Software, systems and enterprise -- Architecture processes

This document establishes a set of process descriptions for the governance and management of a collection of architectures and the architecting of entities. This document also establishes an enablement process description that provides support to these other architecture processes. The processes defined in this document are applicable for a single project, as well as for an organization performing multiple projects. These processes are applicable throughout the life of an architecture or a collection of architectures. These processes are applicable for managing and performing the activities within any stage in the life cycle of the architecture entities. Annex D describes the relationships between this document and other standards.

Logiciel, systèmes et entreprise - Processus d'architecture

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Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Jul-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Jun-2019
Completion Date
23-Jul-2019
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 42020:2019 - Software, systems and enterprise -- Architecture processes
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC/
STANDARD IEEE
42020
First edition
2019-07
Software, systems and enterprise —
Architecture processes
Logiciel, systèmes et entreprise - Processus d'architecture
Reference number
ISO/IEC/IEEE 42020:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
IEEE 2019
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 42020:2019(E)
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ISO/IEC/IEEE 42020:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Approach to conformance ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.3 Full conformance cases .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Tailored conformance ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Process overview and application ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Relationship of architecture to other processes and information elements ..................................... 9

5.3 Architecture Governance and Management processes .....................................................................................10

5.4 Architecture Conceptualization, Evaluation and Elaboration processes ...........................................10

5.5 Architecture Enablement process .......................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Relationship of architecture to design .............................................................................................................................12

5.7 Architecture adaptation ...............................................................................................................................................................13

5.8 Process application ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.8.1 Criteria for processes ................................................................................................................................................13

5.8.2 Description of processes ........................................................................................................................................14

5.8.3 General characteristics of processes ...........................................................................................................14

5.8.4 Tailoring ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

6 Architecture Governance process ....................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture governance effort ..........................................................15

6.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture governance activities ................................17

6.4.3 Establish architecture collection objectives ..........................................................................................17

6.4.4 Make architecture governance decisions ................................................................................................18

6.4.5 Monitor and assess compliance with governance directives and guidance ..............19

6.4.6 Review implementation of governance directives and guidance .......................................20

6.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................20

7 Architecture Management process .................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................21

7.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture management effort ......................................................21

7.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture management activities .............................22

7.4.3 Develop architecture management approach......................................................................................23

7.4.4 Perform management of the architecture collection .....................................................................24

7.4.5 Monitor architecting effectiveness ................................................................................................................25

7.4.6 Prepare for completion of the architecture management plan ............................................26

7.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................26

8 Architecture Conceptualization process...................................................................................................................................27

8.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................27

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8.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................28

8.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture conceptualization effort ..........................................28

8.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture conceptualization activities .................29

8.4.3 Characterize problem space ................................................................................................................................30

8.4.4 Establish architecture objectives and critical success criteria ..............................................31

8.4.5 Synthesize potential solution(s) in the solution space ................................................................32

8.4.6 Characterize solutions and the tradespace ............................................................................................33

8.4.7 Formulate candidate architecture(s) ..........................................................................................................35

8.4.8 Capture architecture concepts and properties ...................................................................................36

8.4.9 Relate the architecture to other architectures and to relevant affected entities ...37

8.4.10 Coordinate use of conceptualized architecture by intended users ...................................37

8.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................38

9 Architecture Evaluation process .......................................................................................................................................................38

9.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................38

9.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................39

9.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................39

9.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................40

9.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture evaluation effort .............................................................40

9.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture evaluation activities ...................................41

9.4.3 Determine evaluation objectives and criteria ......................................................................................42

9.4.4 Determine evaluation methods and integrate with evaluation objectives

and criteria .........................................................................................................................................................................43

9.4.5 Establish measurement techniques, methods and tools ............................................................43

9.4.6 Collect and review evaluation-related information ........................................................................44

9.4.7 Analyze architecture concepts and properties and assess stakeholder value.........44

9.4.8 Characterize architecture(s) based on assessment results .....................................................45

9.4.9 Formulate findings and recommendations ............................................................................................46

9.4.10 Capture and communicate evaluation results .....................................................................................46

9.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................47

10 Architecture Elaboration process ....................................................................................................................................................47

10.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................47

10.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................47

10.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................48

10.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................48

10.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture elaboration effort ..........................................................48

10.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture elaboration activities.................................49

10.4.3 Identify or develop architecture viewpoints ........................................................................................50

10.4.4 Develop models and views of the architecture(s) ............................................................................51

10.4.5 Relate the architecture to other architectures and to relevant affected entities ...52

10.4.6 Assess the architecture elaboration .............................................................................................................52

10.4.7 Coordinate use of elaborated architecture by intended users ..............................................53

10.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................53

11 Architecture Enablement process ...................................................................................................................................................54

11.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................54

11.2 Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................54

11.3 Implementation ...................................................................................................................................................................................54

11.4 Activities and tasks ...........................................................................................................................................................................54

11.4.1 Prepare for and plan the architecture enablement effort .........................................................54

11.4.2 Monitor, assess and control the architecture enablement activities ................................55

11.4.3 Manage the architecture process enablers ............................................................................................56

11.4.4 Acquire, develop and establish enabling capabilities, services and resources .......56

11.4.5 Deploy enabling capabilities, services and resources ..................................................................57

11.4.6 Improve architecture enablement capabilities, services and resources ......................57

11.5 Work products ......................................................................................................................................................................................58

Annex A (normative) Tailoring process .........................................................................................................................................................59

Annex B (informative) Defining metrics for architecture processes ...............................................................................63

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Annex C (normative) Interactions with other processes and uses of architecture ...........................................66

Annex D (informative) Relationship with other standards........................................................................................................71

Annex E (informative) Notes on terms and concepts ........................................................................................................................72

Annex F (informative) Architecture enablement and process-enabling resources..........................................91

Annex G (informative) Architecture governance and management .................................................................................93

Annex H (informative) Mapping of processes to architecture frameworks ..............................................................95

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................108

IEEE notices and abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................................111

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ISO/IEC/IEEE 42020:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

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This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

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0 Introduction
0.1 Rationale for architecture processes

The complexity of human-made systems has grown to an unprecedented level, which leads to new

opportunities and greater challenges for organizations that create, trade and utilize systems. To

address these opportunities and challenges, it is increasingly necessary to apply concepts, principles,

procedures and tools to make better architecture-related decisions, more effective architectures,

better architecture strategy and increased architecture maturity. Architecture-related activities are

now strategic aspects of projects and enterprises, and the use of architecture frameworks has become

common practice in commercial, government, civil and military domains.

Architecture is increasingly applied to systems—and to other entities that are not traditionally

considered to be systems, such as enterprises, services, data, business functions, mission areas, product

lines, families of systems, software items, etc. The concept of architecture used in this document goes

beyond the traditional use where the architecture entity is a system. This allows for a more generalized

usage of architecture when the processes in this document are applied. These entities are becoming

more complex and architecture practices are increasingly adopted to manage the complexity.

Within enterprises and the engineering disciplines, acknowledgement is increasing for the value

added by architecture, both as a practice and in the realization of artifacts that guide engineering and

management activities.

This document complements the architecture-related processes identified in ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288,

ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 and ISO 15704 with activities and tasks that enable architects and others to more

effectively and efficiently implement architecture practices. Implementing these practices can help

ensure that the architecture has greater influence on business and mission success.

0.2 Use of the term architecture in this document

This document uses the term architecture in a broad sense. When the word architecture is used without

any qualifier the word refers to the general case where the architecture entails the fundamental concepts

and properties of an architecture entity. When a qualifier is prepended to the word architecture, this

indicates that the architecture applies to that entity, such as in the following cases:

— System Architecture: When the entity is a system.
— Enterprise Architecture: When the entity is an enterprise.

The following are kinds of architecture entities that can be dealt with by the architecture processes

of this document: enterprise, organization, solution, system (including software systems), subsystem,

business, data (as a data element or data structure), application, information technology (as a collection),

mission, product, service, software item, hardware item, etc. The kind of entity can also be a product

line, family of systems, system of systems, collection of systems, collection of applications, etc.

There can be cases where the word architecture is prepended by the subject of interest, not by the entity

being architected, such as in the following examples: security architecture, functional architecture,

physical architecture and so on. See E.4.1 for more examples.

Finally, there are cases when the word architecture is prepended by the purpose of the architecture, for

example integration architecture, coherence architecture, design-control architecture, etc. See E.4.1 for

more examples.
0.3 Purpose

The purpose of this document is to set the standard of performance for the governance, management,

conceptualization, evaluation and elaboration of architectures, and activities that enable these

processes. This document can be used as a process reference model in establishing architecture

practice and be used across a range of contexts and situations. It provides guidance in conforming to

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the architecture processes specified in this document, and, in a larger context, to facilitate trading in

systems, products and services.
0.4 Field of application
The processes specified in this document apply in the context of:

— understanding, developing and evolving entities through their life cycle stages such as conception,

development, implementation, operation, sustainment, decommissioning and disposal;

— the type of architecture to be developed;

— organization(s) acting as users, customers and providers of the solution specified by the architecture

description; and
— architecting of entities.

The intent is to provide processes applicable across a wide spectrum of architecting domains (such

as the enterprise, systems, services and software domains) for use by a broad range of architects and

users of these practices.
When the entity is a system then it is necessary to consider that:

— Systems can vary widely in terms of purpose, domain of application, complexity, size, novelty,

adaptability, qualities, locations, life spans and evolution. This document specifies processes for the

development and use of architecture that involves human-made systems including one-of-a-kind

systems, mass-produced systems and customized, adaptable systems either as a complete stand-

alone system or systems embedded and integrated into larger, more complex and complete systems.

— Systems addressed by this document can be configured with one or more of the following kinds

of system elements: hardware, software, data, humans, processes (e.g. processes for providing

services to users), procedures (e.g. operator instructions), facilities, materials and natur

...

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