This document specifies methods of determining nanoparticle size and shape distributions by acquiring and evaluating scanning electron microscope images and by obtaining and reporting accurate results. NOTEÂ 1Â Â Â This document applies to particles with a lower size limit that depends on the required uncertainty and on the suitable performance of the SEM, which is to be proven first -according to the requirements described in this document. NOTEÂ 2Â Â Â This document applies also to SEM-based size and shape measurements of larger than nanoscale particles.

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This document provides guidance for sample preparation, data acquisition by transmission electron microscopy, data processing, and three-dimensional image reconstruction to measure size and shape parameters of nano-objects on rod-shaped supports. The method is applicable to samples dispersed on or within an electron-transparent rod-shaped support.

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This document describes methods for the quantification of nano-object release from powders as a result of treatment, ranging from handling to high energy dispersion, by measuring aerosols liberated after a defined aerosolization procedure. Particle number concentration and size distribution of the aerosol are measured and the mass concentration is derived. This document provides information on factors to be considered when selecting among the available methods for powder sampling and treatment procedures and specifies minimum requirements for test sample preparation, test protocol development, measuring particle release and reporting data. In order to characterize the full size range of particles generated, the measurement of nano-objects as well as agglomerates and aggregates is adressed in this document. This document does not include the characterization of particle sizes within the powder. Tribological methods are excluded where direct mechanical friction is applied to grind or abrade the material.

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This document specifies characteristics to be measured and measurement methods for clay nanoplate samples in powder and suspension forms used for gas-barrier films. In addition, measurement protocols for the individual characteristics are described. This document does not deal with characteristics of post-manufacturing modification of clay nanoplates. This document does not cover considerations specific to health and safety issues either during manufacturing or use.

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This document defines terms related to the characterization of nano-objects in the field of nanotechnologies. It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

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IEC TR 63258:2021 is a Technical Report focused on the practical protocol of ellipsometry to evaluate the thickness of nanoscale films. This document does not include any specification of the ellipsometers, but suggests how to minimize the data variation to improve data reproducibility.

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This document specifies characteristics to be measured of individualized cellulose nanofibril (iCNF) samples in suspension and powder forms and their measurement methods. In addition, it provides sample preparation, measurement and data analysis procedures. This document does not apply to the characterization of iCNFs that have been modified after they are manufactured.

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This document specifies the sequence of methods for characterizing the structural properties of graphene, bilayer graphene and graphene nanoplatelets from powders and liquid dispersions using a range of measurement techniques typically after the isolation of individual flakes on a substrate. The properties covered are the number of layers/thickness, the lateral flake size, the level of disorder, layer alignment and the specific surface area. Suggested measurement protocols, sample preparation routines and data analysis for the characterization of graphene from powders and dispersions are given.

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This document specifies measurement protocols and test conditions to determine alterations to protein secondary structure induced by their interaction with nanomaterials using ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy. This document does not apply to the characterization of conformational changes of disordered proteins.

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This document specifies characteristics to be measured of nanostructured porous alumina in powder form as catalyst support for vehicle exhaust emission control and their relevant measurement methods. It includes critical characteristics that are required to be measured and additional characteristics that are recommended to be measured, based upon agreement between the interested parties. Measurement methods for each characteristic are recommended. This document is applicable to nanostructured porous alumina for gasoline-powered cars. It does not apply to characteristics specific for health, the environment and safety issues.

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This document defines terms related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies. All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing, however, many of the listed processes are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Terms that are not exclusive are noted within the definitions. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes can result in material features at the nanoscale or, alternatively, at larger scales. There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document. Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series are reproduced in Clause 3 for context and better understanding.

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This document defines terms related to carbon nano-objects in the field of nanotechnologies. It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations' and individuals' research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them. Additional terms and definitions for graphene and two-dimensional materials (2D) materials are provided in ISO/TS 80004-13. Related carbon nanoscale materials are given in Annex A.

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This document specifies the fundamental characteristics to be measured of a sample of engineered nanoparticles in powder form to determine the size, the chemical content and the surface area. This document also specifies measurement methods for determining each of the characteristics. It is intended to facilitate communication among consumers, regulators and industries with the necessary characteristics. It excludes characteristics that pertain to specific industrial applications of nanoparticles in powder form and detailed measurement protocols, as well as characteristics related to health, safety and environmental issues.

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This document specifies characteristics including barrier properties to be measured of polymeric nanocomposite films used for improving food packaging. The barrier properties cover gas (oxygen), water vapour transmission and UV-Vis light transparency. This document also describes the relevant measurement methods. This document addresses neither safety and health issues related to the food packaging nor environmental aspects.

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This document specifies how to capture, measure and analyse transmission electron microscopy images to obtain particle size and shape distributions in the nanoscale. This document broadly is applicable to nano-objects as well as to particles with sizes larger than 100 nm. The exact working range of the method depends on the required uncertainty and on the performance of the transmission electron microscope. These elements can be evaluated according to the requirements described in this document.

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This document specifies a method for rapidly assessing nanomaterial toxicity (fish early life stage, 0 HPF to 120 HPF). It includes information on the importance of acellular chorion removal, detailed chorion removal procedures, and a complete protocol for the toxicity assessment of nanomaterials using dechorionated zebrafish embryos. The focus of this document is on testing nanomaterial toxicity.

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This document collates information regarding the systems available for exposure and assessment of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) for in vitro air exposure studies. It provides an overview of the various exposure systems and in vitro cell systems used to perform in vitro studies that simulate an inhalation toxicology study design.

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This document specifies the characteristics to be measured of nano-object-assembled layers on electrodes by means of a solution process and of nano-objects constituting the layers for electrochemical applications such as nano-biosensor or diagnosis applications. It also provides measurement methods for determining the characteristics. It does not apply to: — the requirements of nanostructures by top-down nanomanufacturing; — the subsequent coating of materials such as biomaterials onto nano-object-assembled layers; — specific health and safety requirements during manufacturing; — the experimental conditions of electrochemical sensing; — the packaging, labelling, expiratory dates and transport of nano-object-enhanced electrochemical electrodes.

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This document gives guidelines for the characterization of carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing samples by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), performed in either an inert or oxidizing environment. Guidance is provided on the purity assessment of the CNT samples through a quantitative measure of the types of carbon species present as well as the non-carbon impurities (e.g. metal catalyst particles) within the material. In addition, this technique provides a qualitative assessment of the thermal stability and homogeneity of the CNT-containing sample. Additional characterization techniques are required to confirm the presence of specific types of CNT and to verify the composition of the metallic impurities present.

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This document specifies the characteristics to be measured of air filter media containing polymeric nanofibres on the surfaces of a substrate. It also describes measurement methods for determining the individual characteristics. This document does not cover characteristics specific for health and safety issues. NOTE The properties/performances assessment of air filter media related to applications requires the use of relevant published standards. The physical properties and performances of filtration media, such as pressure drop, and the particle removal efficiency of air filter media are measured with test methods suitable for specific applications.

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This document specifies the characteristics to be measured of suspensions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT suspensions). It includes the essential and additional characteristics of the CNT suspension, and the corresponding measurement methods. Characteristics specific to health, environmental and safety issues are excluded from this document. WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. It does not purport to address all of the safety or environmental problems associated with its use. The execution of this document is entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people.

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This document gives guidelines for the characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It provides a measurement method for the determination of the chiral indices of the semi-conducting SWCNTs in a sample and their relative integrated PL intensities. The method can be expanded to estimate the relative mass concentrations of semi-conducting SWCNTs in a sample from their measured integrated PL intensities and knowledge of their PL cross-sections.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of nanoparticles (NPs), suspended in an aqueous environment in physiologically relevant conditions, by measuring the ultraviolet (UV)-induced nicotine adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) oxidation. The measurement is intended to assess the potential for the photo-toxicity of nanomaterials. The method is also applicable to NP aggregates and agglomerates.

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This document specifies characteristics to be measured of layered clay nanomaterials in powder form and chemically modified ones, and describes their relevant measurement methods. This document does not deal with health, safety and environmental issues.

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This document specifies a method for the characterization of evolved gas components in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples using evolved gas analysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (EGA/GCMS). NOTE Some difference could appear between qualitative and quantitative results of emitted gas and gas content in the sample due to the heating and the possible presence of catalysts.

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This document specifies the characteristics of magnetic nanosuspensions to be measured and lists measurement methods for measuring these characteristics. This is a generic document and does not deal with any particular application.

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This document provides guidance for the specification of characteristics and relevant measurement methods for silver nanoparticles in powder or colloidal forms that are intended for antibacterial applications in nanotechnology. This document is intended to aid the producer in providing the physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles that have an antibacterial effect to the buyer. This document does not cover considerations specific to health and safety issues either during manufacturing or use.

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This document describes the background and principles for toxicokinetic studies relevant for nanomaterials. Annex A shows the definitions for terminology with respect to toxicokinetics as used in OECD TG 417:2010.

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This document provides guidelines to quantify and identify air concentration (number of particles/cm3) of particles of carbon black and/or amorphous silica by size in air samples collected in a mixed dust industrial manufacturing environment. The method is defined for air samples collected with an electrical low pressure cascade impactor (ELPCI). on a 25 mm polycarbonate substrate. The method is suitable for sampling in manufacturing environments where there are a variety of particle types contributing to the overall atmosphere. This method is applicable only to environments with chemically and physically distinct particles contributing to aerosols or when confounders can be controlled (e.g. diesel sources). Other sampling methods can also be suitable, though this document is limited to describing methods associated with the electrical low pressure cascade impactor. Samples collected with the electrical low pressure cascade impactor are analyzed via TEM and EDS to for particle morphology and elemental composition, respectively, to permit identification of particles by type. This information is then used, in conjunction with particle concentration by size range, as determined by the electrical low pressure cascade impactor, to determine concentration of the materials of interest by size.

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This document provides a matrix which links key properties of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials to commercially available measurement techniques. The matrix includes measurement techniques to characterize chemical, physical, electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of graphene and related 2D materials.

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This document provides some considerations for the collection of environmental samples to be analysed for manufactured NOAA, considerations to distinguish manufactured NOAA from background levels of naturally occurring nanoscale particles of the same composition, and preparation procedures to aid in the quantification of manufactured NM in environmental matrices.

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This document describes health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant to nanotechnologies. This document focuses on the occupational manufacture and use of manufactured nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates greater than 100 nm (NOAAs). It does not address health and safety issues or practices associated with NOAAs generated by natural processes, hot processes and other standard operations which unintentionally generate NOAAs, or potential consumer exposures or uses, though some of the information in this document can be relevant to those areas.

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This document provides an overview of approaches of sample preparation (i.e. pre-treatment and size-fractionation) for analytical measurements applied to surface and drinking water, potentially containing relevant amounts and types of metal and metal oxide nano-objects, including collection from source and storage of samples, pre-concentration of analytes, and their fractionation.

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This document specifies development of representative test materials consisting of nano-objects in dry powder form, to enable test method development and improve comparability of data for nanotechnology applications. It includes the physico-chemical properties (specifically, size and shape, specific surface area, crystal structure, and bulk chemical composition) that are required to be measured and reported with the representative test material.

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This document identifies parameters and conditions, as part of an integrated measurement system, necessary to develop and validate methods for the application of asymmetrical-flow and centrifugal field-flow fractionation to the analysis of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates dispersed in aqueous media. In addition to constituent fractionation, analysis can include size, size distribution, concentration and material identification using one or more suitable detectors. General guidelines and procedures are provided for application, and minimal reporting requirements necessary to reproduce a method and to convey critical aspects are specified.

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ISO 19007:2018 specifies a method for evaluating the effects of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) on cellular viability using the MTS assay. The assay design includes performance requirements and control experiments to identify and manage variability in the assay results. ISO 19007:2018 is applicable to the use of a 96-well plate.

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ISO/TS 13278:2017 provides methods for the determination of residual elements other than carbon in samples of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this document is to provide optimized digestion and preparation procedures for SWCNT and MWCNT samples in order to enable accurate and quantitative determinations of elemental impurities using ICP-MS.

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ISO/TS 20787:2017 specifies a test method, aiming to maximize repeatability and reliability of testing, to determine whether MNMs are toxic to aquatic organisms, specifically Artemia sp. nauplius. ISO/TS 20787:2017 is intended to be used by ecotoxicological laboratories that are capable in the hatching and culturing of Artemia sp. and the evaluation of toxicity of nanomaterials using Artemia sp. nauplius. This method uses Artemia sp. nauplii in a simulated environment, artificial seawater, to assess effects of nanomaterials. ISO/TS 20787:2017 is applicable to MNMs that consist of nano-objects such as nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanowires, as well as aggregates and agglomerates of such MNMs.

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ISO/TR 19057:2017 reviews the use and application of acellular in vitro tests and methodologies implemented in the assessment of the biodurability of nanomaterials and their ligands in simulated biological and environmental media. ISO/TR 19057:2017 is intended to focus more on acellular in vitro methodologies implemented to assess biodurability and, therefore, excludes the general review of relevant literature on in vitro cellular or animal biodurability tests.

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ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 lists terms and definitions for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials, and includes related terms naming production methods, properties and their characterization. It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

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ISO/TS 20477:2017 defines terms and definitions for different types of cellulose nanomaterials including secondary components found in cellulose nanomaterials due to their manufacturing processes. The document also gives information on cellulose micromaterials in Annex A. Where necessary, terms from the ISO/IEC 80004 vocabulary series are included in this document. Terms in this document are applicable to all types of cellulose nanomaterials regardless of production methods and their origin (plants, animals, algae or bacteria).

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ISO/TS 11888:2017 describes methods for the characterization of mesoscopic shape factors of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Techniques employed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), viscometry, and light scattering analysis. ISO/TS 11888:2017 also includes additional terms needed to define the characterization of static bending persistence length (SBPL). Measurement methods are given for the evaluation of SBPL, which generally varies from several tens of nanometres to several hundred micrometres. Well-established concepts and mathematical expressions, analogous to polymer physics, are utilized for the definition of mesoscopic shape factors of MWCNTs.

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ISO/TR 19601:2017 describes methods for producing aerosols of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) for in vivo and in vitro air exposure studies. The purpose of ISO/TR 19601:2017 is to aid in selecting an appropriate aerosol generator to fulfil a proposed toxicology study design. ISO/TR 19601:2017 describes characteristics of aerosol generation methods, including their advantages and limitations. ISO/TR 19601:2017 does not provide guidance for aerosolization of specific nano-objects.

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ISO/TS 80004-11:2017 lists terms and definitions, and specifies an extensible taxonomic terminology framework for nanolayers, nanocoatings, nanofilms, and related terms in the field of nanotechnologies.

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ISO/TR 18401:2017 is intended to assist stakeholders who are making decisions about the direction, management and application of nanotechnologies to better understand selected key terms and definitions in the ISO/IEC 80004 vocabulary series for nanotechnologies.

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ISO/TS 18827:2017 provides a procedure for the detection of ROS (OH, O2-, 1O2) generated by metal oxide nanomaterials in aqueous solution with a reactive oxygen species-specific spin trapping agent using ESR, but excludes ESR procedures that do not use a spin trapping agent.

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ISO/TS 10868:2017 provides guidelines for the characterization of compounds containing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by using optical absorption spectroscopy. The aim of this document is to describe a measurement method to characterize the diameter, the purity, and the ratio of metallic SWCNTs to the total SWCNT content in the sample. The analysis of the nanotube diameter is applicable for the diameter range from 1 nm to 2 nm.

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IEC TS 80004-9: 2017(E) specifies terms and definitions for electrotechnical products and systems reliant on nanomaterials for their essential functionalities. It is intended to facilitate communications between organizations and individuals in industry and those who interact with them.

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ISO/TS 19590:2017 specifies a method for the detection of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and characterization of the particle number and particle mass concentration and the number-based size distribution using ICP-MS in a time-resolved mode to determine the mass of individual nanoparticles and ionic concentrations. The method is applicable for the determination of the size of inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. metal and metal oxides like Au, Ag, TiO2, BVO4, etc.), with size ranges of 10 nm to 100 nm (and larger particles up to 1 000 nm to 2 000 nm) in aqueous suspensions. Metal compounds other than oxides (e.g. sulfides, etc.), metal composites or coated particles with a metal core can be determined if the chemical composition and density are known. Particle number concentrations that can be determined in aqueous suspensions range from 106 particles/L to 109 particles/L which corresponds to mass concentrations in the range of approximately 1 ng/L to 1 000 ng/L (for 60 nm Au particles). Actual numbers depend on the type of mass spectrometer used and the type of nanoparticle analysed. In addition to the particle concentrations, ionic concentrations in the suspension can also be determined. Limits of detection are comparable with standard ICP-MS measurements. Note that nanoparticles with sizes smaller than the particle size detection limit of the spICP-MS method may be quantified as ionic. The method proposed in this document is not applicable for the detection and characterization of organic or carbon-based nanoparticles like encapsulates, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNT). In addition, it is not applicable for elements other than carbon and that are difficult to determine with ICP-MS. Reference [5] gives an overview of elements that can be detected and the minimum particle sizes that can be determined with spICP-MS.

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ISO/TR 16837:2016 provides an overview of available methods and procedures for the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and occupational exposure bands (OEBs) for manufactured nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAAs) for use in occupational health risk management decision-making.

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