Energy performance of buildings -- Schedule and condition of building, zone and space usage for energy calculation

ISO 18523-2:2018 specifies the formats to present the schedule and conditions of zone and space usage (referred to as input data of energy calculations) for residential buildings. The schedule and conditions include schedules of occupancy, operation of technical building systems, ventilation rates, hot water usage, usage of appliances and internal heat gains due to occupancy, lighting and appliances. The schedule and conditions for lighting are applicable to fixed installed lighting fixtures. ISO 18523-2:2018 also gives categories of residential building, zone and space according to differentiating schedule and condition. For residential buildings or its housing units which contain any category of space or zone of non-residential buildings, ISO 18523‑1 applies. Depending on necessary minuteness of the energy calculation, different levels of schedule and condition from the view point of time and space averaging are specified. The values and categories for the schedule and condition are included informatively. NOTE The schedule and condition in this document is basically different from assumptions in order to determine the size of technical building systems in the process of design, where possible largest or smallest values are assumed. Instead, most usual and average values, which are assumed for the building energy calculation, are dealt with in this document.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments -- Plan et conditions d'utilisation des espaces, zones et bâtiments pour le calcul d'énergie

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Urniki in pogoji uporabe stavbe, con in prostorov za izračun rabe energije - 2. del: Stanovanjske stavbe

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Feb-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-Dec-2017
Completion Date
22-Feb-2018

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18523-2
First edition
2018-02
Energy performance of buildings —
Schedule and condition of building,
zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Plan et conditions
d'utilisation des espaces, zones et bâtiments pour le calcul
d'énergie —
Partie 2: Bâtiments résidentiels
Reference number
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Space ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Schedule ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage ....................................................................... 4

3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule ................................................................................................................................................ 5

4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation ..........................................7

4.1 Indispensable schedules ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Daily schedule .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Division of year and daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual allocations of

daily schedules ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Conditions for energy calculation included in the schedule and condition of zone

and space usage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Energy needs and uses ..................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Condition ...................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.1 Occupancy or occupancy density ...................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services ..........12

5.2.3 Internal heat gains .......................................................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Operation of movable fittings ............................................................................................................................15

5.3 Process for determining schedule and condition in housing units ........................................................15

5.3.1 Family structure ............................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.2 Time use of daily life of family member(s) .............................................................................................15

5.3.3 Schedule and area for space heating and cooling .............................................................................16

5.3.4 Schedule and area of overall ventilation ..................................................................................................16

5.3.5 Schedule and area of local exhaust ventilation ...................................................................................17

5.3.6 Amount of domestic hot water usage .........................................................................................................17

5.3.7 Possession and usage of appliances .............................................................................................................17

6 Category of residential building, zone and space ............................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Category of space or zone ...........................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 Categories of space or zone inside housing unit ...............................................................................18

6.2.2 Categories of space or zone outside housing unit ............................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Examples of time use as daily life of family ...................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Format of annual schedule by daily allocation of daily schedules ........................23

Annex C (informative) Examples of schedules for space heating and cooling .......................................................24

Annex D (informative) Example of schedule and area for local ventilation .............................................................25

Annex E (informative) Examples of schedule and condition for domestic hot water .....................................26

Annex F (informative) Example of schedule and condition for usage of electric appliances .................27

Annex G (informative) Examples of categories of space and zone of residential buildings .....................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18523 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Introduction

There is a strong need to improve the environment to make the evaluation of energy performance of

buildings more reliable and practical, so that energy efficiency of buildings is improved by referring

to the evaluation results. There have been no international standards prescribing building use in this

area. This document prescribes the indispensable information on the conditions for zone and space

usage in energy calculations for residential buildings.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and
condition of building, zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
1 Scope

This document specifies the formats to present the schedule and conditions of zone and space usage

(referred to as input data of energy calculations) for residential buildings.

The schedule and conditions include schedules of occupancy, operation of technical building systems,

ventilation rates, hot water usage, usage of appliances and internal heat gains due to occupancy, lighting

and appliances. The schedule and conditions for lighting are applicable to fixed installed lighting

fixtures.

This document also gives categories of residential building, zone and space according to differentiating

schedule and condition. For residential buildings or its housing units which contain any category of

space or zone of non-residential buildings, ISO 18523-1 applies.

Depending on necessary minuteness of the energy calculation, different levels of schedule and condition

from the view point of time and space averaging are specified.

The values and categories for the schedule and condition are included informatively.

NOTE The schedule and condition in this document is basically different from assumptions in order to

determine the size of technical building systems in the process of design, where possible largest or smallest values

are assumed. Instead, most usual and average values, which are assumed for the building energy calculation, are

dealt with in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18523-1, Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and condition of building, zone and space usage

for energy calculation — Part 1: Non-residential buildings
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.1 Space
3.1.1
apartment block
building (3.1.2), which contains multiple housing units (3.1.8)
3.1.2
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems (3.3.13), where energy

is used to condition the indoor environment, to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other

services related to the use of the building
3.1.3
building zone
zone

part of a building consisting of (part of) one or more spaces with assumed uniform properties related

to a specific service or service component, or (in absence of a service) assumed uniform indoor

environmental conditions
3.1.4
common space
indoor or outdoor space, which is commonly used by residents
3.1.5
thermally conditioned space
thermally conditioned zone
heated and/or cooled space (zone)
3.1.6
elementary space
space

part of a room, a room or group of adjacent rooms with assumed uniform properties for all considered

types of zones
3.1.7
habitable room

room that is continuously used for living, working, meeting, amusement and other purposes similar

thereto

Note 1 to entry: Spaces such as bathroom, washroom, toilet, entrance hall or corridor are excluded.

3.1.8
housing unit

single-family house (3.1.9) or apartment (flat or maisonette) of apartment blocks (3.1.1)

3.1.9
single-family house
detached house
independent residential building, where a family lives
3.1.10
thermally unconditioned space
thermally unconditioned zone
space (zone) that is not heated nor cooled
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.2 Schedule
3.2.1
annual operation hours
operation hours

total length of hours in a standard year (3.2.11) when a technical building system (3.3.13) can be operated

depending on necessity
3.2.2
annual schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for one year

Note 1 to entry: Division of the year can be selected from 365 days, 53 weeks, 12 months, seasons or no division

(a set of daily schedules is uniformly applied throughout the year).
3.2.3
daily operating hours
hours when a service system is operated, or the length of the hours
3.2.4
daily schedule

conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the service

systems and internal heat gains at each time of a day
3.2.5
daily schedule with hourly conditions

set of hourly conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the

service systems and internal heat gains in a day
3.2.6
monthly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for each month of the year
3.2.7
seasonal schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each season of the year
3.2.8
schedule

information on condition(s) of building, zone or space usage throughout a cycle of period, such as day,

week, month, season and year
3.2.9
set of daily schedules

complete set of daily schedules representing usage of a category of building, zone or space in one year

3.2.10
standard year

selected year, of which the number of days has to be 365 and arrangement of weekdays, weekends and

holidays are referred in weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual schedules
3.2.11
weekly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each week of the year
3.2.12
whole set of annual schedules

complete set of annual schedules (3.2.2) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.2.13
whole set of seasonal schedules

complete set of seasonal schedules (3.2.7) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.2.14
whole set of monthly schedules

complete set of monthly schedules (3.2.6) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage
3.3.1
appliances
consumer electronics and machines for housekeeping
3.3.2
condition

status of occupancy (3.3.9), operation of service systems, requirement for the functions of the technical

building systems (3.3.13) and internal heat gains
3.3.3
demand control ventilation

ventilation with a rate controlled according to the necessity of the ventilation, such as the emission rate

of target pollutant
3.3.4
local exhaust ventilation

mechanical exhaust ventilation for eliminating contaminants, such as odour, combustion gases, water

vapour and oil mist, from nearby sources
3.3.5
height of the working plane

height of the plane on which the assumed visual task is carried out, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the working plane is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.6
height of the specified surface

height of the plane on which the requirement for the ambient lighting is assumed, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the specified surface is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.7
luminaire

apparatus which distributes, filters or transforms the light transmitted from one or more lamps and which

includes, except the lamps themselves, all the parts necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps and,

where necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means for connecting them to the electric supply

3.3.8
maintained average illuminance

value below which the average illuminance over the specified surface is not allowed to fall

Note 1 to entry: Maintained average illuminance is expressed in lux.
3.3.9
occupancy
presence of users in building, zone or space
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.3.10
occupancy density

number of present users in building, zone or room per unit floor area of the space

Note 1 to entry: Occupancy density is used mainly for the calculations for space heating/cooling and ventilation.

3.3.11
overall ventilation

ventilation for supplying outdoor air into indoor spaces to dilute general contaminants, such as

formaldehyde, CO and water vapour
3.3.12
simultaneous usage ratio

ratio of the number of zones or spaces which belong to a group of zones and spaces and

are occupied or used at the time, to the total number of zones or spaces in the group

Note 1 to entry: This concept is applied to a group of zones or spaces of the same category, such as a group of

guest rooms in hotels, a series of personal office rooms in office buildings, etc.

3.3.13
technical building system

all energy-using or -distributing components in a building that are operated to support the occupant

or process functions housed therein (including HVAC, domestic hot water, illumination, transportation,

laundering or similar functions)
3.3.14
movable fitting

movable part of openings, which is used for the purposes of, for example, solar shading, adding

insulation, ventilation and security
3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule
3.4.1
hourly ratio
ratio of hourly value of parameters to their reference value

Note 1 to entry: Multiplying hourly ratios by the reference value, hourly values of the parameter is calculated.

This shall be calculated in accordance with ISO 18523-1.
3.4.2
reference domestic hot water usage
maximum hourly service hot water usage by users of the space or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume flow rate per person, in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in volume

flow rate per bed.

Note 2 to entry: The volume flow rate is calculated with the assumption on hot water temperature.

3.4.3
reference heat gain due to appliances

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.4
reference heat gain due to person

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to person inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 18523-2:2018(E)

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.5
reference heat gain due to lighting
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to lighting inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to lighting at the time can be calculated.

3.4.6
reference latent heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.7
reference latent heat gain due to person
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.8
reference occupancy density
maximum hourly occupancy density of the space or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in person per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, occupancy density at the time can be calculated.

3.4.9
reference sensible heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, sensible heat gain due to appliances at the time can be

calculated.
3.4.10
reference sensible heat gain due to person
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, sensible heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.11
reference ventilation requirement

most probable estimation of outdoor air supply (in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in air change

per hour) to the space or zone
3.4.12
total daily usage of domestic hot water
total volume of service hot water usage in one day

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume per person, in volume per unit floor area, in volume per bed or in volume per

household (housing unit).

Note 2 to entry: The volume is calculated with the assumption of hot water temperature.

6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation
4.1 Indispensable schedules

The energy calculations for residential buildings are characterized by the division number of the

year, the calculation period or the calculation interval. Each calculation method has its appropriate

calculation interval according to characteristics of the target physical phenomenon (for example,

unsteadiness) and minuteness of the calculation responding to changes of climatic condition, occupants’

behaviour, status of service systems and so on.

Due to the variety of calculation method, there is a variety of form of the schedule and condition of

zone and space usage. Nevertheless, there is a fundamental unit of form, daily schedule, which shall be

included in forms for the schedule and condition. The daily schedule corresponds to the minimum cycle

of zone and space usage, and also of climatic and solar condition.

Some nations adopt so called “monthly calculation” for space heating and cooling energy needs and

uses, taking monthly variation of outdoor temperature and solar irradiance into consideration. One

daily schedule for workday and the number of the workdays is given to each month for each type of zone

and space. Monthly means of outdoor air condition (for example, temperature) and solar irradiance for

different orientations and inclinations are given for the calculation. The expression of the daily schedule

varies from detailed expression with hourly values to simplified expression such as daily mean values

and the like. Additional schedule for holiday can be given in a simplified way such as only with daily

mean values.

Similarly, in so called “seasonal calculation”, one daily schedule for workday and the number of the

workdays for each season are given to each season for each type of zone and room, and the calculation

is done with seasonal mean values for climatic condition.

For the calculation of more steady phenomena, so called “annual calculation” can work if seasonal

change of solar condition is integrated throughout the year and condensed in specific coefficients.

Nevertheless, one daily schedule for a workday and the number of annual workdays are necessary.

Additional daily schedules for holiday can be given.

For the calculation of lighting, monthly or yearly calculation is mainly used, even though unsteady

aspects of lighting still have to be dealt with. In the calculation for lighting, when input parameters

such as operating hours with and without daylight are prescribed, a daily schedule as described in

column (2) of Table 1 and annual schedule by monthly allocation of daily schedules (Table 5) or annual

schedule without division of the year (Table 7) should be explicitly given, so that the operating hours

for light are well harmonized with those for other technical systems.

Therefore, for each category of zone and space, a necessary number of daily schedules (e.g., two daily

schedules for workday and holiday), and one of annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly schedules shall

be given in order that the daily schedules are allocated for the year.
4.2 Daily schedule

The daily schedule shall contain hourly values of conditions for one day, or shall contain condensed or

simplified information on conditions for the day. With some assumptions, the hourly detailed values can

be generated from the condensed or simplified information and used even for detailed calculation. If

necessary, multiple daily schedules representing different daily patterns of usage should be given such

as for workdays, holidays and going-out days. The number of daily schedules depends on minuteness of

the schedule and conditions as well as on the category of zone and space under consideration.

The conditions described in the daily schedule are grouped into five categories:
a) General information on occupancy and usage of zone and space;
b) Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services;
c) Usage of appliances;
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
d) Internal heat gains;
e) Operation of movable fittings.
The basic structure of a daily schedule is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 — Framework of daily schedule for zone and space
(1) Description by hourly (2) Condensed or simplified
values for 0–24 h description

a) General Occupancy or occu- Hourly occupancy or occupancy Times of start and end of occupancy

information on pancy density density or total hours of occupancy, and
occupancy and average occupancy or occupancy
usage density during usage
Simultaneous Hourly simultaneous usage ratio Mean simultaneous usage ratio
usage ratio of a set during usage
of rooms

b) Operation Space heating and/ Hourly status of space heating Times of start and end of operation,

of technical or cooling and/or cooling system (in or out or total hours of operation

building systems of operation)
and requirement
for their building
services
Hourly set-points of room temper- Set-point temperature and/or
ature and/or humidity humidity during operation, and/or
information on set-back operation

Ventilation for gen- Hourly status of ventilation Times of start and end of operation,

eral contaminants system (in or out of operation) or total hours of operation
(overall ventilation)
Lighting Hourly status of lighting system Times of start and end of operation,
(in or out of operation) or total hours of operation
Maintained average illuminance Maintained average illuminance
and heigh
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
01-junij-2020

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Urniki in pogoji uporabe stavbe, con in prostorov za

izračun rabe energije - 2. del: Stanovanjske stavbe

Energy performance of buildings -- Schedule and condition of building, zone and space

usage for energy calculation -- Part 2: Residential buildings

Performance énergétique des bâtiments -- Plan et conditions d'utilisation des espaces,

zones et bâtiments pour le calcul d'énergie -- Partie 2: Bâtiments résidentiels
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18523-2:2018
ICS:
91.040.30 Stanovanjske stavbe Residential buildings
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation of
buildings
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18523-2
First edition
2018-02
Energy performance of buildings —
Schedule and condition of building,
zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Plan et conditions
d'utilisation des espaces, zones et bâtiments pour le calcul
d'énergie —
Partie 2: Bâtiments résidentiels
Reference number
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Space ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Schedule ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage ....................................................................... 4

3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule ................................................................................................................................................ 5

4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation ..........................................7

4.1 Indispensable schedules ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Daily schedule .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Division of year and daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual allocations of

daily schedules ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Conditions for energy calculation included in the schedule and condition of zone

and space usage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Energy needs and uses ..................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Condition ...................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.1 Occupancy or occupancy density ...................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services ..........12

5.2.3 Internal heat gains .......................................................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Operation of movable fittings ............................................................................................................................15

5.3 Process for determining schedule and condition in housing units ........................................................15

5.3.1 Family structure ............................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.2 Time use of daily life of family member(s) .............................................................................................15

5.3.3 Schedule and area for space heating and cooling .............................................................................16

5.3.4 Schedule and area of overall ventilation ..................................................................................................16

5.3.5 Schedule and area of local exhaust ventilation ...................................................................................17

5.3.6 Amount of domestic hot water usage .........................................................................................................17

5.3.7 Possession and usage of appliances .............................................................................................................17

6 Category of residential building, zone and space ............................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Category of space or zone ...........................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 Categories of space or zone inside housing unit ...............................................................................18

6.2.2 Categories of space or zone outside housing unit ............................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Examples of time use as daily life of family ...................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Format of annual schedule by daily allocation of daily schedules ........................23

Annex C (informative) Examples of schedules for space heating and cooling .......................................................24

Annex D (informative) Example of schedule and area for local ventilation .............................................................25

Annex E (informative) Examples of schedule and condition for domestic hot water .....................................26

Annex F (informative) Example of schedule and condition for usage of electric appliances .................27

Annex G (informative) Examples of categories of space and zone of residential buildings .....................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18523 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Introduction

There is a strong need to improve the environment to make the evaluation of energy performance of

buildings more reliable and practical, so that energy efficiency of buildings is improved by referring

to the evaluation results. There have been no international standards prescribing building use in this

area. This document prescribes the indispensable information on the conditions for zone and space

usage in energy calculations for residential buildings.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and
condition of building, zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
1 Scope

This document specifies the formats to present the schedule and conditions of zone and space usage

(referred to as input data of energy calculations) for residential buildings.

The schedule and conditions include schedules of occupancy, operation of technical building systems,

ventilation rates, hot water usage, usage of appliances and internal heat gains due to occupancy, lighting

and appliances. The schedule and conditions for lighting are applicable to fixed installed lighting

fixtures.

This document also gives categories of residential building, zone and space according to differentiating

schedule and condition. For residential buildings or its housing units which contain any category of

space or zone of non-residential buildings, ISO 18523-1 applies.

Depending on necessary minuteness of the energy calculation, different levels of schedule and condition

from the view point of time and space averaging are specified.

The values and categories for the schedule and condition are included informatively.

NOTE The schedule and condition in this document is basically different from assumptions in order to

determine the size of technical building systems in the process of design, where possible largest or smallest values

are assumed. Instead, most usual and average values, which are assumed for the building energy calculation, are

dealt with in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18523-1, Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and condition of building, zone and space usage

for energy calculation — Part 1: Non-residential buildings
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.1 Space
3.1.1
apartment block
building (3.1.2), which contains multiple housing units (3.1.8)
3.1.2
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems (3.3.13), where energy

is used to condition the indoor environment, to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other

services related to the use of the building
3.1.3
building zone
zone

part of a building consisting of (part of) one or more spaces with assumed uniform properties related

to a specific service or service component, or (in absence of a service) assumed uniform indoor

environmental conditions
3.1.4
common space
indoor or outdoor space, which is commonly used by residents
3.1.5
thermally conditioned space
thermally conditioned zone
heated and/or cooled space (zone)
3.1.6
elementary space
space

part of a room, a room or group of adjacent rooms with assumed uniform properties for all considered

types of zones
3.1.7
habitable room

room that is continuously used for living, working, meeting, amusement and other purposes similar

thereto

Note 1 to entry: Spaces such as bathroom, washroom, toilet, entrance hall or corridor are excluded.

3.1.8
housing unit

single-family house (3.1.9) or apartment (flat or maisonette) of apartment blocks (3.1.1)

3.1.9
single-family house
detached house
independent residential building, where a family lives
3.1.10
thermally unconditioned space
thermally unconditioned zone
space (zone) that is not heated nor cooled
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.2 Schedule
3.2.1
annual operation hours
operation hours

total length of hours in a standard year (3.2.11) when a technical building system (3.3.13) can be operated

depending on necessity
3.2.2
annual schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for one year

Note 1 to entry: Division of the year can be selected from 365 days, 53 weeks, 12 months, seasons or no division

(a set of daily schedules is uniformly applied throughout the year).
3.2.3
daily operating hours
hours when a service system is operated, or the length of the hours
3.2.4
daily schedule

conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the service

systems and internal heat gains at each time of a day
3.2.5
daily schedule with hourly conditions

set of hourly conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the

service systems and internal heat gains in a day
3.2.6
monthly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for each month of the year
3.2.7
seasonal schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each season of the year
3.2.8
schedule

information on condition(s) of building, zone or space usage throughout a cycle of period, such as day,

week, month, season and year
3.2.9
set of daily schedules

complete set of daily schedules representing usage of a category of building, zone or space in one year

3.2.10
standard year

selected year, of which the number of days has to be 365 and arrangement of weekdays, weekends and

holidays are referred in weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual schedules
3.2.11
weekly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each week of the year
3.2.12
whole set of annual schedules

complete set of annual schedules (3.2.2) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.2.13
whole set of seasonal schedules

complete set of seasonal schedules (3.2.7) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.2.14
whole set of monthly schedules

complete set of monthly schedules (3.2.6) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage
3.3.1
appliances
consumer electronics and machines for housekeeping
3.3.2
condition

status of occupancy (3.3.9), operation of service systems, requirement for the functions of the technical

building systems (3.3.13) and internal heat gains
3.3.3
demand control ventilation

ventilation with a rate controlled according to the necessity of the ventilation, such as the emission rate

of target pollutant
3.3.4
local exhaust ventilation

mechanical exhaust ventilation for eliminating contaminants, such as odour, combustion gases, water

vapour and oil mist, from nearby sources
3.3.5
height of the working plane

height of the plane on which the assumed visual task is carried out, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the working plane is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.6
height of the specified surface

height of the plane on which the requirement for the ambient lighting is assumed, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the specified surface is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.7
luminaire

apparatus which distributes, filters or transforms the light transmitted from one or more lamps and which

includes, except the lamps themselves, all the parts necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps and,

where necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means for connecting them to the electric supply

3.3.8
maintained average illuminance

value below which the average illuminance over the specified surface is not allowed to fall

Note 1 to entry: Maintained average illuminance is expressed in lux.
3.3.9
occupancy
presence of users in building, zone or space
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.3.10
occupancy density

number of present users in building, zone or room per unit floor area of the space

Note 1 to entry: Occupancy density is used mainly for the calculations for space heating/cooling and ventilation.

3.3.11
overall ventilation

ventilation for supplying outdoor air into indoor spaces to dilute general contaminants, such as

formaldehyde, CO and water vapour
3.3.12
simultaneous usage ratio

ratio of the number of zones or spaces which belong to a group of zones and spaces and

are occupied or used at the time, to the total number of zones or spaces in the group

Note 1 to entry: This concept is applied to a group of zones or spaces of the same category, such as a group of

guest rooms in hotels, a series of personal office rooms in office buildings, etc.

3.3.13
technical building system

all energy-using or -distributing components in a building that are operated to support the occupant

or process functions housed therein (including HVAC, domestic hot water, illumination, transportation,

laundering or similar functions)
3.3.14
movable fitting

movable part of openings, which is used for the purposes of, for example, solar shading, adding

insulation, ventilation and security
3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule
3.4.1
hourly ratio
ratio of hourly value of parameters to their reference value

Note 1 to entry: Multiplying hourly ratios by the reference value, hourly values of the parameter is calculated.

This shall be calculated in accordance with ISO 18523-1.
3.4.2
reference domestic hot water usage
maximum hourly service hot water usage by users of the space or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume flow rate per person, in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in volume

flow rate per bed.

Note 2 to entry: The volume flow rate is calculated with the assumption on hot water temperature.

3.4.3
reference heat gain due to appliances

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.4
reference heat gain due to person

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to person inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.5
reference heat gain due to lighting
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to lighting inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to lighting at the time can be calculated.

3.4.6
reference latent heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.7
reference latent heat gain due to person
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.8
reference occupancy density
maximum hourly occupancy density of the space or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in person per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, occupancy density at the time can be calculated.

3.4.9
reference sensible heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, sensible heat gain due to appliances at the time can be

calculated.
3.4.10
reference sensible heat gain due to person
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, sensible heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.11
reference ventilation requirement

most probable estimation of outdoor air supply (in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in air change

per hour) to the space or zone
3.4.12
total daily usage of domestic hot water
total volume of service hot water usage in one day

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume per person, in volume per unit floor area, in volume per bed or in volume per

household (housing unit).

Note 2 to entry: The volume is calculated with the assumption of hot water temperature.

6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation
4.1 Indispensable schedules

The energy calculations for residential buildings are characterized by the division number of the

year, the calculation period or the calculation interval. Each calculation method has its appropriate

calculation interval according to characteristics of the target physical phenomenon (for example,

unsteadiness) and minuteness of the calculation responding to changes of climatic condition, occupants’

behaviour, status of service systems and so on.

Due to the variety of calculation method, there is a variety of form of the schedule and condition of

zone and space usage. Nevertheless, there is a fundamental unit of form, daily schedule, which shall be

included in forms for the schedule and condition. The daily schedule corresponds to the minimum cycle

of zone and space usage, and also of climatic and solar condition.

Some nations adopt so called “monthly calculation” for space heating and cooling energy needs and

uses, taking monthly variation of outdoor temperature and solar irradiance into consideration. One

daily schedule for workday and the number of the workdays is given to each month for each type of zone

and space. Monthly means of outdoor air condition (for example, temperature) and solar irradiance for

different orientations and inclinations are given for the calculation. The expression of the daily schedule

varies from detailed expression with hourly values to simplified expression such as daily mean values

and the like. Additional schedule for holiday can be given in a simplified way such as only with daily

mean values.

Similarly, in so called “seasonal calculation”, one daily schedule for workday and the number of the

workdays for each season are given to each season for each type of zone and room, and the calculation

is done with seasonal mean values for climatic condition.

For the calculation of more steady phenomena, so called “annual calculation” can work if seasonal

change of solar condition is integrated throughout the year and condensed in specific coefficients.

Nevertheless, one daily schedule for a workday and the number of annual workdays are necessary.

Additional daily schedules for holiday can be given.

For the calculation of lighting, monthly or yearly calculation is mainly used, even though unsteady

aspects of lighting still have to be dealt with. In the calculation for lighting, when input parameters

such as operating hours with and without daylight are prescribed, a daily schedule as described in

column (2) of Table 1 and annual schedule by monthly allocation of daily schedules (Table 5) or annual

schedule without division of the year (Table 7) should be explicitly given, so that the operating hours

for light are well harmonized with those for other technical systems.

Therefore, for each category of zone and space, a necessary number of daily schedules (e.g., two daily

schedules for workday and holiday), and one of annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly schedules shall

be given in order that the daily schedules are allocated for the year.
4.2 Daily schedule

The daily schedule shall contain hourly values of conditions for one day, or shall contain condensed or

simplified information on conditions for the day. With some assumptions, the hourly detailed values can

be generated from the condensed or simplified information and used even for detailed calculation. If

necessary, multiple daily schedules representing different daily patterns of usage should be given such

as for workdays, holidays and going-out days. The number of daily schedules depends on minuteness of

the schedule and conditions as well as on the category of zone and space under consideration.

The conditions described in the daily schedule are grouped into five categories:
a) General information on occupancy and usage of zone and space;
b) Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services;
c) Usage of appliances;
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
d) Internal heat gains;
e) Operation of movable fittings.
The basic structure of a daily schedule is shown in
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
01-marec-2020

Energetska učinkovitost stavb - Načrt in pogoji uporabe prostorov, con in stavb za

izračun energije - 2. del: Stanovanjske stavbe

Energy performance of buildings -- Schedule and condition of building, zone and space

usage for energy calculation -- Part 2: Residential buildings

Performance énergétique des bâtiments -- Plan et conditions d'utilisation des espaces,

zones et bâtiments pour le calcul d'énergie -- Partie 2: Bâtiments résidentiels
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18523-2:2018
ICS:
91.040.30 Stanovanjske stavbe Residential buildings
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation of
buildings
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18523-2
First edition
2018-02
Energy performance of buildings —
Schedule and condition of building,
zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Plan et conditions
d'utilisation des espaces, zones et bâtiments pour le calcul
d'énergie —
Partie 2: Bâtiments résidentiels
Reference number
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Space ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Schedule ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage ....................................................................... 4

3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule ................................................................................................................................................ 5

4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation ..........................................7

4.1 Indispensable schedules ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Daily schedule .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Division of year and daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual allocations of

daily schedules ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Conditions for energy calculation included in the schedule and condition of zone

and space usage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Energy needs and uses ..................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Condition ...................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.1 Occupancy or occupancy density ...................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services ..........12

5.2.3 Internal heat gains .......................................................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Operation of movable fittings ............................................................................................................................15

5.3 Process for determining schedule and condition in housing units ........................................................15

5.3.1 Family structure ............................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.2 Time use of daily life of family member(s) .............................................................................................15

5.3.3 Schedule and area for space heating and cooling .............................................................................16

5.3.4 Schedule and area of overall ventilation ..................................................................................................16

5.3.5 Schedule and area of local exhaust ventilation ...................................................................................17

5.3.6 Amount of domestic hot water usage .........................................................................................................17

5.3.7 Possession and usage of appliances .............................................................................................................17

6 Category of residential building, zone and space ............................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Category of space or zone ...........................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.1 Categories of space or zone inside housing unit ...............................................................................18

6.2.2 Categories of space or zone outside housing unit ............................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Examples of time use as daily life of family ...................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Format of annual schedule by daily allocation of daily schedules ........................23

Annex C (informative) Examples of schedules for space heating and cooling .......................................................24

Annex D (informative) Example of schedule and area for local ventilation .............................................................25

Annex E (informative) Examples of schedule and condition for domestic hot water .....................................26

Annex F (informative) Example of schedule and condition for usage of electric appliances .................27

Annex G (informative) Examples of categories of space and zone of residential buildings .....................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18523 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Introduction

There is a strong need to improve the environment to make the evaluation of energy performance of

buildings more reliable and practical, so that energy efficiency of buildings is improved by referring

to the evaluation results. There have been no international standards prescribing building use in this

area. This document prescribes the indispensable information on the conditions for zone and space

usage in energy calculations for residential buildings.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and
condition of building, zone and space usage for energy
calculation —
Part 2:
Residential buildings
1 Scope

This document specifies the formats to present the schedule and conditions of zone and space usage

(referred to as input data of energy calculations) for residential buildings.

The schedule and conditions include schedules of occupancy, operation of technical building systems,

ventilation rates, hot water usage, usage of appliances and internal heat gains due to occupancy, lighting

and appliances. The schedule and conditions for lighting are applicable to fixed installed lighting

fixtures.

This document also gives categories of residential building, zone and space according to differentiating

schedule and condition. For residential buildings or its housing units which contain any category of

space or zone of non-residential buildings, ISO 18523-1 applies.

Depending on necessary minuteness of the energy calculation, different levels of schedule and condition

from the view point of time and space averaging are specified.

The values and categories for the schedule and condition are included informatively.

NOTE The schedule and condition in this document is basically different from assumptions in order to

determine the size of technical building systems in the process of design, where possible largest or smallest values

are assumed. Instead, most usual and average values, which are assumed for the building energy calculation, are

dealt with in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18523-1, Energy performance of buildings — Schedule and condition of building, zone and space usage

for energy calculation — Part 1: Non-residential buildings
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
ISO 18523-2:2018(E)
3.1 Space
3.1.1
apartment block
building (3.1.2), which contains multiple housing units (3.1.8)
3.1.2
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems (3.3.13), where energy

is used to condition the indoor environment, to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other

services related to the use of the building
3.1.3
building zone
zone

part of a building consisting of (part of) one or more spaces with assumed uniform properties related

to a specific service or service component, or (in absence of a service) assumed uniform indoor

environmental conditions
3.1.4
common space
indoor or outdoor space, which is commonly used by residents
3.1.5
thermally conditioned space
thermally conditioned zone
heated and/or cooled space (zone)
3.1.6
elementary space
space

part of a room, a room or group of adjacent rooms with assumed uniform properties for all considered

types of zones
3.1.7
habitable room

room that is continuously used for living, working, meeting, amusement and other purposes similar

thereto

Note 1 to entry: Spaces such as bathroom, washroom, toilet, entrance hall or corridor are excluded.

3.1.8
housing unit

single-family house (3.1.9) or apartment (flat or maisonette) of apartment blocks (3.1.1)

3.1.9
single-family house
detached house
independent residential building, where a family lives
3.1.10
thermally unconditioned space
thermally unconditioned zone
space (zone) that is not heated nor cooled
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3.2 Schedule
3.2.1
annual operation hours
operation hours

total length of hours in a standard year (3.2.11) when a technical building system (3.3.13) can be operated

depending on necessity
3.2.2
annual schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for one year

Note 1 to entry: Division of the year can be selected from 365 days, 53 weeks, 12 months, seasons or no division

(a set of daily schedules is uniformly applied throughout the year).
3.2.3
daily operating hours
hours when a service system is operated, or the length of the hours
3.2.4
daily schedule

conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the service

systems and internal heat gains at each time of a day
3.2.5
daily schedule with hourly conditions

set of hourly conditions of occupancy, service system operations, requirement for the functions of the

service systems and internal heat gains in a day
3.2.6
monthly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) for each month of the year
3.2.7
seasonal schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each season of the year
3.2.8
schedule

information on condition(s) of building, zone or space usage throughout a cycle of period, such as day,

week, month, season and year
3.2.9
set of daily schedules

complete set of daily schedules representing usage of a category of building, zone or space in one year

3.2.10
standard year

selected year, of which the number of days has to be 365 and arrangement of weekdays, weekends and

holidays are referred in weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual schedules
3.2.11
weekly schedule
allocation of daily schedule(s) (3.2.4) to each week of the year
3.2.12
whole set of annual schedules

complete set of annual schedules (3.2.2) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
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3.2.13
whole set of seasonal schedules

complete set of seasonal schedules (3.2.7) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.2.14
whole set of monthly schedules

complete set of monthly schedules (3.2.6) representing usage of all types of building, zone and space, as

objects of energy calculation
3.3 Parameters for conditions of building, zone and space usage
3.3.1
appliances
consumer electronics and machines for housekeeping
3.3.2
condition

status of occupancy (3.3.9), operation of service systems, requirement for the functions of the technical

building systems (3.3.13) and internal heat gains
3.3.3
demand control ventilation

ventilation with a rate controlled according to the necessity of the ventilation, such as the emission rate

of target pollutant
3.3.4
local exhaust ventilation

mechanical exhaust ventilation for eliminating contaminants, such as odour, combustion gases, water

vapour and oil mist, from nearby sources
3.3.5
height of the working plane

height of the plane on which the assumed visual task is carried out, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the working plane is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.6
height of the specified surface

height of the plane on which the requirement for the ambient lighting is assumed, from the floor

Note 1 to entry: Height of the specified surface is expressed in metres, m.
3.3.7
luminaire

apparatus which distributes, filters or transforms the light transmitted from one or more lamps and which

includes, except the lamps themselves, all the parts necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps and,

where necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means for connecting them to the electric supply

3.3.8
maintained average illuminance

value below which the average illuminance over the specified surface is not allowed to fall

Note 1 to entry: Maintained average illuminance is expressed in lux.
3.3.9
occupancy
presence of users in building, zone or space
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3.3.10
occupancy density

number of present users in building, zone or room per unit floor area of the space

Note 1 to entry: Occupancy density is used mainly for the calculations for space heating/cooling and ventilation.

3.3.11
overall ventilation

ventilation for supplying outdoor air into indoor spaces to dilute general contaminants, such as

formaldehyde, CO and water vapour
3.3.12
simultaneous usage ratio

ratio of the number of zones or spaces which belong to a group of zones and spaces and

are occupied or used at the time, to the total number of zones or spaces in the group

Note 1 to entry: This concept is applied to a group of zones or spaces of the same category, such as a group of

guest rooms in hotels, a series of personal office rooms in office buildings, etc.

3.3.13
technical building system

all energy-using or -distributing components in a building that are operated to support the occupant

or process functions housed therein (including HVAC, domestic hot water, illumination, transportation,

laundering or similar functions)
3.3.14
movable fitting

movable part of openings, which is used for the purposes of, for example, solar shading, adding

insulation, ventilation and security
3.4 Descriptions for daily schedule
3.4.1
hourly ratio
ratio of hourly value of parameters to their reference value

Note 1 to entry: Multiplying hourly ratios by the reference value, hourly values of the parameter is calculated.

This shall be calculated in accordance with ISO 18523-1.
3.4.2
reference domestic hot water usage
maximum hourly service hot water usage by users of the space or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume flow rate per person, in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in volume

flow rate per bed.

Note 2 to entry: The volume flow rate is calculated with the assumption on hot water temperature.

3.4.3
reference heat gain due to appliances

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.4
reference heat gain due to person

maximum hourly total (sensible and latent) heat gain due to person inside the room or zone

Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.
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Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.5
reference heat gain due to lighting
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to lighting inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, heat gain due to lighting at the time can be calculated.

3.4.6
reference latent heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to appliances at the time can be calculated.

3.4.7
reference latent heat gain due to person
maximum hourly latent heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, latent heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.8
reference occupancy density
maximum hourly occupancy density of the space or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in person per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, occupancy density at the time can be calculated.

3.4.9
reference sensible heat gain due to appliances
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to appliances inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratios, sensible heat gain due to appliances at the time can be

calculated.
3.4.10
reference sensible heat gain due to person
maximum hourly sensible heat gain due to person inside the room or zone
Note 1 to entry: Measured in watt per unit floor area.

Note 2 to entry: To be multiplied by hourly ratio, sensible heat gain due to person at the time can be calculated.

3.4.11
reference ventilation requirement

most probable estimation of outdoor air supply (in volume flow rate per unit floor area or in air change

per hour) to the space or zone
3.4.12
total daily usage of domestic hot water
total volume of service hot water usage in one day

Note 1 to entry: Measured in volume per person, in volume per unit floor area, in volume per bed or in volume per

household (housing unit).

Note 2 to entry: The volume is calculated with the assumption of hot water temperature.

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oSIST ISO 18523-2:2020
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4 Framework of the schedule and condition for building energy calculation
4.1 Indispensable schedules

The energy calculations for residential buildings are characterized by the division number of the

year, the calculation period or the calculation interval. Each calculation method has its appropriate

calculation interval according to characteristics of the target physical phenomenon (for example,

unsteadiness) and minuteness of the calculation responding to changes of climatic condition, occupants’

behaviour, status of service systems and so on.

Due to the variety of calculation method, there is a variety of form of the schedule and condition of

zone and space usage. Nevertheless, there is a fundamental unit of form, daily schedule, which shall be

included in forms for the schedule and condition. The daily schedule corresponds to the minimum cycle

of zone and space usage, and also of climatic and solar condition.

Some nations adopt so called “monthly calculation” for space heating and cooling energy needs and

uses, taking monthly variation of outdoor temperature and solar irradiance into consideration. One

daily schedule for workday and the number of the workdays is given to each month for each type of zone

and space. Monthly means of outdoor air condition (for example, temperature) and solar irradiance for

different orientations and inclinations are given for the calculation. The expression of the daily schedule

varies from detailed expression with hourly values to simplified expression such as daily mean values

and the like. Additional schedule for holiday can be given in a simplified way such as only with daily

mean values.

Similarly, in so called “seasonal calculation”, one daily schedule for workday and the number of the

workdays for each season are given to each season for each type of zone and room, and the calculation

is done with seasonal mean values for climatic condition.

For the calculation of more steady phenomena, so called “annual calculation” can work if seasonal

change of solar condition is integrated throughout the year and condensed in specific coefficients.

Nevertheless, one daily schedule for a workday and the number of annual workdays are necessary.

Additional daily schedules for holiday can be given.

For the calculation of lighting, monthly or yearly calculation is mainly used, even though unsteady

aspects of lighting still have to be dealt with. In the calculation for lighting, when input parameters

such as operating hours with and without daylight are prescribed, a daily schedule as described in

column (2) of Table 1 and annual schedule by monthly allocation of daily schedules (Table 5) or annual

schedule without division of the year (Table 7) should be explicitly given, so that the operating hours

for light are well harmonized with those for other technical systems.

Therefore, for each category of zone and space, a necessary number of daily schedules (e.g., two daily

schedules for workday and holiday), and one of annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly schedules shall

be given in order that the daily schedules are allocated for the year.
4.2 Daily schedule

The daily schedule shall contain hourly values of conditions for one day, or shall contain condensed or

simplified information on conditions for the day. With some assumptions, the hourly detailed values can

be generated from the condensed or simplified information and used even for detailed calculation. If

necessary, multiple daily schedules representing different daily patterns of usage should be given such

as for workdays, holidays and going-out days. The number of daily schedules depends on minuteness of

the schedule and conditions as well as on the category of zone and space under consideration.

The conditions described in the daily schedule are grouped into five categories:
a) General information on occupancy and usage of zone and space;
b) Operation of technical building systems and requirement for their services;
c) Usage of appliances;
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d) Internal heat gains;
e) Operation of movable fittings.
The basic structure of a daily schedule
...

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