Nanotechnologies — Requirements and recommendations for the identification of measurands that characterise nano-objects and materials that contain them

This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the identification of measurands to characterize nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates, and to assess specific properties relevant to the performance of materials that contain them. It provides recommendations for relevant measurement.

Nanotechnologies – Exigences et recommandations pour l’identification des mesurandes qui caractérisent les nano-objets et les matériaux les contenant

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ISO/TS 23302:2021 - Nanotechnologies -- Requirements and recommendations for the identification of measurands that characterise nano-objects and materials that contain them
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 23302
First edition
2021-11
Nanotechnologies — Requirements
and recommendations for the
identification of measurands that
characterise nano-objects and
materials that contain them
Nanotechnologies – Exigences et recommandations pour
l’identification des mesurandes qui caractérisent les nano-objets et les
matériaux les contenant
Reference number
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General core terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Measurand related terms.............................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Approaches to identify measurands to characterize nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates, and materials containing nano-objects ...................................................9

5.1 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Types of measurands ..................................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 State of nano-objects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Measurands related to size and shape measurement of nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates .............................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2 Measurands related to size and shape measurement....................................................................................... 11

6.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2.2 General relevant standards ...................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Measurands related to size and shape measurement in aerosols .........................................................12

6.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................ 12

6.3.2 General relevant standards ................................................................................................................................... 13

6.3.3 Electrical low-pressure impaction .................................................................................................................. 13

6.3.4 Cascade impactors ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3.5 Differential mobility analysing system ....................................................................................................... 14

6.3.6 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.3.7 Optical particle counter ............................................................................................................................................15

6.3.8 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................15

6.3.9 Aerodynamic particle sizing ................................................................................................................................. 15

6.3.10 TEM combined with TEM grid samplers .................................................................................................... 15

6.3.11 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3.12 Scanning electron microscopy ............................................................................................................................ 16

6.3.13 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.4 Measurands related to size and shape measurement in powders ......................................................... 17

6.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17

6.4.2 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.4.3 Scanning electron microscopy ............................................................................................................................ 18

6.4.4 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.4.5 Gas adsorption, the BET method....................................................................................................................... 18

6.4.6 Relevant standard .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.4.7 Laser diffraction .............................................................................................................................................................. 18

6.4.8 Relevant standard .......................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.4.9 X-ray diffraction ............................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.4.10 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.4.11 Raman spectroscopy ................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.5 Measurands related to size and shape measurements of nano-objects in liquid

dispersions .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

6.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

6.5.2 Centrifugal liquid sedimentation ..................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.3 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.4 Dynamic light scattering .......................................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.5 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)

6.5.6 Laser diffraction .............................................................................................................................................................. 22

6.5.7 Relevant standard .......................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.5.8 Small angle X-ray scattering ................................................................................................................................. 22

6.5.9 Relevant standard ..........................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.10 Particle tracking analysis ........................................................................................................................................ 22

6.5.11 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.12 Electron microscopy ....................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.13 Field flow fractionation .............................................................................................................................................23

6.5.14 Relevant standard .......................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.5.15 Single particle ICP-MS ................................................................................................................................................. 24

6.5.16 Relevant standard ..........................................................................................................................................................25

6.6 Measurands related to size and shape measurement on surfaces (microscopy

techniques) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

6.6.2 Scanning electron microscopy ............................................................................................................................ 25

6.6.3 Atomic force microscopy .......................................................................................................................................... 25

6.6.4 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 26

7 Measurands related to chemical analysis of nano-objects and their agglomerates

and aggregates ....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26

7.2 Measurands related to surface chemical analysis of nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates................................................................................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Auger electron spectroscopy ................................................................................................................................28

7.2.3 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.4 Electron energy loss spectroscopy .................................................................................................................28

7.2.5 Relevant standard ..........................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.6 Secondary ion mass spectroscopy ...................................................................................................................28

7.2.7 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................29

7.2.8 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ......................................................................................................................29

7.2.9 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................30

7.2.10 X-ray diffraction ............................................................................................................................................................... 30

7.2.11 Relevant standard ..........................................................................................................................................................30

7.2.12 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ..................................................................................................................30

7.2.13 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 31

7.2.14 Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ........................................................................................................ 31

7.2.15 Low energy ion scattering ...................................................................................................................................... 31

7.3 Measurands related to the chemical analysis of nano-objects as bulk samples ....................... 31

7.3.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31

7.3.2 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ................................................................................................ 32

7.3.3 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 33

7.3.4 Thermal analysis with evolved gas analyser plus FTIR or QMS ...........................................33

7.3.5 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3.6 Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy ......................................................................................................................34

7.3.7 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3.8 Raman spectroscopy ...................................................................................................................................................34

7.3.9 Inductively coupled plasma techniques ......................................................................................................34

7.3.10 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................34

7.3.11 Contact angle ...................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8 Measurands related to mass and density ...............................................................................................................................35

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 35

8.2 Aerosols ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.2.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.2.2 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.2.3 Aerosol particle mass analyser .......................................................................................................................... 36

8.2.4 Time of flight mass spectrometry ...................................................................................................................36

8.3 Powders ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)

8.3.1 Measurands ..........................................................................................................................................................................36

8.3.2 Pycnometry ..........................................................................................................................................................................36

8.3.3 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................36

8.4 Liquid dispersions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 37

8.4.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................... 37

8.4.2 Relevant standards ....................................................................................................................................................... 37

8.4.3 Centrifugal liquid sedimentation (isopycnic method)................................................................... 37

8.4.4 Static light scattering .................................................................................................................................................. 37

8.4.5 Resonant mass measurement ..............................................................................................................................38

9 Measurands related to charge — Liquid dispersions ................................................................................................38

9.1 Measurands ............................................................................................................................................................................................38

9.2 Relevant standards ..........................................................................................................................................................................38

9.3 Electrophoretic light scattering ...........................................................................................................................................38

9.4 Electroacoustic phenomena measurements ............................................................................................................. 39

10 Measurands related to crystallinity ............................................................................................................................................39

10.1 Measurands ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 39

10.2 Small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering ....................................................................................................................40

10.3 X-ray diffraction .................................................................................................................................................................................40

10.4 High-resolution transmission electron microscopy .......................................................................................... 41

10.5 Electron backscattered diffraction ................................................................................................................................... 41

10.6 Neutron diffraction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41

10.7 Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction ................ 41

10.8 Differential scanning calorimetry...................................................................................................................................... 41

10.9 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................................... 42

10.10 Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography ............................................................................. 42

10.11 Raman crystallography ............................................................................................................................................................... 42

10.12 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................................... 42

11 Optical properties measurands ........................................................................................................................................................42

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 42

11.2 Measurands ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 43

11.3 Spectroscopy techniques ............................................................................................................................................................ 43

11.4 Relevant standards ..........................................................................................................................................................................44

12 Electrical and electronic measurands ...................................................................................................................................... 44

12.1 Measurands ............................................................................................................................................................................................44

12.2 Techniques ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

12.2.1 2- or 4-point conductance measurements ................................................................................................ 45

12.2.2 Angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy ........................................................... 45

12.2.3 Scanning tunnelling microscopy ....................................................................................................................... 45

12.2.4 Conductive atomic force microscopy ............................................................................................................ 45

12.2.5 Piezoforce microscopy ...............................................................................................................................................46

13 Magnetic measurands .................................................................................................................................................................................46

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

13.2 Measurands ............................................................................................................................................................................................46

13.3 Techniques ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

13.3.1 Superconducting quantum interference device .................................................................................. 47

13.3.2 Vibrating sample magnetometer ......................................................................................................................48

13.3.3 Mössbauer spectroscopy ..........................................................................................................................................48

13.3.4 Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy ...............................................................................48

13.3.5 Magneto-optical Kerr-effect .................................................................................................................................48

13.3.6 Magnetic force microscopy ....................................................................................................................................48

13.3.7 Scanning Hall effect microscopy .......................................................................................................................48

13.3.8 Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy ................................................................................49

13.3.9 Relevant standards .......................................................................................................................................................49

14 Thermal measurands ...................................................................................................................................................................................4

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 23302
First edition
Nanotechnologies — Requirements
and recommendations for the
identification of measurands that
characterise nano-objects and
materials that contain them
Nanotechnologies – Exigences et recommandations pour
l’identification des mesurandes qui caractérisent les nano-objets et les
matériaux les contenant
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in IEC/TC
113 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General core terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Measurand related terms ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Approaches to identify measurands to characterize nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates, and materials containing nano-objects ......................................................9

5.1 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Types of measurands ......................................................................................................................................................................10

5.3 State of nano-objects.......................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Measurands related to size and shape measurement of nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Measurands related to size and shape measurement ........................................................................................11

6.2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.2 General relevant standards ..................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Measurands related to size and shape measurement in aerosols ...........................................................12

6.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 General relevant standards ..................................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 Electrical low-pressure impaction.................................................................................................................14

6.3.4 Cascade impactors .......................................................................................................................................................14

6.3.5 Differential mobility analysing system ......................................................................................................14

6.3.6 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................15

6.3.7 Optical particle counter ..........................................................................................................................................15

6.3.8 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................15

6.3.9 Aerodynamic particle sizing ...............................................................................................................................15

6.3.10 TEM combined with TEM grid samplers..................................................................................................16

6.3.11 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................16

6.3.12 Scanning electron microscopy ..........................................................................................................................17

6.3.13 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Measurands related to size and shape measurement in powders ..........................................................17

6.4.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4.2 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................18

6.4.3 Scanning electron microscopy ..........................................................................................................................18

6.4.4 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.5 Gas adsorption, the BET method ....................................................................................................................19

6.4.6 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.7 Laser diffraction ............................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.8 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................19

6.4.9 X-ray diffraction .............................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.10 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.11 Raman spectroscopy ........................................................................................................................................... .......20

6.5 Measurands related to size and shape measurements of nano-objects in liquid

dispersions ..............................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.2 Centrifugal liquid sedimentation ....................................................................................................................22

6.5.3 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................22

6.5.4 Dynamic light scattering ........................................................................................................................................22

6.5.5 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)

6.5.6 Laser diffraction ............................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.7 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................23

6.5.8 Small angle X-ray scattering ................................................................................................................................23

6.5.9 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.10 Particle tracking analysis .......................................................................................................................................24

6.5.11 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.12 Electron microscopy ..................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.13 Field flow fractionation ...........................................................................................................................................25

6.5.14 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................26

6.5.15 Single particle ICP-MS ..............................................................................................................................................26

6.5.16 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................26

6.6 Measurands related to size and shape measurement on surfaces (microscopy

techniques) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.6.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

6.6.2 Scanning electron microscopy ..........................................................................................................................27

6.6.3 Atomic force microscopy .......................................................................................................................................27

6.6.4 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................27

7 Measurands related to chemical analysis of nano-objects and their agglomerates

and aggregates .....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 Measurands related to surface chemical analysis of nano-objects and their

agglomerates and aggregates ..................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.2 Auger electron spectroscopy ..............................................................................................................................29

7.2.3 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................29

7.2.4 Electron energy loss spectroscopy ................................................................................................................30

7.2.5 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................30

7.2.6 Secondary ion mass spectroscopy .................................................................................................................30

7.2.7 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................30

7.2.8 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy .....................................................................................................................30

7.2.9 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................31

7.2.10 X-ray diffraction .............................................................................................................................................................31

7.2.11 Relevant standard ........................................................................................................................................................31

7.2.12 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy .................................................................................................................31

7.2.13 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................32

7.2.14 Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy .......................................................................................................32

7.2.15 Low energy ion scattering ....................................................................................................................................33

7.3 Measurands related to the chemical analysis of nano-objects as bulk samples ..........................33

7.3.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................33

7.3.2 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ................................................................................................34

7.3.3 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.4 Thermal analysis with evolved gas analyser plus FTIR or QMS ...........................................35

7.3.5 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.6 Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy .....................................................................................................................36

7.3.7 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.8 Raman spectroscopy ........................................................................................................................................... .......36

7.3.9 Inductively coupled plasma techniques ....................................................................................................36

7.3.10 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.11 Contact angle ....................................................................................................................................................................37

8 Measurands related to mass and density ................................................................................................................................37

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.2 Aerosols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.2.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................37

8.2.2 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................37

8.2.3 Aerosol particle mass analyser .........................................................................................................................38

8.2.4 Time of flight mass spectrometry ..................................................................................................................38

8.3 Powders......................................................................................................................................................................................................38

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23302:2021(E)

8.3.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................38

8.3.2 Pycnometry .......................................................................................................................................................................38

8.3.3 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................38

8.4 Liquid dispersions.............................................................................................................................................................................39

8.4.1 Measurands .......................................................................................................................................................................39

8.4.2 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................39

8.4.3 Centrifugal liquid sedimentation (isopycnic method) .................................................................39

8.4.4 Static light scattering.................................................................................................................................................40

8.4.5 Resonant mass measurement ............................................................................................................................40

9 Measurands related to charge — Liquid dispersions ..................................................................................................40

9.1 Measurands .............................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Relevant standards ...........................................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Electrophoretic light scattering .............................................................................................................................................41

9.4 Electroacoustic phenomena measurements ..............................................................................................................41

10 Measurands related to crystallinity...............................................................................................................................................41

10.1 Measurands .............................................................................................................................................................................................41

10.2 Small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering ......................................................................................................................42

10.3 X-ray diffraction ..................................................................................................................................................................................43

10.4 High-resolution transmission electron microscopy ............................................................................................43

10.5 Electron backscattered diffraction......................................................................................................................................43

10.6 Neutron diffraction ...........................................................................................................................................................................43

10.7 Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction .....................44

10.8 Differential scanning calorimetry ........................................................................................................................................44

10.9 Relevant standards ...........................................................................................................................................................................44

10.10 Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography ................................................................................44

10.11 Raman crystallography .................................................................................................................................................................44

10.12 Relevant standards ...........................................................................................................................................................................44

11 Optical properties measurands .........................................................................................................................................................45

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................45

11.2 Measurands .............................................................................................................................................................................................45

11.3 Spectroscopy techniques .............................................................................................................................................................45

11.4 Relevant standards ...........................................................................................................................................................................46

12 Electrical and electronic measurands .........................................................................................................................................46

12.1 Measurands .............................................................................................................................................................................................46

12.2 Techniques ...............................................................................................................................................................................................48

12.2.1 2- or 4-point conductance measurements .............................................................................................48

12.2.2 Angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy...........................................................48

12.2.3 Scanning tunnelling microscopy .....................................................................................................................48

12.2.4 Conductive atomic force microscopy ..........................................................................................................48

12.2.5 Piezoforce microscopy .............................................................................................................................................48

13 Magnetic measurands ..................................................................................................................................................................................49

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................49

13.2 Measurands .............................................................................................................................................................................................49

13.3 Techniques ...............................................................................................................................................................................................50

13.3.1 Superconducting quantum interference device .................................................................................50

13.3.2 Vibrating sample magnetometer ....................................................................................................................50

13.3.3 Mössbauer spectroscopy .......................................................................................................................................50

13.3.4 Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy ..............................................................................50

13.3.5 Magneto-optical Kerr-effect ................................................................................................................................50

13.3.6 Magnetic force microscopy ..................................................................................................................................51

13.3.7 Scanning Hall effect microscopy ......................................................................................................................51

13.3.8 Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy ...............................................................................51

13.3.9 Relevant standards......................................................................................................................................................51

14 Thermal measurands....................................................................................................................................................................................51

14.1 Mea
...

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