Energy performance of buildings -- Methods for expressing energy performance and for energy certification of buildings

ISO 16346:2013 sets out ways of expressing the energy performance in an energy performance certificate of a building (including the technical building systems) and ways of expressing requirements as to the energy performance. This includes an overall numerical energy performance indicator and classes against benchmarks. ISO 16346:2013 additionally includes numerical indicators at system or component level. ISO 16346:2013 defines the different types of rating (such as calculated, measured, design, and tailored rating) and the energy uses to take into account (such as heating, cooling, domestic hot water, ventilation, and lighting). ISO 16346:2013 defines a) overall indicators to express the energy performance of whole buildings, including heating, ventilation, air conditioning, domestic hot water, and lighting systems (this includes different possible indicators), b) ways to express energy requirements for the design of new buildings or renovation of existing buildings, c) procedures to define reference values, and d) ways to design a procedure for building energy certification. Furthermore, it provides a (calculation) link between delivered energy and the energy performance indicators for buildings. Since a building generally uses more than one fuel (e.g. gas and electricity), the different energy sources are collected per energyware. The overall rating is based on a weighted sum of delivered energywares. The weightings can be related to, for instance, primary energy or CO2 emissions to provide the end result of the calculation of energy performance. It also provides calculation procedures to assess the energy performance on the basis of measured energy use, including ways to convert the measured values to values under standardized conditions (environment, user). Finally, it defines the system boundaries needed to make a distinction between building energy needs, technical building systems, energy supply systems on site, and distant energy supply systems.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments -- Méthodes d'expression de la performance énergétique et de certification énergétique des bâtiments

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Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
21-Jul-2013
Withdrawal Date
21-Jul-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Jul-2013
Completion Date
22-Jul-2013
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16343
First edition
2013-07-15
Energy performance of buildings —
Methods for expressing energy
performance and for energy
certification of buildings
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Méthodes d’expression de la
performance énergétique et de certification énergétique des bâtiments
Reference number
ISO 16343:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16343:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Principal symbols ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Subscripts .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Procedure for building energy certification ............................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Content of procedure for building energy certification ....................................................................................... 3

5.3 Content of the energy performance certificate ........................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Overall energy performance rating types ........................................................................................................................ 5

5.5 Performance scale ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.6 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Energy performance indicators ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 Overall indicator .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Other indicators ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Indicator basis ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Normalization of energy rating ................................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Expression of energy requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 Ways of expressing the requirements ................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2 Overall energy performance requirements .................................................................................................................10

7.3 Modification of the impact of certain parameters .................................................................................................11

7.4 Renovation of and extensions to existing buildings .............................................................................................12

8 Reference values ................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Types of reference values ...........................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Content of reference values.......................................................................................................................................................13

8.3 Documentation of reference values ...................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (normative) Parallel routes in normative references ..............................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Procedure for building energy certification documentation .....................................16

Annex C (informative) Procedure for building energy performance classification .........................................25

Annex D (informative) Energy certificate format .................................................................................................................................26

Annex E (informative) Requirements on the characteristics of the building envelope and

system components ........................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex F (informative) Reference buildings or notional building approach ............................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the

built environment, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 205, Building environment design.

iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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Common terms, deinitions, and symbols
ISO 16343:2013(E)
Introduction

This International Standard is prepared by ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the built

environment, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 205, Building environment design, and

is one of three closely linked documents dealing with definitions and general procedures for the overall

building energy performance rating and certification (see also Figure 1):

— ISO/TR 16344, Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the

overall energy performance rating and certification;

— ISO 16343, Energy performance of buildings — Methods for expressing energy performance and for

energy certification of buildings;

— ISO 16346, Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of the overall energy performance.

ISO/TR 16344 provides a coherent set of terms, definitions, and symbols for concepts and physical

quantities related to the overall energy performance of buildings and its components, including

definitions of system boundaries, to be used in all International Standards elaborated within ISO on

energy performance of buildings.

ISO 16346 defines the general procedures to assess the energy performance of buildings, including

technical building systems, different types of ratings, and building boundaries.

Their development greatly benefited from similar CEN documents (viz. CEN/TR 15615, EN 15217, and

EN 15603) developed to support the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD).

A revision of the set of CEN standards to support the EPBD is anticipated in the near future. Issuing the

ISO documents aims to bring the key subjects of building energy performance assessment to the global

international level.

Given the strong demand for these standards at ISO level, it was decided not to delay the advancement of

these International Standards and Technical Reports by waiting on these CEN developments. However, it

is expected that a future revision of these International Standards and Technical Reports will be carried

out in collaboration with CEN under the Vienna Agreement.
Energy Performance (EP)
ISO/TR 16344
Overall Energy
Performance of the
ISO 16343
building including its
expressions
technical building
ISO 16346
systems
EP aggregation
Boundaries, classiication
Collect all energy elements
Building energy needs
and system energy losses
Component input data
Boundary conditions

Figure 1 — Flow diagram illustrating the successive elements of the general procedures

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16343:2013(E)

Introduction to methods for expressing energy performance and for energy certification of buildings

Expression of the energy performance of buildings is needed to

— enable the establishment of regulations regarding energy performance of buildings, and

— encourage building designers, owners, operators, and users to improve the energy performance

of buildings.

This International Standard provides methods to express the energy performance of buildings in a way

that serves these purposes. It is based on International Standards that provide methods to calculate or

measure energy performance.
This International Standard is intended to be used by
— developers of a procedure for building energy certification,

— building authorities setting minimum requirements on the energy performance, and

— building designers, building owners, building operators, and building users to assess the performance

of a planned or existing building and ways to improve it and to express this performance.

vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16343:2013(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Methods for
expressing energy performance and for energy
certification of buildings
1 Scope

This International Standard sets out ways of expressing the energy performance in an energy

performance certificate of a building (including the technical building systems) and ways of expressing

energy performance requirements. This includes an overall numerical energy performance indicator

and classes against benchmarks.

This International Standard additionally includes numerical indicators at system or component level.

This International Standard defines the different types of rating (such as calculated, measured, design,

and tailored rating) and the energy uses to take into account (such as heating, cooling, domestic hot

water, ventilation, and lighting).
This International Standard defines

a) overall indicators to express the energy performance of whole buildings, including heating,

ventilation, air conditioning, domestic hot water, and lighting systems (this includes different

possible indicators),

b) ways to express energy requirements for the design of new buildings or renovation of existing buildings,

c) procedures to define reference values, and
d) ways to design a procedure for building energy certification.

Furthermore, it provides a (calculation) link between delivered energy and the energy performance

indicators for buildings. Since a building generally uses more than one fuel (e.g. gas and electricity), the

different energy sources are collected per energyware. The overall rating is based on a weighted sum of

delivered energywares. The weightings can be related to, for instance, primary energy or CO emissions

to provide the end result of the calculation of energy performance.

It also provides calculation procedures to assess the energy performance on the basis of measured

energy use, including ways to convert the measured values to values under standardized conditions

(environment, user).

Finally, it defines the system boundaries needed to make a distinction between building energy needs,

technical building systems, energy supply systems on site, and distant energy supply systems.

This International Standard can be applied to a group of buildings if they are on the same lot, if they are

serviced by the same technical systems, and if no more than one of them has a conditioned area of more

than 1 000 m .

This International Standard provides different options at different levels. When this International

Standard is used to set up national or regional methods for expressing energy performance and/or for

energy certification of buildings, the choices between the options shall not be made by the individual

user but by authorized national or regional bodies.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7345, Thermal insulation — Physical quantities and definitions

ISO 16346, Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of the overall energy performance

ISO/TR 16344, Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the overall

energy performance rating and certification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7345 and ISO/TR 16344 apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are applicable to energy calculations according to this International

Standard, and to International Standards that are based on this one, to provide input to or use output from this

International Standard.
4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 Introduction

The International Standards dealing with energy performance of buildings introduce a large number of

quantities and their associated symbols.

To facilitate the use of the standards, a common set of symbols and subscripts have been defined, as

given in ISO/TR 16344. The symbols follow established standards on nomenclature such as ISO 7345

and introduce others that are common to the set of International Standards needed to assess the energy

performance of buildings, in particular, a set of subscripts to distinguish between different energy uses,

different energy carriers, etc.

The symbols given in ISO/TR 16344 concern only data passed from one standard (or standard part) to

another.
4.2 Principal symbols

Table 1 provides the specific symbols for this International Standard that are not covered in ISO/TR 16344.

Table 1 — Specific symbols and units for this International Standard
Symbol Quantity Unit
A conditioned area m
A thermal envelope area m
R Reference
4.3 Subscripts

Table 2 provides the specific subscripts for this International Standard that are not covered in

ISO/TR 16344.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
Table 2 — Specific subscripts for this International Standard
R requirement of regulation
C conditioned
S building stock
E envelope
5 Procedure for building energy certification
5.1 General
Clause 5 includes the following:
a) content of the procedure for building energy certification;
b) content of an energy certificate;

c) options in selecting the overall energy performance indicator EP which is used for the procedure for

building energy certification;
d) description of a performance scale;

e) description of types of recommendations to be included in the energy certificate.

In addition to Clause 5, Annexes C and D provide a way to describe a procedure for building energy

certification, an informative procedure for buildings classification, and three examples of an energy

certificate format.
5.2 Content of procedure for building energy certification

When the procedure for building energy certification is set up according to this International Standard,

information on the choices done shall be documented according to the format provided in Annex B.

The national party or other responsible body setting up a procedure for building energy certification

may state that its procedures are in accordance to this International Standard if the documentation

according to Annex B has been completed and the completed Annex B is published as national or

equivalent annex to this International Standard.

NOTE The purpose of the national annex is to achieve transparency on the differences in (national or regional)

procedures for building energy certification.

The following shall be included in a procedure for building energy certification.

a) BUILDING FUNCTIONS: Description of the function or functions of the building or part of the

building to which the procedure applies. The main functions of buildings considered are: single

family houses, apartment blocks, offices, education buildings, hospitals, hotels and restaurants,

sport facilities, wholesale and retail trade service buildings, and other types.

b) APPLICATION: Specification of the cases where the procedure for building energy certification applies:

— for sale, rent, new building design or after construction, display in a public building, etc;

— for checking compliance with minimum energy performance requirements or not.

c) TYPE OF RATING: Specification of the type of rating or ratings used, as specified in 5.4, for each

application [calculated (design, standard, or tailored) and/or measured; compliance check or not]

and for which building function(s) it applies. In case of design rating, this includes under what

conditions the design rating can be considered as or converted to a calculated energy rating for the

actually realized building. In case of measured energy rating, this includes specification of which

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16343:2013(E)

information on the actual conditions in the building is to be recorded (if any) and whether or not

corrections shall be made to correct for deviating periods, weather, and/or indoor conditions.

d) OVERALL NUMERICAL INDICATOR: Specification of what the overall numerical indicator represents,

as specified in 6.1, and specifically, which energy services are included and if renewable energy

produced on site is part of delivered energy or not.

e) NORMALIZATION: Specification of how the overall numerical indicator is normalized, as

specified in 6.4.
f) ENERGY PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS: Specification of how the energy performance

requirements are expressed, as specified in 7.1, including the way requirements for buildings with

different functions are defined, as specified in 7.2, the way the impact of certain parameters is

modified, as specified in 7.3, the way the requirements are expressed in case of renovations of and

extensions to existing buildings, as specified in 7.4, and the specifications in case of the application

of the notional (reference) building approach as described in Annex F.

g) REFERENCE VALUES: Specification of the definition of the reference values and the procedure to

define the values, as specified in Clause 8, including the way the impact of certain parameters is

modified, as specified in 8.1.

h) OTHER (COMPONENT) INFORMATION: Specification of other information on the energy performance

of main building and system components required on the certificate (if any).

i) ADDITIONAL INDICATORS: Specifications and assessment procedures on additional indicators

required on the certificate (if any, see 6.1).

j) RECOMMENDATIONS: Procedures to assess the recommendations for cost-effective improvements,

as defined in 5.6, and for which applications these are required on the certificate.

k) ENERGY PERFORMANCE CLASSES OR SCALING: Setup and procedures to assess the energy

performance class presented on a scale or other scaling (to be specified), as defined in 5.5.

EXAMPLES Examples of energy certificate classes or other scaling options are given in Annex D.

l) ADDITIONAL CONTENT: Specific additional content on the certificate to identify the characteristics

of the building.

EXAMPLES Conditioned area, number of conditioned floors, year or period of construction, and year or

period of the last major refurbishment.

m) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Specification of any other additional information required on the

certificate (if any).

n) COMPLETION OF THE CERTIFICATE: General procedures for the completion of the administrative

and technical data required on the certificate, as specified in 5.3.

o) FORMAT OF THE CERTIFICATE: Format of the certificate and which content is to be given in the

certificate itself and which is to be given in an accompanying report.
EXAMPLES Examples of energy certificate formats are given in Annex D.

p) CENTRAL DATABASE: If this is part of the certification procedures, the purpose of this procedure

is to ensure that the data obtained from the energy certificates describing the building stock are

stored in an organized way and in a central place (one database).
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
5.3 Content of the energy performance certificate

The following administrative and technical data shall be provided according to the setup of the procedure

for building energy certification as specified in 5.2.
a) Administrative data:

1) reference to a specific procedure for building energy certification, including its date;

2) name of person responsible for issuing the energy certificate;
3) address of the building where the energy certificate was issued to;
4) date when the energy certificate was issued and its limit of validity;
b) Technical data:

1) one overall indicator representing the energy performance, as specified in 5.2 under d);

2) type of rating(s) used, as specified in 5.2 under c), adding the following note depending on the

type of rating:
In case of type: Note:
Calculated energy rating
Design rating based on design data
Standard rating based on standard conditions
Tailored rating based on actual data
Measured energy rating based on actual conditions
3) reference values as specified in 5.2 under g);

4) if the certificate is based on design energy rating, the requested additional content as specified

in 5.2 under c);

5) if the certificate is based on measured energy rating, the requested additional content as

specified in 5.2 under c);

6) specific other information on the energy performance of main building and system components,

as specified in 5.2 under h);
7) specific additional indicators, as specified in 5.2 under i);

8) recommendations for cost-effective improvements, as specified in 5.2 under j);

9) energy performance class or other scaling presented on a scale, as specified in 5.2 under k);

10) specific additional content on the certificate to identify the characteristics of the building, as

specified in 5.2 under l).
5.4 Overall energy performance rating types

The procedure for building energy certification shall specify the chosen type or types of rating, as listed

in 5.2 under c), and for which application and building functions.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 16343:2013(E)
The types of rating are defined in 5.3 of ISO 16346.
— A) Calculated energy rating, with the following subdivisions:
— A1) Design rating: rating applied to a planned building;

— A2) Standard rating: rating based on standard input data for climate, use, surroundings, and

occupant-related input data;

— A3) Tailored rating: rating calculated with climate, occupancy, and surroundings data adapted

to the actual building and to the purpose of the calculation.

— B) Measured energy rating: rating based on measurement of all energy carriers delivered to the

building and exported by the building and corrected for non-standard conditions, as specified in

Clause 8 of ISO 16346.

If the choice depends on the application and function of the building, this shall be described in the

procedure as part of 5.2 point c).
NOTE Which energy services are included or not is dealt with under 6.1.
Rationale for making the choice:

The selection of the relevant rating type shall take into account the following points.

The procedure for building energy certification shall describe how these points have been taken into

account as part of 5.2 point c).
— For new buildings, the measured energy indicator is not available.

— The utilities which collect data on energy consumption may not be authorized to disclose them for

privacy reasons.

— A measured energy indicator will no longer be valid following a change of building occupier or of the

pattern of use of the building. For existing buildings which are rented or sold, the way the building

is managed could change and the measured energy indicator could change as a result.

— Defining a standard calculated energy indicator includes the collection of data on the building

(insulation, heating system, etc.) which will be useful in giving advice on the improvement of its

energy performance.

— In existing public buildings where there is no change in ownership, the measured energy

indicator can be a measure of the quality of the management and can be used to motivate

building operators and users.

— When the energy certificate is displayed in an existing public building, the operational indicator can be

a measure of the quality of the management and can be used to motivate building operators and users.

— For managers of buildings, a measured energy indicator can be easily obtained from data often

stored in their information systems (energy bills, areas, etc.).

— Measured energy indicator and standard calculated energy indicator do not necessarily include the

same energy uses.
— For new buildings, a design indic
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