Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the overall energy performance rating and certification

ISO/TR 16344:2012 provides a coherent set of terms, definitions and symbols for concepts and physical quantities related to the overall energy performance of buildings and its components, including definitions of system boundaries, to be used in all standards elaborated within ISO on energy performance of buildings. These terms and definitions are applicable to energy calculations in accordance with the Technical Report and standards on the overall energy performance of buildings and their components, to provide input to the Technical Report or using output from the Technical Report. They are based on existing terms and definitions from standards and other documents referenced in the bibliography.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Termes, définitions et symboles communes pour l'évaluation de la performance et la certification énergétique

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Publication Date
11-Oct-2012
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11-Oct-2012
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9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
21-Jun-2017
Completion Date
21-Jun-2017
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 16344
First edition
2012-10-15
Energy performance of buildings —
Common terms, definitions and
symbols for the overall energy
performance rating and certification
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Termes, définitions
et symboles communes pour l’évaluation de la performance et la
certification énergétique
Reference number
ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the

address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
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E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Proposed groupings of terms ..................................................................................................................................................19

3 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................25

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................25

3.2 Principal symbols ..............................................................................................................................................................................25

3.3 Subscripts .................................................................................................................................................................................................26

3.4 More details and examples ........................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (normative) Symbols and abbreviations — Further details and examples ......................................30

Annex B (informative) Translation of symbols and subscripts into French and German ..........................36

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from

that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may

decide by a simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical

Report is entirely informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are

considered to be no longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 16344 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment, in conjunction with TC 205, Building environment design.

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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Common terms, definitions and symbols
ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report is one of three closely linked documents dealing with definitions and general

procedures for overall building energy performance rating and certification (see also Figure 1):

— ISO/TR 16344, Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the

overall energy performance rating and certification;

— ISO 16343, Energy performance of buildings — Methods for expressing energy performance and for

energy certification of buildings;

— ISO 16346, Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of overall energy performance.

Their development greatly benefited from similar CEN documents (viz. CEN/TR 15615, EN 15217

and EN 15603, respectively) developed to support the European Energy Performance of Buildings

Directive (EPBD).

The main differences between this Technical Report (i.e. ISO/TR 16344) and CEN/TR 15615 are:

— this Technical Report covers only the subjects covered in CEN/TR 15615:2008, Annex C (Definitions)

and Annex D (Common symbols and subscripts);

— this Technical Report includes specific definitions added from other sources without jeopardizing

the consistency and integrity of the document;
— some editorial changes have been made.

Note that a revision of the set of CEN documents to support the EPBD is anticipated in the near future.

Issuing the corresponding ISO documents aims to bring the key subject of building energy performance

assessment to the fore at the global level.

Given the strong demand for these documents at ISO level, it was decided not to delay the advancement of

the ISO documents by waiting for these CEN developments. However, it is expected that a future revision

of the ISO documents will be carried out in collaboration with CEN under the Vienna Agreement.

Energy Performance (EP)
ISO TR 16344
Overall Energy
Performance of the EP
ISO 16343
building includingits expressions
technicalbuilding
ISO 16346
systems
EP aggregation
Boundaries, classification
Collect all energy elements
Building energy needs
and system energy losses
Component input data
Boundaryconditions

Figure 1 — Flow diagram illustrating the successive elements of the general procedures

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)

The difference between this Technical Report and ISO 16818, Building environment design — Energy

efficiency — Terminology, is that ISO 16818 gives terms and definitions for use in the design of energy-

efficient buildings, while this Technical Report provides an unambiguous and consistent common set of

terms, definitions and symbols for all elements of the assessment of the overall energy performance of

buildings. The unambiguous and consistent use of terms, definitions and symbols is essential when the

energy performance is assessed in the context of national or regional building regulations, e.g. to check

compliance with minimum energy performance requirements and/or to produce energy performance

certificates for a building.
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Common terms,
definitions and symbols for the overall energy
performance rating and certification
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides a coherent set of terms, definitions and symbols for concepts and

physical quantities related to the overall energy performance of buildings and its components,

including definitions of system boundaries, to be used in all standards elaborated within ISO on energy

performance of buildings.

These terms and definitions are applicable to energy calculations in accordance with this Technical

Report and standards on the overall energy performance of buildings and their components, to provide

input to this Technical Report or using output from this Technical Report. They are based on existing

terms and definitions from standards and other documents referenced in the bibliography.

NOTE Slightly different definitions might be applicable to other situations, e.g. design of installations.

2 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Report, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7345 and the

following apply.
2.1 Terms
2.1.1
air-conditioned floor area

area equipped with air-conditioning equipment, measured at floor level from the interior surfaces of the

walls
NOTE See also “gross floor area”.
2.1.2
air-conditioning system

combination of all components required to provide a form of air treatment in which maximum or

minimum temperature is controlled, possibly in combination with the control of ventilation, humidity

and air cleanliness
2.1.3
auxiliary energy

electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or hot domestic

water to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs

NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc. Electrical energy input to a ventilation system

for air transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but as energy used for ventilation

(see 2.1.156).

NOTE 2 In ISO 9488, the energy used for pumps and valves is called “parasitic energy”.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.4
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems, for which energy

is used to condition the indoor climate and to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other

services related to the use of the building

NOTE The term can refer to the building as a whole or to parts thereof that have been designed or altered to

be used separately.
2.1.5
building area

greatest horizontal area of a building above grade within the outside surface of the exterior walls or

within the outside surface of the exterior wall and the centrelines of the fire walls

2.1.6
building automation and control

products, software and engineering services for automatic controls, monitoring and optimization,

human intervention and management to achieve energy-efficient, economical and safe operation of

building services equipment
2.1.7
building calculation model
mathematical model of the building, used to calculate its energy use
2.1.8
building energy cost
calculated annual energy cost of all purchased energy for the building
2.1.9
building heat transfer coefficient
sum of the transmission and ventilation heat transfer coefficients
2.1.10
building services

services provided by technical building systems and by appliances to provide indoor climate conditions,

domestic hot water, illumination levels and other services related to the use of the building

2.1.11
building type

classification of a building by usage as given in definitions 2.1.11.1 to 2.1.11.9

2.1.11.1
assembly

building or structure for the gathering together of persons, such as auditoriums, churches, reception

halls, gymnasiums, theatres, museums, passenger depots, sports facilities and public assembly halls

2.1.11.2
health and institutional

building or structure for the purpose of providing medical treatment, confinement or care, and sleeping

facilities such as hospitals, sanatoriums, clinics, orphanages, nursing homes, mental institutions,

reformatories, jails and prisons
2.1.11.3
hotel or motel

building or structure for transient occupancy, including not only hotels and motels but also resorts,

barracks and dormitories
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.11.4
multifamily
building or structure containing three or more dwelling units
NOTE See also “dwelling unit”.
2.1.11.5
office

building or structure for office, professional or service type transactions, such as medical

offices, banks, libraries and governmental office buildings
2.1.11.6
restaurant

building or structure for the consumption of food or drink, including fast food restaurants, coffee shops,

cafeterias, bars and restaurants
2.1.11.7
retail

building or structure for the display and sale (wholesale or retail) of merchandise, such as

shopping malls, food markets, auto dealerships, department stores and specialty shops.

2.1.11.8
school

building or structure for the purpose of instruction such as schools, colleges, universities,

and academies
2.1.11.9
warehouse

building or structure for storage, such as aircraft hangers, garages, warehouses, storage buildings and

freight depots
2.1.12
building envelope

elements of a building that enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred

to or from the exterior or to or from unconditioned spaces
2.1.13
building envelope, exterior
elements of a building that separate conditioned spaces from the exterior
2.1.14
building envelope, semi-exterior

elements of a building that separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or that enclose semi-

heated spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from

unconditioned spaces, or to or from conditioned spaces

NOTE 1 Building envelope defines the surfaces that need to be insulated, or weather-stripped. The outer shell

of the building is not necessarily the same as the building envelope, particularly where the building contains semi-

heated or unconditioned spaces.

NOTE 2 In some cases, the designer can determine the location of the exterior building envelope by the location

that they place the insulation. For instance, it is not uncommon for a stairwell to be at the outside edge of the

building. If that stairwell does not have any heating or cooling supply, it could be insulated on the outside edge

or the side adjacent to other heated or cooled spaces. If insulated on the outside, the stairwell becomes indirectly

conditioned, and the outside wall is the exterior building envelope. If insulated on the inside, the inside wall is

likely to become the exterior building envelope (unless the outside exposure is so small that it would still be

indirectly conditioned space).

NOTE 3 Where a building with conditioned space also contains semi-heated spaces or unconditioned spaces,

the building envelope for the conditioned space is the roofs, walls, floors, doors, fenestration, etc., that separate

the conditioned space from the exterior. These elements must comply with the residential or non-residential

conditioned-space requirements.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)

NOTE 4 For semi-heated spaces, the building envelope includes any roofs, walls, floors, doors, fenestration,

etc., that separate the semi-heated space from conditioned or unconditioned spaces (as well as from the exterior).

These elements must comply with the semi-heated space requirements, as must elements separating conditioned

space from unconditioned space.
2.1.15
building heat transfer coefficient
sum of the transmission and ventilation heat transfer coefficients
2.1.16
calculated energy rating

energy rating based on calculations of the weighted net delivered energy used by a building for heating,

cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting

NOTE National bodies can decide whether other energy uses resulting from occupants’ activities, such as

cooking, production, laundering, computer equipment, etc., are included or not. If included, standard input data

needs to be provided for the various types of building and uses. Lighting is always included except (by decision of

national bodies) for residential buildings.
2.1.17
calculation step

discrete time interval for the calculation of the energy needs and uses for heating, cooling, humidification,

dehumidification and lighting
2.1.18
calculation period
period of time over which a calculation is performed

NOTE The calculation period can be divided into a number of calculation-step periods

2.1.19
CO emission coefficient

for a given energy carrier, quantity of CO emitted to the atmosphere per unit of delivered energy

NOTE The CO emission coefficient includes the equivalent emissions of other greenhouse gases

(e.g. methane).
2.1.20
cogeneration

simultaneous generation in one process of thermal energy and electrical or mechanical energy

NOTE Also known as combined heat and power (CHP).
2.1.21
cooling
removal of latent and/or sensible heat
2.1.22
commissioning

sequence of events to enable the functioning of a building and its heating, ventilation and air-conditioning

(HVAC) system in accordance with the design parameters
2.1.23
conditioned space

cooled space, heated space or indirectly conditioned space as defined in definitions 2.1.23.1 to 2.1.23.3

2.1.23.1
cooled space
enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.23.2
heated space

enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity relative to the

floor area is greater than or equal to the design criteria
2.1.23.3
indirectly conditioned space

enclosed space within a building that is not a heated space or a cooled space but which is heated or cooled

indirectly by being connected to adjacent space(s) provided: (a) the product of the U-factor(s) and surface

area(s) of the space(s) adjacent to the connected space(s) exceeds the combined sum of the product of the

U-factor(s) and surface areas(s) of the space(s) adjoining the outdoors, unconditioned spaces and semi-

heated spaces (e.g. corridors), or (b) that air from heated or cooled spaces is intentionally transferred

(naturally or mechanically) into the space at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour (ACH)

2.1.24
conditioned area

floor area of conditioned spaces, excluding non-habitable cellars or non-habitable parts of a space,

including the floor area on all storeys if more than one

NOTE 1 Internal, overall internal or external dimensions may be used. This leads to different areas for the

same building, however.

NOTE 2 Some services, such as lighting or ventilation, might be provided to areas not included in this definition

(e.g. a car park).

NOTE 3 The precise definition of the conditioned area is given by national authorities.

NOTE 4 Conditioned area can be taken as the useful area unless it is otherwise defined in national regulations.

2.1.25
conditioned zone

part of a conditioned space with a given set-point temperature or set-point temperatures, throughout which

there is the same occupancy pattern and the internal temperature is assumed to have negligible spatial

variations, and which is controlled by a single heating system, cooling system and/or ventilation system

2.1.26
confidence interval
interval that has a high probability (e.g. 95 %) of including the actual value
2.1.27
construction

erection of a new building, or any addition to or alteration of an existing building

2.1.28
construction documents

drawings and specifications used to construct a building, building systems or portions thereof

2.1.29
daylight space

space bounded by vertical planes rising from the boundaries of the daylight area on the floor to the floor

above or to the roof
2.1.30
daylight zone
types of daylight zone are as given in definitions 2.1.30.1 and 2.1.31.2
2.1.30.1
under a skylight

area under a skylight whose horizontal dimension in each direction is equal to the skylight dimension in

that direction plus either the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to an opaque partition, or one-half

the distance to an adjacent skylight or vertical glazing, whichever is least
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.30.2
adjacent to vertical glazing
area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing

NOTE For the purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the

daylighting zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 45 m or to the nearest opaque partition,

whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either 6 m on each

side, the distance to an opaque partition, or one-half the distance to an adjacent skylight or vertical glazing,

whichever is least.
2.1.31
control
action or device to regulate the operation of equipment
2.1.32
dehumidification
process of removing water vapour from air to reduce the relative humidity
2.1.33
delivered energy

energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the technical building systems through the system

boundary to satisfy the uses taken into account (heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water,

lighting, appliances, etc.) or to produce electricity

NOTE 1 For active solar and wind energy systems, the solar radiation incident on solar panels or on solar

collectors or the kinetic energy of wind is not part of the energy balance of the building. It is decided at national

level whether or not renewable energy produced on site is part of the delivered energy.

NOTE 2 Delivered energy can be calculated for defined energy uses or it can be measured.

2.1.34
demand-controlled ventilation

ventilation system in which the room airflow rate is governed by an automatic control depending upon

the levels of occupancy and activity within the space

NOTE Examples are the speed of fans controlled by a presence indicator such as the CO level in the room air,

a presence detector or a timer.
2.1.35
design conditions

specified environmental conditions, such as temperature and light intensity, required to be produced

and maintained by a system and under which the system must operate
2.1.36
design criteria

set of descriptions based on a particular environmental element such as indoor air quality, thermal,

acoustical and visual comfort, energy efficiency and the associated system controls to be used for

assessing the design presented
2.1.37
design documentation
written description of the essential design elements of a plant
2.1.38
design energy rating

calculated energy rating using design data for a building and a standard use data set

NOTE It represents the calculated intrinsic annual energy use of a building design under standardized

conditions. This is particularly relevant in order to obtain a building permit at the design stage.

6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.39
design parameters

set values of the internal environmental conditions to be achieved regardless of the changing external

environmental conditions
2.1.40
design process

course of purposive actions performed to produce a set of design drawings and specifications in which

a building having the potential to provide the functionalities required is described

NOTE Any changes in the building environment design after iterations of decisions and evaluations of the

design have been made must be analysed until the final design stage is reached.
2.1.41
distribution system

conveying means, such as ducts, pipes and wires, to bring substances or energy from a source to the

point of use

NOTE The distribution system includes auxiliary equipment such as fans, pumps and transformers.

2.1.42
domestic hot water heating

process of heat supply to raise the temperature of cold water to the intended delivery temperature

2.1.43
efficiency
performance at specified conditions for the assessment of the energy performance
2.1.44
efficiency of HVAC system

ratio of the useful energy output (at the point of use) to the energy input in consistent units, for a

designated time period, expressed in percent
2.1.45
energy

capability for doing work; having several forms that may be transformed from one to another, such as

thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical or chemical
2.1.46
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical

or physical processes
[ISO 13600:1997]
NOTE The energy content of fuels is given by their gross calorific value.
2.1.47
energy certification
procedures enabling an energy certificate to be obtained
2.1.48
energy certificate

document, recognized by a member state or a legal person designated by it, which includes the energy

performance of a building

NOTE The meanings of the terms “certificate” and “certification” in this Technical Report differ from those in

ISO/IEC 17000:2004.
2.1.49
energy class

easy-to-understand designation system (e.g. A to G) for indicating the energy performance of a building

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.50
energy efficiency ratio
EER

ratio of the net capacity of (cooling or heating) equipment to the total rate of electric input under

designated operating conditions
2.1.51
energy efficiency ratio for buildings
EERB
ratio of energy required (ER) and energy used (EU)
2.1.52
energy management system

control system designed to monitor the environment and the use of energy in a facility and to adjust the

parameters of local control loops to conserve energy while maintaining a suitable environment

2.1.53
energy need for domestic hot water

heat to be delivered to the required amount of domestic hot water to raise its temperature from the cold

network temperature to the prefixed delivery temperature at the delivery point
2.1.54
energy need for heating or cooling

heat to be delivered to or extracted from a conditioned space to maintain the intended temperature

conditions during a given period of time
NOTE 1 The energy need is calculated and cannot easily be measured.

NOTE 2 The energy need can include additional heat transfer resulting from non-uniform temperature

distribution and non-ideal temperature control, if these factors are taken into account by increasing (decreasing) the

effective temperature for heating (cooling) and not included in the heat transfer due to the heating (cooling) system.

2.1.55
energy need for humidification or dehumidification

latent heat in the water vapour to be delivered to or extracted from a conditioned space by a technical

building system to maintain a specified minimum or maximum humidity within the space

2.1.56
energy inspection
examination of heating and/or air-conditioning systems in a building
2.1.57
energy performance indicator
energy rating divided by conditioned area
2.1.58
energy performance of a building

calculated or measured amount of weighted net delivered energy actually used or estimated to meet

different needs associated with a standardized use of a building, which might include, inter alia, energy

used for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting
2.1.59
energy rating

evaluation of the energy performance of a building based on the weighted sum of the calculated or

measured use of energy carriers
2.1.60
energy required (ER)
energy demand

total energy required to achieve the building performance and comfort over a given period of time,

including HVAC, lighting, occupancy and domestic hot water
8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 16344:2012(E)
2.1.61
energy used (EU)
final energy

total purchased energy (fossil, electric) excluding renewables consumed to achieve the required building

performance and comfort over a given period of time
2.1.62
energy source

source from which useful energy can be extracted or recovered either directly or by means of a

conversion or transformation process
NOTE Examples include oil or gas fields, coal mines, the sun and forests.
2.1.63
energy use for lighting
energy consumed by a lighting installation to meet the lighting requirement
...

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