency range, a specified load impedance for the measurement of disturbance voltages and

which can isolate the apparatus from the supply or signal sources/loads in that frequency range

Note 1 to entry: Network inserted in the d.c. power lines (low voltage and/or high voltage) of the DUT which

provides, in a given frequency range, a specified load impedance and which isolates the DUT from the d.c. power

supply in that frequency range.
3.5
asymmetric artificial network
AAN

network used to measure (or inject) asymmetric (common mode) voltages on unshielded symmetric

signal (e.g. telecommunication) lines while rejecting the symmetric (differential mode) signal

Note 1 to entry: This network is inserted in the communication/signal lines of the vehicle in charging mode to

provide a specific load impedance and/or a decoupling (e.g. between communication/signal lines and power mains).

3.6
bonded

grounded connection providing the lowest possible impedance (resistance and inductance) connection

between two metallic parts with a d.c. resistance which shall not exceed 2,5 mΩ

Note 1 to entry: A low current (≤100 mA) 4-wire milliohm metre is recommended for this measurement.

3.7
broadband artificial network
BAN

device used in power, signal, and control lines that presents a controlled impedance to the DUT over a

specified frequency range while allowing the DUT to be interfaced to its support system

3.8
bulk current
total amount of common mode current in a harness
3.9
compression point

input signal level at which the measurement system becomes non-linear, when the output value will

deviate from the value given by an ideal linear system
3.10
coupling
means or device for transferring power between systems
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726, modified]
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
3.11
current injection probe

device for injecting current in a conductor without interrupting the conductor and without introducing

significant impedance into the associated circuits
3.12
current (measuring) probe

device for measuring the current in a conductor without interrupting the conductor and without

introducing significant impedance into the associated circuits
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.13
degradation (of performance)

undesired departure in the operational performance of any device, equipment, or system from its

intended performance

Note 1 to entry: The term “degradation” also applies to temporary or permanent failure.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.14
dual directional coupler

four-port device consisting of two transmission lines coupled together in such a manner that a single

travelling wave in any one transmission line will induce a single travelling wave in the other, the direction

of propagation of the latter wave being dependent upon that of the former
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726, modified]
3.15
electromagnetic compatibility
EMC

ability of equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without

introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to anything in that environment

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.16
electromagnetic disturbance

any electromagnetic phenomenon which can degrade the performance of a device, equipment, or system,

or adversely affect living or inert matter

EXAMPLE An electromagnetic disturbance can be an electromagnetic noise, an unwanted signal, or a change

in the propagation medium itself.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.17
electromagnetic interference
EMI

degradation of the performance of equipment, transmission channel, or system caused by

electromagnetic disturbance

Note 1 to entry: The English words “interference” and “disturbance” are often used indiscriminately.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
3.18
electromagnetic radiation

phenomenon by which energy in the form of electromagnetic waves emanates from a source into space;

energy transferred through space in the form of electromagnetic waves

Note 1 to entry: By extension, the term “electromagnetic radiation” sometimes also covers induction phenomena.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.19
susceptibility

〈electromagnetic〉 inability of a device, equipment, or system to perform without degradation in the

presence of an electromagnetic disturbance
Note 1 to entry: Susceptibility is the lack of immunity.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.20
forward power
power supplied by the output of an amplifier or generator
3.21
function performance status

expected performance objectives for the function of the device under test subjected to the test conditions,

agreed between the customer and the supplier which is specified in the test plan
3.22
ground (reference) plane
flat conductive surface whose potential is used as a common reference
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.23
immunity (to a disturbance)

ability of a device, equipment, or system to perform without degradation in the presence of an

electromagnetic disturbance
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.24
immunity level

maximum level of a given electromagnetic disturbance incident on a particular device, equipment, or

system for which it remains capable of operating at a required degree of performance

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.25
load simulator

physical device including real and/or simulated peripheral loads which are necessary to ensure DUT

nominal and/or representative operation mode
3.26
narrowband emission

emission which has a bandwidth less than that of a particular measuring apparatus or receiver

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.27
net power
forward power minus reflected power
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
3.28
polarization

property of sinusoidal electromagnetic wave or field vector defined at a fixed point in space by the direction

of the electric field strength vector or of any specified field vector, when this direction varies with time

Note 1 to entry: The property may be characterized by the locus described by the extremity of the considered

field vector.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726, modified]
3.29
portable transmitter
hand-held radio frequency communication device

Note 1 to entry: A portable transmitter could be a commercial device (e.g. cellular phone) or a simulated one.

3.30
pulse modulation

process by which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied following a specified law, resulting in a PM signal

3.31
reflected power

power reflected by the load due to impedance mismatch between RF source and the load

3.32
reverberation chamber

high quality factor shielded room (cavity) whose boundary conditions are changed via one or several

stepped rotating tuners
Note 1 to entry: This results in a statistically uniform electromagnetic field.
3.33
shielded enclosure screened room

mesh or sheet metallic housing designed expressly for the purpose of separating electromagnetically

the internal and external environment
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.34
stripline

terminated transmission line consisting of two parallel plates between which a wave is propagated in

the transverse electromagnetic mode to produce a specified field for testing purposes

3.35
transverse electromagnetic cell
TEM cell

enclosed system, often a rectangular coaxial line, in which a wave is propagated in the transverse

electromagnetic mode to produce a specified field for testing purposes
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.36
transverse electromagnetic mode
TEM mode

mode in which the longitudinal components of both the electric and magnetic field strength vectors are

everywhere zero
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726, modified]
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
3.37
tubular wave coupler
TWC

device to couple RF power to a harness or a conductor without interrupting the conductor and without

introducing significant impedance into the associated circuits
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161]
3.38
voltage standing wave ratio
VSWR

ratio, along a transmission line, of a maximum to an adjacent minimum magnitude of a particular field

component of a standing wave
Note 1 to entry: VSWR is expressed by the following formula:
1+ r
VSWR=
1− r
where r is the absolute value of the coefficient of reflection.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726]
4 General aim and practical use

The test methods, procedures, test instrumentation, and levels specified in the ISO 11452 series are

intended to facilitate component specification for electrical disturbances by narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy. A basis is provided for mutual agreement between vehicle manufacturers and

component suppliers intended to assist rather than restrict.

Certain devices are particularly susceptible to some characteristics of electromagnetic disturbance,

such as frequency, severity level, type of coupling, or modulation.

Electronic devices are sometimes more susceptible to modulated, as opposed to unmodulated, radio-

frequency (RF) signals. The reason is that high-frequency disturbances can be demodulated by

semiconductors. In the case of unmodulated signals, this leads to a continuous shift of, for example, a

voltage; in the case of amplitude-modulated signals, the resulting low-frequency fluctuations can be

interpreted as intentional signals (e.g. speed information) and therefore disturb the function of the DUT

more severely.

A single standard test might not reveal all the needed information about the DUT. It is thus necessary for

users of ISO 11452 to anticipate the appropriate test conditions, select applicable parts of ISO 11452, and

define function performance objectives. The main characteristics of each test method in ISO 11452-2 to

ISO 11452-11 are presented in Table 1.
Table 1 — Main characteristics of test methods in ISO 11452
Part of ISO 11452 and Applicable fre- Coupling to Test severity Provisions
quency range parameter and
subject
unit
ISO 11452-2
DUT and wir- Electric field Absorber lined shielded
80 MHz to 18 GHz
Absorber-lined shielded
ing harness (V/m) enclosure required
enclosure
DUT and wir-
ISO 11452-3
Electric field DUT and/or wiring har-
10 kHz to 200 MHz ing harness or
(V/m) ness size limitation
TEM cell
DUT
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 11452-1:2015(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Part of ISO 11452 and Applicable fre- Coupling to Test severity Provisions
quency range parameter and
subject
unit
Current
ISO 11452-4 (mA)
Wiring har- Shielded enclosure
1 MHz to 3 GHz
ness required
Harness excitation methods Power
(W)
Wiring har- Shielded enclosure
ISO 11452-5
Electric field
10 kHz to 400 MHz ness and/or recommended: DUT size
(V/m)
Stripline
DUT limitation
ISO 11452-7
250 kHz to Wiring har- Power Influence of isolator on
400 MHz ness (W) DUT sensor signals
Direct RF power injection
ISO 11452-8
d.c. and 15 Hz to Magnetic field
DUT
150 kHz (A/m)
Immunity to magnetic fields
ISO 11452-9
26 MHz to DUT and wir- Power Absorber lined shielded
5,85 GHz ing harness (W) enclosure recommended
Portable transmitters
ISO 11452-10
Wiring har- Volt (peak to
Immunity to conducted
15 Hz to 250 kHz
ness peak)
disturbances in the extended
audio frequency range
LUF (lowest usa-
ISO 11452-11
DUT and wir- Electric field Shielded enclosure
ble frequency) to
ing harness (V/m) required
Reverberation chamber
18 GHz
5 General test conditions
5.1 General

Unless otherwise specified, the following test conditions are common to all parts of ISO 11452:

— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
— modulation;
— dwell time;
— frequency step sizes;
— definition of test severity level;
— test signal quality.

Unless otherwise specified, the variables used shall have the following tolerances:

— ±10 % for durations and distances;
— ±10 % for resistances and impedances;
and the following magnitude accuracy:
— ±1 dB for power meter including power sensor;
— ±3 dB for field probe.
© ISO 2015 – All rights res
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.